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Bradshaw's illustrated 
hand-book to Germany 

George Bradshaw 





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The uew Patont Automatic Sclf-Keglstoring 
Note Book or Diary will meet a want ofteii 
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kept. This wouMii t K-so frei|ueiitly 
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teriiiK Diary of Messrs. T. J. tiuiith, 
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is ]tlaced in at the i«»ve last written. 
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him where he in.-»de hi.H lasteiitrj-."- 
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aiul Downes publLsh. These poeket 
diarieB and note books rary in style 
and size.s, hut not in excellenre, for 
alt are f^uod. The pnicil flmls the 
plaee in » moment hr thi« |>ateiit 
arrangemen t."— 7'//e llhi*trnfr,l 
London A'twi, I>ecem1x.-r 'JlHh, iwa. 

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G E E M A ]N Y 









UTSBFOOte— H. SMITH ft aox. ttl. Dai.k 8tkicbt: BIRMIKOHAM:— W. H. SMITH ft BON. 33, Vvtam ftnrr.T. 
BUOHTOM:— R. * C. TREACHER, 1. Nokth bTSKKT; iM)UTHAMFT0N:-COX * 8HARLAND. Biua Stkcht; 
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SiniCH:— U. F. LKirTHOLD, Rik Dr.t v^stt-s a Cote ob L'Hvmu. BiAttB: 
GERMANY :-J. F. KOEHLER. Luipzio; 
UiriTED STATES :— CHARLES 8CRIHNKK 4 SONS. 74« ani> 74.-. Bkoadwav. Nkw TOBKt 
BRKNTANO, 3, Ukiok Bijcake. New Yup.k; 
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This Hand-Book covers the Oerman Empire, North and South of the 
Main, within the bounds determined by tliu war of 1866, and altio some of 
the border lands of the AustriarHungaxian Empire, as fax East as Vienna. 

It gives foil descriptions of all the Watering Places, Spas, and Places of 

fiaaoxt, with particulars of the GaUerieSi Work^ of Ait, Sights, Excursions 
in the country, points of view, natural curiositdes, and other ol^fects of 
notice; and is adapted, like preceding Hand-Books of this aeriei^ to the 

Bailway System in its latest stage of developmuut. 

For the province of Elsass and Lothringen (Alsace and Lorraine), annexed 
in 1870, see BracUhav^s Hand-Book to Bdgium and the Mhine, 

Those who use this revised aud improved edition of the ir^rk will 
confer a &vour if they will have the goodness to forward corrections or 
suggestions to 59, Fleet Street, London; or Albert Square, Manchester. 

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FllANKFORT^VJni&MAIN.o..«........M....».......»«»M..o.......^^^ 74 

H AMBURG ••••••••••••■•••••••••••••••••••••••■•«•«••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••«••••••••••••••••«•••••«••••««••• 

ICUNICH ....»•».. 114 

VIENNA «. 238 

TlEWS.<-BADEli BAD£N AND WIESBADEN .^..^....^.„....«„..».».»........M«..M..».Fmtlq>teee. 

BBRIjiX]ff*«M ••••■■••••M*** •••••• •••••••••••••*••«*••••««•••«•••••••••••••*•«••••••••••••*•••*••••••••••• ••••••••••••••••• \ 

DRESDEN •••••••«m»MM>tM«mtM«M*MaM>t*«*H««»M«WH«m««MM«MtM«*«»»««M««**M«W*l*«Ml««*MM«MM*»«* 109 

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B«rlin «nd Environs 



1. Berlin to Potsdam and Magde- 

1)11Z*^ ••• 

l-^Continued. Magdeburg to Brans- 
wick and HanoTer 

BOOTK 1 — Continued. Hanover to Minden. 


Cologrne, and Aachen 
Berlin to WittenlxTge, 





Lubeck, HamhurK, Kiel, Ac. ... 81 

Routs 2a. Berlin to Spandau. Slendal, Gar- 
dcleg^eo, Salzwedel,and Bremen 

Roun S. Hamburg, Altona, Itzehoe, Kiel, 

Rendnburtr. Schle«wig, Tonning, 
Flensburg, Rotlienknig, liader»> 
^ 1 0 l-M^ ri ««• t** 

Roun 4. HanoYor to Lehrte, Celle, Liine- 
burg, Lauenberg, Harborg, and 
Hamburg ... 

RouTB ft. Hanover to Bremen, OeestemUnde, 

and Brcmcrhaveu 

Route 6. Bremen to Oldenburg, Emdcn, 
Nordcme y... ... .... ^ 





Routs 7. Hanover to Minden, OBnabriick. 


Routs 8. Berlin to LUbeck 

Routs 9. Berlin to Hagenow, Scfavrerin, 
Wlsmor, Klelneu, BUtsow, Bos- 

tock •«« ••• 

Roots 10. Berlin to Oranlenbarg, Neu 
Strelitz and Neu Brandenburg 
and Stralsund ~ ~ ^ 

ROCTK 11. Berlin to Anpcmiflnde, ROgen, 
Putbus, and Stralsund 

Routs 12. Berlin to Stettin (for Swinemfinde 

and I'utbun), Stargard, Kolberg, 

Cuslio, Dautzic 

Routs 13. Berlin to CQatrln, ScbneldemtthI 
(for liromberf,', Otloczyn, and 
Warsaw), Dirschau (for Dan- 
tzic), Marieaburg, Elblng, 
Koiiigsbcrg. andEj'dtkuhnen... 

Route 14. Berlin to Frankfort -on-tbe-Oder, 

Glogau. Gorlitz. Bre»lau 
Routs 15. Berlin to Poaen 











fAOl , EAOS 

Routs 16. 

Routb 17. 

Rorrs 18. 
Routs 19. 

Berlin to Frankfort-on-the-Main, 
vid Wittenberg, Leipsic, Halle, 

Weimar, Gotha, Cassel, Oicasen 6S 

EUenach to Frankfort-on-the- 

Main, vid Fulda and Ilanau ... 74 

Oiessen to Coblentz 7.1 

Glesscn to Deutz 76 

Routs 20. Hanover to Pyrmont, Detmold, 

Paderbom, Soett, Cologne ... 77 
Route 21. Cassel to Warburg for Arolten ... 79 
Routs 23. Hanover to Hildesbeim, GSttin- 

gon, Cassel ... ... 79 

Routs 29. Eisenach to Cassel and War- 
burg 81 


UuuTB 24. 

Brunswick to WolfeiibUttel. Kiel 


liOUTB 25. 

<»n«en, Holzmlndcn, Paderbom .. 

Ma-j'tlohurpr. and Brunswick, to 


1 Koi TE 33- 


Iht! Miir/. M.iiiiitiiitm 



Route au. 

H.iJle to El»1ohen, Nurilliiiu'^e'n, 

Erfurt, th<! Hiirz. niid (.'assel... 


' HOI TE 35. 

Route 27. 

Berlin to Wlttenberjf, Dcsaao, 


Cot hen. ncniHurg, Magdo - | 


RocTF. 28. Elijcnach to Coburg, Sonneberg, i 

Llcbtcnfcls ' 

ROUTK 29. Lfin( fo!<U- to Miihlhnuaen. Lang- 

ciisal/a anil Hildluir-^'-hnuscn... 91 ' 
RofTB 30. Wc-iinur to Ji-na, Hudclstadt, and ■ 

ruhur^r. throg^di Tlinriii^''ia ... 99 \ 
Roi-TE :U. Rorlin to Dresden... •■■ 101 



Dresden to Lelpslc ... ... ... 


lircSiicn w rrunwrir. ^'iiciuniiz, 

i^wicKau, iioi ... ... ... 


i.<oipsic to i,DCuiui[Z, weraau, 

icKau, noi ... ... 

11 ■•Attul All 1 J 111 ft 11 t m 4 i t "W T 

iiiiA, urvHiiiit 


Lohnu to Ifermhut, Friodland, 

ilelcnenoer;.'. (nt^chni, .Joseph- 

Htadt, Kiiiiij^trriitz, Partlubitz, 

QU'I > Klilm ... ... ... 

1 So 

lioriii*, tWMiuiuri. i^io^iuiz, or 

Ureslan to Hitm hlKT|.r. r raiikPn- 

btclu. Ac. in tho llicsoni^ebirfje 

Mountjiins ... ... 


Bre^lau " towards Cracow and 

^ ii*nnA ••• •«« 


Kqi:tk niA. Dresden to Saxon Switzerland ... IIU 




RorT7 39. Munich 


Route 3&A. Muiiieh to Stnmhcrp: and the 
Wiirm.'*ep, Tntzlny. roiisboip. 
Weiltielni, Ac. tbroutjh tBe 

Bavarian llifrblands 


ROUTR ma. Munich to Kreiith ... 


KOUTK 40. 

ROOTB 41. 

ROtTTE 42. 
KOI'TB 43. 

^[unich to Uoycnsburg (Hat isbun) ; 
the Wuibalia and Nureniber^... 150 

Mtmieh to Auyshurp. Nuremberg, 
Band>er;r, Hof. Berlin 154 

Munich to Frankfort on the Main 166 

yuri nilierg to Wiirzburg and As- 

~ ::: ::: no 

elmfrciibu r; 

Route 44. 

ROLTB 45. 

Wiirzburg to Bamberg and Kis- 

sinpTPn ... 170 

RoirTE 52. 
Roi TR r,2\. 

Rni-TB aa. 

RoUTR r)i. 
Route 54 a 

RODTE 55. 

Route 59. 

Wiirzbur-' to Kulda 



Route 47. 
Route 48. 

>iu rem berg, 

Baniber'T, or Bay 

rcnth to Franconian Switzcr- 
laml ^ ..... ^ ... 


Re^ennhury (Itatisbon) to liay- 
reuth. Huf, and K^'cr ... ,., 174 



.Stutfyart to Ludwigwburg. ITeil- 
bronn, Hpldelt)or>f, and Wiirz- 

Stuttyart to Hall. Craili^beim. 
^^ iirzbury ■■■ 187 

Stntt^rart to Ulin. Fricdricbsbafeu, 
and Lake of Constaiu e ... ... LS3 

.Stuttgart U) Aalcu for l lm. and 
.N'iirdlingen ■-■ 192 

Stuttgart til Plorhinprcn. Ttibin- 
gen, ."^ehaffliausen, through tl^e 
Swabian Alps 77, ^TT 771 102 

Stuttgart to Wildhafl and Frcu- 
denstadt. In th(; lUuck Forest... 195 

RoiTTK HT. Black Forest (Scbwarzwdld) 196-22U 

Route 58. Prague 223 

Route 58a . Prague to Dresden 228 

T^nrTTR 59. Prague to Aussl<: and Teplitz ... 229 

Augsburg to Ulni 


Route 49. Augsburg to Linilau and Lake of 
Const anee. tbroii;.'-!! the Bavarian 
Highlands... TTT 177 

RoHTE 50. Munich to Lnndahut and I'assau. . 178 

ROUTB 61. Munich to Innsbruck, Salzburg. 


Linz, Vienna 


Marlenbad, K;.'er 


RouTK r.i. 

I'rafrue to I'ilscn. NureiulM rg ... 


Fragiu; to Budwcis, Vienna, uiid 


HOKTK fi.t 

Prague to Vienna rid Iglau and 



Route 64. 

Prague to Brlinn and Vienna ... 


Vicnnu ftJUl FiiYiroiis 



[For places on German territory not found in this Index, see Bradthaw't Hand-Book to the Rbin*.'') 

Aachen or Alx-la Chapelle ... Sfi 

Aalen 122 

Achensee IM 

Achem 202 

AchtermannshOhe M 

jAdamsthal 232 

Adcndorf 21 

Adersbach 128 

Adorf m 

Aibling m 

Aix-Iji-Chapelle 80 

Albbruck 21fi 

Albrcchtsburg IM 

Alb, Valley of 20L21fi 

Aloxiindcrsbad llii 

Alexisbad 20 


AUerheiligen ^ 2A2 


Alt Danim 

Altefahr *8 

Altenan 8S 

Altcnbeken 26, 82 

Altenberg IS 

Altenburg HL US 

Altendorf-on-the-Rhur 2fl 

Alien hundem 29 

Altenkbxhen (Rtigen) 42 

Altcnkirchon 2ii 

Altenstcig 125 

Altcnstcin 2it 

Altona M 

Aitottuig m 

Alt Strelit2 4B 

AJtwasser 129 

Aniberg Hi 

Ammcrtbal IA& 

Amorbach 169 

Ampfing laO 

Amsclgrund Ill 

Amsclloch Ill 

Amstetten...... Ifl2 

Andreaaberg 82 

Ang-errallnde il 

Aniittberg ^ IW, llfi 

Ansbach or Anspach . 166, Ifil 

Antog-ast 196 

Appenweier 208 

Arbcsau 230 

Arkona Point 42 

ArnBl>erg 81 

Arnsdorf ....118 

Arnstadt 92^ 28 


Arnstein 112 

Arnstoin Abbey Ifi 

Arolscn 73, M 

Artern 22 

Ascbaffenburg 162 

Ascheberg 411 

Asc her sic ben lui 

Aspang 2fi4 

Attendorn 22 

Aue 118 

Auerstadt 22 

Augsburg 15& 

Augustus Bad... 110^ 121 

Aulendorf lai 

Aurich 41 

Ausslg 222 

AusterUtz 28Z 


Babelsberg lA 

Backnang 18Z 

Baden (near Vienna) 2M 

Baden Baden 122 

Baden- weller 218 

Bud-Ocvnhausen 28 

Baldulnsteln Zfi 

Ballenberg .^JM 

Ballenstedt 84, 21 

Balingen 124 

Baltic and I^orth Sea Canal... 88 

Bamberg IfiS 

Barchfeld M 

Bardowieck 2Z 

Barleben 28 

Barmen 22 

Baste! Ill 

Bautzen 112, 121 

Bavaria ^ 133 

Bavarian Forest 179. 284 

Bavarian Highlands 165 ^ 

Bayersdorf 122 

Bayreuth Hfi 

Bebra 14 

Beerberg 28 

Beimerstetten 189 

Belchcn 214,212 

Belgard m M 

Benedictbeuem 148} 142. 

Benedlclenwand , 142 

Berann 2^ 

Berchteftgaden .....IM 

Bergen 42 

Berggiesshiibcl 110 

Berghelm II 

Bergrheinfcld ...170 


Bcringcr Bad 90 

Berka fil 

Berkowltz ..2281 

Bbruk I 

Bemburg 2^ 

Berneck m... llSt 

Besighcim. 18ft 

Bettenhausen 7^ 

Betzdorf 18 

Bcuel Ifi 

Beuthen 182 

BIberach 191,2113 

Bicdermannsdorf 2M 

Bielefeld 27, 42 

Bienenmlihle 117 

Biessenhofen Ill 

Bietighelm 18ft 

Bilin 28^ 

Blsuiark SA 

Bitterfcld Oi 

Black Forest, Excursions in, 

Ac 196-223 

Mountains, Passes, Plants, 

&c 2U 

Blankcnau 81 

Blankeuburg 86i 100 


Blankenhain 62 

Blau8k80 »....22Z 

Blascwitz 1^ 

Blaubeuern IdQ 

Blauen 217 


Bkybach 2W 

Blocksberg » M 

Blottnitz lU 

Blumenberg ■* 

Bobingen IW 

Bochum •••• §8 


Boeklet M 

Boden See It 



Bohemia „......»......M2itt 


B5bmisch TrUbau 282 


Boilcrbad IM 

Rulteiihagen ^ li 

nijrde!<holin Iti 

Horken 13 

Borkuin....^ H 

Horna 117^ lid 

nurxsuin si 

Brake Ill 

linind. Ill 

BrAndels 2iil 

BrniKlenhnrp IS 

Br luowitz 2.t6 

Bniimnu (Austri:i) LSI 

Br.iun iu (Bulietuia) Lil 

Bniunfels ZL 


BraniisWerjf ^ 

brcUftch 2111 

BreiieiifcUl 114^ im 


Breiiiorhafen or GccBteinUiide 10 

Breimet 211 

BRi::tjr.AU 59j Lai 

Brctten Lai 

Brotten Bftd 1 

Briep LU 

Brii'fleii ^ 

Brilon &1 

Brocken, The 83^ 

Broriil)crg 54, 62 

Bruchbcrg' M 

Bruck LII 

Britckeiiau LI2 

BrilffjfO 2a 

BrUhl 253 

Bruiiau 122 

Briinn 2iil 

Bruimonatein Cavo 113. 

Bki nswick 21j SO 

Briiftau 2ill 

Briix 2M 


Buchau 190j 2iil 

B lichen SI 

Buchloc . 148. m 

Bucliholz ai 

BnohwHld .„ 132. 

Btickehnrg 2i 


BilhI 2M 

Biihierthul 2M 

BUndc U 

Bunzlau 59^ L22 

Burj? U} 

Burpbemheim LGI 

Burfjel 211 

Burpelii 212 

Burpfarnbach 170 

Burj; Stein Si 

BLiaum M 

Butzbach 13 

Blitzow 11 

Buxtef- > 21 



Cadenbcrge 31 

Calbe „ OS 

Calcum 29 

Calw 195, 2fll 

Camburg Ifi 

Camenz fil 

Cannstadt 131 

Caklsbad, or Karlsbad 231 

Ciirlshafen fil 

CasRcl (Kasscl) 70, 32 

relle 31 

Cham 231 

Charlottcuburg 12 

Chemnitz Ill 

Chicm Lake Ud 

Chlum 12i 

Chotusltz 2M 

Chotzen I ^.S '-MT 

Clansthal M 

Coldeiitz IB 


Colliorj? il 

Cologne 3fl 

C5nncni fifi 

Constance lilO 

Constance Lake 177, IM 

Corvey Abbey M 

Cosel 132 

Ciislln ai 

Cossen 117 

Coswig aa 

Ctithen 81 

CottbuR 58j fii 

Crailahcim, or Krailshcira ...187 

Crcfeld 28 

Creglingen IM 

OrcuflAcn 1Z2 

Cretizberg 02 

Crcuztlial 2S 

Culm 51 

CUstrln as 

Cuxhaven SI 

Czaslau 2i& 


Dahl 29 

Dammgarten 12 

Danncnburg ., 31 

Dannewirke 33 

Daktzic SI 

Dassnltz... 232 

Davldsthal 232 

Deblsfclde 35 

Deggendorf Hfi 

Denzlingen 204, 211fi 

DcsHau 93 

Detmold JJ 

Dettlnjren 169 

Deutschbrod 2M 

DeutHch Kvlau 54. &h 

Deutz 80, 13 

Dle8?nbofen ^^.^Jlfl 

niex I§ 

Dinkelsbllhl ifii 

Dirschau M, 54.65 

Dittersbach JlS 

Doboran IS 

iJohue 82 

Dombiihl 136 

Doniitz 31 

Donuuesrhingen 194, 205. 213 

Dunnustauf 1^3 

Donauwiirth 157 

Dornhach , 252 

Dortmnnd 28, 19 

Drci Oleichen. The 68, ffl 

I>|{KSOF.N , IQl 

Dribu rg j 4» IS 

Duchcrow 41 


Diilnicn 18 

Diil'pcl 31 

Hiiren 3A 

nurlach JUft 

Diirnkrut 9Xi 

lUirrobrsdorf ^IM 

DtfSEi.uoitr 23 



Kberbiich .IM 

tLbcrmannstadt UJ 

EbiTsbncli ...........IM 

Ebcrsdorf ....Ill 

Kberstein Castle „..90> 

Ebcrswalde 1$ 

EckerkrnK' gl 

E< kernfurde 33 

Eckiniihl 131 

Egein 21 

Eirer 118, 232 

Ehingen 13^^ 

ElirenlMjrg 83 

Eibseo 113 

Elcbenberg H 

Elchbofen I54 

Kii-liicht ga 

Eichstadt 158 

Eiitnbnrg HJt 

Eimsbnttol 31 

Einhftm 187 

KisKNArn 70, 81, 91 

Elscnbach 211 

Elsenbrod 1 'J't 

Ei-^onstcin --"l73 

Eisfi ld 96, IQl 

Eisffrab Castle 238 

Eisk'hen 31 

Elborfeld 22 

Elbe Teinitz 23fi 

Ell.fiillen 12^ 

Elbin? 55 

Elliingerode fifl 

Elb\%-ei!ie 128 

Elbo-ren 231 


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FJcblngen IM 

Elllngen Ififi 

Ellrich 88 

£llwaag«n Ifi2 

Elm 112 


ElstcrBad US. 

Elstcnvcrda \M 

Kltmunii Ill 

Elzach 2fia 

Etnden or Embdcn AQ 

Eras U 

Endorf 113 

Engelhardsberger Tbol llil 

Enger liZ 

Enz Valley 2M 

Eppendorf M 

Kppstein TH 

ErdfftU 25 

Erdliifc' im 


Erfurt GI 

Erkiicr 51 

Erlangcn IM 

Eschwcgc 7A 

Eascn "23. 

Essendorf llil 

Esslingcn IM 

Ettal 149 

Ettenbciin 207 

Eutingcn IM 

Eutin ^ « 43 

Erertberer fil 

Extern Rocks 71 

Eydtkubneu 51 

EylHU bl 


Fahnau .214 

Kal»rendorf 12& 

Falkenau !i22 

Falkenberg IQl 

Falk«08t«in 91^111 

Fehrbellin^ 11 

Feldberg 21 a 

Felheim Hfi 

Fell hammer 122 

Feucht 154 

Feuchtwangen 167 

Flchtclgebirge Hills 175 

Finnentrop 22 

FlenHburg 26 

Flinsbcrg 124 

Flbha Ill 

Floridsdorf 238 

Forchbeim 103,112 


Frankenstein 61^ 180 

Frankfort 170 

KRANKFO»T-oii-thc-Main 14 

FnANKFORT-on-tbe-Oder 5fi 

Franzonsbad 233 

Krauenberjr 235 


Francuburg jefi 

Franondorf £0 

Fredersdorf fiS 

Freil)urg 6ii 

Freiberg (Saxony) 116 

Frciburg-im-Breiflgau 208 

Frciburg-undcr-FUratenstein 122 

FrelenwaldttU 131 

Frcienwaidc 41 

Fn ierahacU 19C 

Freilassing l&il 

Frei»lng liQ 

Fresibkowltz 222 

Freuiknatadt l'Jt>.2M 

Frledlwrg 14 

Fricdensthal 71 

Frledland 57^124 

Fric«lrichroda m 

Friedrichshafcn 121 

Friedriohshall IM 

Fried richstadt 3li 

Friesack 31 

Friendorf liil 

Frobsdorf 244 

Frohso 84j 21 

Friindcnborg til 

Frottstcdt 62 

Fulda 14 

FUrstciiberg 58. 81 

Flirbtenstein 122 

Fllrstenwalde 51 

Fllrtb IM 

Furth-im-Wald 234 

FurtwangcM 20Gj 213 

FUssen 1A& 

Gadebuftch 31 

Guilenroutbcrbublo 173 

Galllzinberg 252 

Galtgarbcn 51 

Gaim'nidorf 288 

Gardclcgtn 25 

Garz 42 

Geestcmiindc 4D 

Gefrees 114 

Gchrcn Jfl 

Gcisllnpcn 189 

Gclnhaiiscn 15 

GelMenkirchen 28 

Geralindcn 170, 112 

Gengcnbacb '205 

Gcorgcnbcrg 222 

Gera UQ. 

Gerdauoa • 54 

Gemrode 22 

Gcmsbach 20Q 

Geroldsau ...200 

Gersfeld 2A 

Gcrstungcn » fifi 

Gieblcbenttein 24 

G lessen 73, Ifi 

OlesMiUbel 232 


oi^ti lii^ci •••■■•••••••«»•••»••»•• ••••tcsA 

Gitscbln 125 

Olatz 130 

Glaucbau LLii 

(jleitten Cj. Tit 

Gleiwitz m 

Olo^rau 59 

(ilottertbal .^'il 1 

(tlu\Ndl ••••••««•••• •••••••••••••*«• • • 

(iliickatndt tfi 

(niiund-am-Tegenisce 160 

<Jniiind „ 122 

(iiniiiulcn Ifil 

(iiiadau ^ M 94 

Gnadcnberg m......... 12S 

(incsen 6L fi2 

(iniewkowo fi2 

(Joidsbiife 192 

(folliiow ....»»••....•.... 59 

(ttipplngcn IM 

Gorkau Uii 

Giirlitz 12:i 

Gu8<«wein8tciii . 

fJottorp Caatle . 

Gratslltz »M 

Graudcnz 5i 

Graubof fia 

Greifi'nstcln 124 

Grrifinstcin Castic IM 

Grt'lfrnbcrg fifi 

Greiffenberg 12<1 

GrcifMwald 47^ 42 

Greiz m 

Grii'sbacb , 196. 20.) 

Grizebno C5 

Groiiau 28 

(irossbeeren 13 

GrosH C/.ernosck 222 

(iross Gorscbea •••••«• liii 

Grnssekrciitz 13. 

Grosse Wliitcrbcrg 112 

Gross Karben 24 

(Jross Scbinna LL2 

(;rosti Scidlitz ..ftfM*n Ul 

Gross Streblitz ..^ 13i 

Gross Voigtsburg Ill 

Grotenburg 12 

(irot/ingen 2<I2 

Grulicb 231 

Griinberg £3 

Grund ga 

Grniiewald U 

Gul)i'u 53 

GUntorshcrg'e 1»Q 

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GuiitcrHbausen Zfi 

GUntorHthal ^ 2m 

Guiizach 177 

GUnzburg llfi 

Guiizeiibauson 15H, lilfi 

Gustn)W 4£ 

Outachthal 211^ 

GUtenbach m 

Gutviutoin 2^ 


Haan 3ft 

Hafenlohr Ififl 

Hngon 2a 

Ha(;eiiow 31 

Haidersdurf 252. 

iiaidhof m 

Haipcrloch 193 

Haimbach 222 

Halnau 69, m 

Halnichcn lUi 

HalbersUdt £3 

HalbBtadt 125 

Hall lai 

Hallo ai 

HalsbrUck Ill 

Hamburg ai 

Hamein Z2 

Hamm 21 

Hammolburg 172 

Haromoreisenbach 21 1, 213 

Hanau 15 

Hanovkr 23 

Harburg 84^ 28 

Harburg (Bavaria) 15S 

Hartenberg 232 

Harvestondo 83 

Harzburfr 81 

Habz Dihtbict 82 

Harzgerode fill 

Hasel Caves 214 


Hassclfelde gfl 

Hassfurt Ill 

Haste 25. 

Hanfe 23 

Hausach 194^ 204^205 

Hauseii 211 

Havolberg HI 

Hechingen 1^ 

Hclilen 82 

Hoi<lo 35 

Heidelberg Ifil 

Heideiibcim 1£2 

Holdingsfold 1^ 

Hcillierg 65 

Heilbronn 18fi 

Heilgenbell 5fi 

Heiligenkreua 254 

HclligonBtadt 92^ 114 

Hcilsbronn 167, IBI 

Hcldrastein 74 

Heligoland M 


llelmRtPdt r. 21 

Ilelsa li 

lleunef 2fi 

Iferberlingen 191 

lierborn Ill 

Herdorl Ifi 

Herford 211 

Hennann Statue 1&. 

Hirinwlurf 121 

Heme 24 

Herrenalb 195, 2M 

Herreiib«rg 11^2 

Horreiiwieso 2flfl 

Hermhut 123 

Hcrmskretschen 112. 222 

HersbrUck 112 

Herstelle fil 

Hortbn See 

Herzberff liU 

llessftitlml 1^ 

Hctzeiulorf 253 

Hcudcbcr Bh 

Heufuder 124 

Heuwheuer Rocks 131> 

Iliitzing 253 

Hildburjrhausen 9«L 5i Qli 

Hildesheim 'jLL — 

llimmelrelch 212 

Iliischbcrg 12fi 

Hitznker 31 

Hochkircb 122 

Hucbenschwand '2 15 

lliichst Ifi 

llochstadt 158, lfi5 

Hop L^o. HI5, m 

Ilofgeismar lii 

Hohe Eicbe IM 

Hobe Eulc 13fi 

Ilubcn Aspcrg 1H5 

Hobenau 238 

Hohencichc U 

lloben-Frcidhurg 12I» 

Ilohenfurt 235 

Hobcnceroldseck 2ill 

Huhcnlandsberg JiiZ 

Hohcnlindcn ISD 

Hohenschwangnn 14fl 

Hoheiifltaufen ISll 

llohcntwicl CuHtle 194 

Hohenurach ^..193 

Hohenzollem Castle IM 

Hohnstein IISL 

Hobnstorf 31 

Honal)runn 23fi 

Hollendorf ,2ai 

Hfillentbal 212 

Ilolzkirchcn 150^ llil 

Holzininden 82 

Horb 195. 19f. 

Horic 231 

Horin 22a 

Hornbcrg 2fl5 

Hornlnprinde 2fl2 


Horowitz M.... Jti 

IIuxt«r »^ 

liubackor ^. Jtt 

IftilK^rtsborg LU 

Iltitiiigeii SIS 

llusuiu a 

Hiltteldorf ^ 254 


Mstcin 7| 

Ijrlau Sft 

Ijfling 112 

Ilfeld aft 

IIlowo tf 

riiiHMiau tt 

IlMMiburg 82 

Il»H.'ii9tein 82 

Iniinelborn M 

Iiiiineridiiigen IM 

Iinineitbtadl 122 

Irunau .IS^ 

In^eltingen Ifift 

In|.'ol8tndl J58 

Innsbriick 119. 

Iiiowrazlaw tSk 

Insell^erg 911 

In!«terburg 54^ 67 

Irrenlobe Hi 

Iscbl m 

Iserluhn 29, lii 

Isny lii 

Itzelioc 35 



.lacobsdorf 13a 

Jiifrernu'ver 131 

Jairstfeld IM 

Jahdc lA 

Jarotschlu GT, C2 

Jnsmund 51 

.last row 51 

Jaxthauscu 1&& 

Jena a9 

Jcrxheiin 21 

J ever 11 

Joachimstbal 232 

Joliannisbad 125 

Joscphinenhiitte 12B 

Josepbshobc » ^ 

Joscithstadt 125 

.lUbeck flfi 

JUterbog 63, 101 


Kahla Oft 

Kahlenberg ^ 3ft) 

Kiiiscrtjtubl 21fl 

Kaisorswerth w*... 3ft 

Kallenberg 82 

Kamcnz 118. 12Si. 

Kandel 2nc 

Karlstadt 112 

Karlstein 231 





Karolinensiel 11 

Karow ili 

Karwendtil 14!> 

Kattowltz Li:: 

Katzbnch 123 

Kaufbeuern HI 

Kauferlng Ill 

Kelhelm IM 

Kemnade 82. 

Kcnipcn (Silc«ia) (12 

Kemptcn Ill 

Kesselbcrg LLi 

Kestenhclm 122 

Kiel 2*2 

KInzIg Valley 204. 2£>5 

Klrchberg lidl 

Kirchheim IfiS 

Kirchheim-miter Teck IM 

Klmach 2QU 

Kinibach 2Qi 

Kirnitzschthai Ill 

KIsleggr m 

Kissongen....M Hi 

Klttelsburg , illi! 

Kitzingcn UR 

Klaltau 2M 

Klein Czernosek 222 

Klein Reifling l&l 

Kleincn il 

Klein Ostlieim 1112 

Klein Wclke 122 

Klelnzschocher llii 

Klingenberg 1(12 

Kliiijrenthal liU 

Kloster Plbrach 112 

Klosterkrugr 3i] 

Kloster Lcchfeld Ill 

Knk'bis 2011 

Kochelfall m 

Kohlfurt 1211 

Kolberg il 

Kolin 2M 

Kijlinberfi^ liii 

Ktiin liil 

K(»Diotau lOlj 22A 

Kiiniggriltz 125,211 

Konlgsberg 56^ Sli 

Konig8ber?r-i-d-N ii] 

Kuiiigshorn 12 

Kiinig See IM 

Kunigsen IM 

Konigafeld 201 

Konlgshiitto 1II2 

Kiinigstein 112, 222 

Kiinlgsweinberg 1211 

Konigszelt 1II2 

Konitz [Li 

Kupenick [u. 

Korschen 54^ til 

KiJsen fill 

Kostrltz m 

Kofiswig 113 

Krailshelm liil 


Kralup 22fl 

Kranz 52 

Kray 2fi 

Kreiensen 82 

Kreische Tin 

Kreuth Ififl 

Krippen Ufi 

Kronheim 1L& 

Krozingen 216^ 21fi 

Kruraau 2M 

Kubitzen 231 

Kulm 54i 230 

Knlmbach Ifi5 

Kiinersdorf fifi 

Kuttenberg 235 

Kvffhiiuscr Hill 02 

Kynast Castle 121 


Lagc 27 

Lager Lcchfeld Ill 

Lahr 207 

Lam 231 

Lambach 181 

Landau-am-lsar 151, 178, 170 

Landcsberg 177 

Landshut 122 

Landshut 1^1 

Landskrono 122 

Langelsbcim 88 

Langenbiclau 132 

Langcnhcnnersdorf 110 

Langensalza 98 

Langcnwiescn 98 

Langenzenn Ifi3 

Langwedcl 35 

Laskowitz £1 

Lauban 12fi 

Lauchstadt 65 

Lauda ISS 

Laucnberg (Pomcrania) 51 

Lauenbnrg-on-the-Elbe SI 

Lauf 112 

Laufach Ifi2 

Lauffen 180 

Lauren burg 7^ 

Lauscha 122 

Lautenbach -^03 

Lauterbcrg 8a 

Laxenberg 25? 

Lechfelde 157 

Leer 40, 12 

Lehrte 55; 35 

Leincfeldc. 92 

Leipheim 115. 

Leipsic Ill 

Leitmeritz 222 

Lemgo 27, II 

Lengenfeld Ill 

Lcnncp 32 

Lenzkirch 2iik 

Leobersdorf 2M 

LcobschUtz lai 

Leopoldabcrg' 253 


Letnmthe 2!^ 

Lettawitx 231 

Lichtenfels 97, 165 

Lichtenhof 158 

Lichtenstein 193 

Llchtenthnl 22Q 

Lichterfelde U 

Liebau 128, 23B 

Liebenstcin 91 

Llebcnzell 195, 221 

Liebvrerda 121 

Licgnitz 69, 123 

Lilicnstein Ill 

Llinburg 29, 76, 212 

Lindau 177 

Llnz m, 236 

Lippspringe Ifi 

Lippstadt 12 

Lissa 59j 61 

Lobau 122 

Lobenstein 121^ IM 

Lobositz 222 

Locbaner Haide 121 

Lochotin 231 

Loffcnau 222 

Lohmcn Ill 

LiJbne 22 

Lohr Ififi 

Lollar 15 

Lorch 122 

LUrrach 213 

Loschwitz Ifla 

Liiwenburg 120. 

Lowenstein 186 

LUbeck 12 

Lubcnz 231 

Ludwlgsburg 185 

Ludwigs-Canal 163 

Ludwigslust 31 

Lndwigsort 56 

Luisenburg 115 

Lundcnburg 286. 238 

LUneburg 31^ 32 

Lutter 81 

Ltitzen 65 

Lyck 54, 52 


Miidclc Gabel U? 

Magdeburg 19 

Mainkur 15 

Malchin 4fi 

Mai sf eld 24 

Maltsch 52 

Mansfeld 91 

Marbach 185 

Marburg 23 

Marchfcld 238 

Mariahilf Ill 

Mariahilfbcrg 179 

Marienbad.., zatt 

Marlenberg IS 

Marlenburg: M 

Marlenwerder 54 

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Harmonntthle ....»• M 

Maulbronn 1&& 

Miixen UOl 

Mockenbeuern 191 

Meerano 117 

Mehltheuer 112 

Melnbcrg „ Ifi 

Meiiiingen &2 

Melsdorf ftl 

Moissen .^113 

Meissner Hill Zi 

Mc'lnik 22fi 

Memel fiZ 

Momming'en llfi 

Menden 81 

Mcngcii liH) 

Meppeii 12 

Mergenthcim IM 

Merkclsdorf m 

Mcrscburg 115 

Mcschede 81 

Messklrch IM 

Metziiigeu IM 

Michelsberg 12^ 

Mil in 2ai 

Miltcnberg 73, MS 

Mindelbelm 177 

Minden 25 

Mireschowitz 233 

Missunde M 

MiwUlgau 116 

Mittelsteiiie 126, 232 

Mittelwalde ISQ 

Mittcnwald lifl 

Mittorsendling 179 

Moabit 13 

Madling 2£2 

Mogglingen ^ m 

Mogilno £2 

Moisling 43 

Miilln 42 

Mollwitz m 

Montabauer Zfi 

Montowo 5£ 

Moosburg Ufi 

Moritzburg IM 

Miigcln ^ Ufl 

Muif{?eiidorf 173 

Mtihldorf 179^ IM 

MUhlhaasen 81 

Mulda 112 

MUlbcim-on-tho-Rhinc Bfl 

Mullheiin 21fi 

Mummelsce 202 

MUnchberg 52, 165. m 


MUnde fil 

MUiiden 81 

Munich 133 

MUnster 22 

Mlintitcrbcrg fil 

MUnsterthal 218 

Murgthal J2S!Q 


Murhardt IfiZ 

Muritzee AH 

Murnau 148, 14ft 



Nabbarg Hi 

Nachod 125,221 

Nagold 195 

Nakel £A 

Naraslau 131 

Namlorf 118 

Nassau 1& 

Naugard 5Q 

Nauheiin 2A 

Naumburg 6£t 

Neckar Kivcr « 18fi 

NcckarBulm IM 

Nelnstadt ^ 

Neisse 141 

Ncniuiorf » 2& 

Ncratowitz 228 

yea Brandenburg dL 15, i& 

NeuBuckow 42 

Ncndeck 123 

Neudettelsau Ifi2 

Ncudietendorf 68i 98 

Ncucudorf ..110 

Neuem 2M 

Neufahrwasscr ^ 

Nenhaldenslcben iQ. 

Ncuhuus 122 

Neu-Heng-8udt 124 

Ncukirchen 12& 

Neukrug 88 

N<Mikuhrcn &Z 

Neumarkt 52 

Meumarkt-an-der-Sulz IM 

Neuminstcr 32 

NcumUnstcr 35^ 38 

Ncuotting 181 

Neuruppuu 31 

NeuscB 92 

Neustadt 113.211 

NcuHtadt-an-dcr-Al8ch...l63, HQ 
Neu5tadt-nn-der-Sallc ...128, LIl 
Neustadt, ur Neustadt Ebers- 

walde ^...46, 2Sin=& 

Neustadt Harsburg 82 

Neustadt-on-thc-Haide 1111 

Neustadt (Sax. Switz.) ... .. 112 
Neustadt untcrm Hohnstein.. 69 

Neustettin 51. 51 

Neu-Strelitz i& 

NeuUlm 176. 12Q 

Neu Waldegg 2L2 

NcuzcUe ^ 

Niederau IM 

Niedergrund 112 

Niederhone 24 

Niedcr Rnthen Ill 

Niedcrsedlltz 110 

Nlederatetten 188 

Norden 41 

Nordenhamm 411 

Nurderney m. 41 

Nordhausen 22 

NUrdlingcn ^....US 


North Sea Canal Sfi 

Nossen 112 

NuRBMBKKG (Nttmberg) 159, 120 

Nu8«dorf 253 


Oberammergau lit 

Oberau lift 

O i*c AAsd ••••«»••••••••••••«•••••••• 

Ober Glogan ~ 121 

Obergrund 112 

Obcrglinzburg 122 

Oberhagen 22 

Obcrbausen .38, 123 

Oberhof 28 

Olwrklrche „ 203 

Ol>erkotzaa UJi 

Oberlauchringen 216 

Obcnidorf 122 

Obcrsiaufen 122 

Oberstdorf 122 

Ochscnfurt liil 

Oderbcrg 132 

Oebisfeldc 20. 21 

Ocderan ...Ill 

Oehringen 182 

Oels £1 

Oelsnltz 117. 112 

Octtlngen 158 

Oeynhausen 12 

Offenbach 75 

Offcnburg 194i 204, 205 

Oblau m 

Ohligswald 3fi 

Ohrdruf 28 

Okcr or Ocker SS 

Oldenburg 40 

Oldesloe 3a 

Ollva 5L 44 

Olpe 2fl 

Opladen 80 

Oppoln 182 

Oppenau 203 

Opperode 21 

Oranienburg iS 

Ortenbcrg 205 

Oschatz UR 

Osmannstedt fiZ 

OsnabrUck 27,41 

Osterfeld 28 

Osterhofen 178 

Osterodc 54^82 

Ostrowo 82 

Oswaldshlible 113 

Oflwitz 61 

OttenhUfen 2fi2 

Ottilicu.stein 28 

Orersee 55 

Oyhln 12i 

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Paderborn Tfi 

Papenborg 12 

Parchim 8L 44 

Parch-vrltz &S 

Pardubitz 126, W6 

Paretz U 

Partenkirchen 149 

Pasewalk » „„.,„ il 

Paslng IMi 112: 

Passau llfi 

Paulinenane 21 

PaullnzelU Abbey IQH 

Pegnitz 112 

Poiskretscham 122 

Peissenberg ilS 

Pelting 14a 

Penle llS 

Penzbcrg 14H 

Penzing 2h^ 

Petersburg Schloss 221 

Petersdorf 12fi 

Petersthal 196, 2fl]l 

Peterzell 211G 

Pforta 6fi 

Pforzheim 195. 2ni 

PhiUpsrahe lA 

FlUau il 

Plllnitz llfl 

Pilaen ^178. 2M 

Pinnebcrg....^ 2^ 

Pima^.......^ no, m 


Planberg IM 

PUnegg US 

Plaas 2M 

Plattling llfi 

Plan© 98 

Planen » 119 

Pleinfcld 1L& 

Plochlingen IM 

Pockau HZ 

Podersam 224 

Polle Castle &1 

Poinincrsfclden Ififi 

Pommrltz 122 

PoppenhauBen Ill 

Porta Westphalica » ~ 2& 

Posen 62 

Posscnhofon IM 

PUssHnberg IE2 


Pflttenatein 112. 

Potzscha Ill 

Pragvk 223 

Preblflch Thor 112 

Prechthal 208 

fresUtz V84 

I»ri«n 129 

Priescn 2M 

yriezten 2M 

"Prostkcn SI 

Frotovin 224 


Przibislaw 235 

Pnde-wltz Bl 

Pullna 233 

Pttrghtz 2M 

Patbus 48 

Pyrmont ZZ 

Quakenbrlick 4fl 

Quedlinburg 84 

Qnolits 48 


Rabensteiner HSble 1Z4 

Racknitz .108 

Radcberg UO^ 121 

Radolfzell IM 

Raitz ^ 287 

Rakonltz 234 

Ramberg 20 

Ranimelsberg „ 88 

Rathen llfi 

Rathenow S5 

Katibor 132 

Ratlsbon IM 

Ratzcburg 42 

Raudnitz 229 

Raudten &8 

Rauen fi8 

Ravcnsburg 191 

Rcf^ensburg 151 

Rcpenstauf HA 

Rehburg Bad 25 

Rehme 2fi 

Reichenbach m, I2il 

Reichenbei^ 124 

Reicbenhall 180 

Reichcnstein 13Q 

Reichinannsdorf IDQ 

Rcicbstadt 124 

Reinhardsbrnnn 97, 2fi 

Riescnborg ^ 

Rcitzcnhain Ill 

Reinschrid 30 

Rcnchthiil 203 

Rpndshiirg 26 

Rennstcig 63. 

Reppcn 63i 68 

Ttevtnn 120 

Reutlinfen 132. 

Rhedn n 

Rhcine 42 

Rheinsberg 46 

Rhetra 46 

Rhejrdt 28 

Rbungebirge Z4 

Ricsa 113 

Ricscngebirge Mountains 121 

Rinteln 21 

Rippoldsau 190,2111 

Rochlitz 118 

Rbderau 101. 113 

Rogisen 24 



Rosenheim ...«ti 129 

RoscnmiillershiJhle 123 

Rosenstcin 132 

Roslau 176 

Ros<«bach 65 

Rossla 92 

Rosplau 5J>, liii 

Rostel 22& 

Rosstrappe 8x( 

Roftswcin 11& 

Rostock 44 

Roth ILSt 

Rothehiitte-KUnigshof 8C 

Rothomiihlo 28 

Rothenbach Ill 

Rothenbarg^ £8 

Rothenburg-on-the-Tauber ...IfiZ 

Rotbcnstcin 93 

Rottenburg 194 

Rottwcil 194 

Rottwernzdorf IIH 

Roztok 228 

Riibeland 86 

Rudcrsdorf 5S 

Rudolstadt IM 

RroRN I»LAJn> 48 

Rii^enwalde M 

Rubland 38 

Rulirort 28 

Rundlng 234 

RupprcchtBtegen LZ2 


St. Bartholomew Lake 18Q 

8t. Blasien 215 

St. Gcorgen 2M 

St.Egidien Ill 

8t. Margen 211 

St Ottilien 203 

St. Peter 211 

8t- Valentin 234 

St. Waldau 233 

Saal IM 

Saalbnrg 121 

Saalfeld 100, 12Q 

Sachsa 89 

Sadowa 125^ 2111 

Sagan * tt8 

Sapard 48 

Saidschtitz 23a 

Snitz ^^^.JtM 

Saltzwedell 51 

Salzbninn 129 

Siilzburg 131 

Salzburg Castle ^ 171 

Salzurgen 94 

Salzwedel 33 

Samland 32 

Sangcrbausen 92 

Sans Sotici 1£ 

Saasendorf 29 

Bnuorlflch \M 





Schalkau Ittl 

Schalko 2fi 

Schandau 111.229 

Schapbach Ififi 

Scharzfeld Lauterberg ...m.... SSl 

Schaninsland 211 

Scheer IM 

Schellcnbcrg 168 

SchenkcDzell 2M 

Scberfcdo SI 

Schierke fifi 

SchUtach 2M 

SchkeudiU ^ 

Scbkopau Castle fifi 

Schlau 231. 283 

Schlawe fil 

Schlcbdorf ^ UL> 

Schleiz UH 


Sciilcusingeii &li 

Schlicngen 211 

Schliersee « IM 

Schlochau tt2 

Schloss Hohcnschwangau .148 

8chloss PUrglitz 2M 

Scbluchsec 21Zi 

Belli Uchtern Zi 

Bcbmalkaldcu &o 

Schiniedebcrg 126, m 

Schmlicke Inn fifi 

Scbneeberg 112, 11^. 1;''' 

Schneekopf 5ili 

Scbneekoppe 128. 130 

Scbneidcmiibl ^ 

Schomberg —...128 

Schona llfl 

Bclionau 214^ 21S 

Scbunbruun 2^ 

Schuncbeck M 

Scbiinebcrg 12 

Scbonenbach 212 

8chon;;rabem 2M 

Scbunhauscn ....m Sai 

Schynhof ^ 

8ch<5ningen 21 

Schonstcinhuble US 

Schiinwald 206 

Scbopfhelm 218 

Schiippenstcdt 21 

Schorndorf Ili2 

Scbrockcnstohi 22ii 

SchrcUK;r»haa 12fi 

Schulkc 2fl 

Schulpfortc Sfi 

Schuttcrthal 2fiZ 

Scbwabach 1^ 

Schwaben IMQ 

Schwabmiincbcn Ill 

Scbwadowitz 122 

SchwaJgcrn I8fi 

S'chwallungon 25 

Schwandorf 121 

Schwarza 100 

Schwarzacb .21j^ 

Schwarzburg IQO 

Scbwedt 42 

Schwcidnitz IM 

Schweinfurt USt 

Schwebn 2fi 

Scbwcnningen IM 

Schwerin H 

Schwerte 26, 81 

Bchwientochlowitz 1^87182 

Seebach 202 

Secsen 82, 88 

Heeshaupt lAh 

Seidlitz 233 

Seiforsdorf Valley Lm 

Beifhcnncrsdorf 122 

Sellgonstadt lHa 

Seiko Valley gfi 

Belters 2& 

Biegburg Ifi 

BieKclsdorf liki 

Sicgcn 29 

Siegcrsdorf it9 

Bigmariugen 194 

SUberberg IM 

Simbach ^ IM 

Blmonswald '2M 

Singen 194. IBS 

Sinn IB 

Sinzbclm Ififi 

Smiilc 231 

Boost IS 

Sohland 122 

Bohlonhofen }M 

Boldau £i2 

Solingcn SO 


Bonimcrau 2M 

Bommerda 68 

Sondcrberg 22 

Bondersbausen S2 

Sonneberg 97, IM 

Sonncnstein 113 

Soolbad Wittekind 65 

Borau 53. 

Spalt liii 

Spandau 12, 21 

Bpossart -iHS. 

Btade 34 

Stadtambof ILA 

Btadt-Ilm \M 

Btaffclstcbi Ifi5 

Btargurd 46 

Stargard (Pomcrania) fiD 

Starkotsch 125 

Btarnbcrg 14fi 

Btassfurt 21 

Btavenbagcn 15 

Btecklenborg fill 

Btcclo 2fi 

Bteinach 162 

Steiubacb 207 

Stcinhcim 17 


Steisslingcn IM 

Btcndal fifi 

Btorkerade 2& 

Stettin 4fi 

Stock 179 

Stockach 190, IM 

Stiickcrau ..255, 222 

Blolborg , 20 

!^t<)lp SI 

Stolpmlinde &1 

Strulau la 

Stralsund 42 

Btraubing 178 

Strohla ...118 

Strcblon Qi 


Strclitz ifi 

Strol>eck ^ SA 

Strzedokluk 281 

Btubltenkaiumcr 4B. 

Stultnitz 4£ 

StUhlingen ...-.JJlfi 

Btiuufldorf S4 

Stuttgart .........182 

Buderodo SQ 

Buhl SB 

Bulzbach 174, 187, 2M 

Bulzbach-am-Main .^^162 

Sulzthal 217 

Sundewltt SB 

Swabian Alpi 183i 1B4, 193 

Bwlnemiinde ^ 


Tabor 2a!i 

Tafelfichtc 124 

Tann J± 

Taunc 8fi 

Tannwald 124 

Tattendorf .264 

Toffomsee 150 

Toinach 2111 

Tompelhof U 

Teplltz or Toplltz 228 

Tercspol 64 

TctHchcn ..112,22a 

Teltenborn ^ 

Tettnang Ifil 

Thalo fifi 

Tharandt Ifia 


TherosUnstadt 229 

Thorn 54, 62 

Tbllrlnger Wald £2 

Ticfo Orund Ill 

Tlhlt 57 

TitlHco 206, 21i 

Todtnau 214, STs, 2ia 

Tolz 179 

Tonning 25 

Torgau Ifil 

Tost 122 

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Traunstoin 112 

Trausnitz Castle IM 

Trautenau 12fi 



Trennfeld ma ' 

Treptow 12. I 

Treysa 73^ li 


Trostberg « lia I 

Trocznow „ SiiS } 

Trad port 2ia 

Tiibhigcn IM 


TutUingen IM 

Tutzing Ha 

Tyuist 125, 


Uoborsec HE 

Uclzcn Sn. 

Uffonheim .131 

Uhlstedt 92 

Ulm 17G. mi 

Unua 13 

Unterboihingen IfiS 

Untemeui>ranQ 2fi 

Unter Scndling llii 

Untorsimonswald 2M 

Untertiirkeim -...lia 

Unterwalde Grund Ill 

Uracil 19o. 211 

Utzenfeld 2U 

lit. I 


Vaiblngcn IBH 

Vai-el IQ 

.Varzin tLL i 

Ve^^csack i 

Victors Hohe 83, liQ i 

Vlenenburg 82, SS 

Vjknna 'IM 

Villinjrt'n IM, 21M 

Viishofcn US 

Vinzelberg 22 

Vissclhovede 35 

Vohrenbach 206. 211, 213 

Vohwiiikel an 

Volkstadt 100 


Wnhem lil 


WnhlHtnlt liJ 

Wfi bring 2hl 

Waibliiigcn JJiZ 

Wnischphfeld UU 

Walbiirg U 

Walchcnsee Ha 

Waldbrol Hi 

Waldenbnrg 60.122 


Waldkappel U 

Waldkirch 204. 20G, 2Sih 

Waldseo 121 

Waldshut 211i 

Walhalla, The liiJl 

Walkenricd 32 

Walidorf 2^ 


Waltershauscii '. fili 

Waiid8J>eck M 

Wangen liil 

Wanger Oogo H 

Wanne 23 

Warburg SI 

WAren 45 


VVarnouiundo 1^ 

Warsaw /i5 

Wart burg lil 

Wartenburg lA 

Wartba ISA 

Wasseralfiugon 122 

Wasserburg 112 

Wasungen Uj 

Watzmann ISil 

Weckelsdorf J22 

Wuener 4i 

Wcgstadl 529 

Wchr 2M 

Wehrathal 211 

Weideu 172,175 

Weikcrsheim .133 

Weil bach 1112 

Wcilburg 75i2M 

Well-der-Stadt 125 

Weilhcim 148^ 112 

Wkimak Gil 

Wcingarten 121 

^VciuslHirg .■........••..•..•......l&a 

Wei pert Ml 

Weischlitz m 

We'isscnburg-am-Sand Ifi9 

Welsseiifels Gfij Uil 

Weisswasser fifl 

Wolzen 211i 

Wcls 131 

Welver 28j 12 

Weiizclsbnrg 12ii 

Wurdau 112 

Wermelskirclien M 

Wermsdorf llii 

Werna 32 

Wenilwirg Ill 

Wpmhauscii 25 

Wernigcrodo 35 

Wcrthilm lUa 

Wfscnstpin 112. 

Wcssely '-'35 

Wetterstcin range 112 

Wetzlar 10. 

Wcycr 132 

Wioiipr-Nrustadt 251 

Wildbad 151L H>-:^.2Q1 


Wildomanii 33 

Wihlenschwert 222 

Wildungen 73, 12 

Wilferdingcn .777125 

Wil helms bad Z5 

WllhelnisglUck ISI 

Wilhchushiihe To, 2^ 

WilhemHhafen IQ 

Wilsiiack ai 

Wimpfen 13d 

Windsheim IM 

Winnt-ndcn LSI 

Wipfold-on-the-Main Ui2 

Wlrballcn 51 

■Wismar 15 

Wlttelsbach Castle LDI 

Wittenberg 62 

Witttiiberge lU. 

Wittmund ai 

Witzenbohle 173 

Woblielin 21 

Wolfach 196, 201 

Wolfoiibiittcl 21 

Wolfsgefarth m 

Wulfsrathshauscn 140 

Wolitnik 5ii 

Wolkenstcin 113. 

WUrlitz liU 

Wostrouier 2SZ 

Wunstorf ii 

Wuusiedcl nil 

Wiirmsce 14S 

Wiirttembcrg 132 

Wilrzburg IC". iss 

Wurzcu llii 


Zdic 2M 

Zedlerseo 2iiS 

Zehlendorf lii 

Zcil ill 

Zcltz 122 

Zclla-Mchlls ill 

Zelle, or Cello iiZ 

Zellondorf I'Mi 

Zc'llerfcld 33 

Ztll-im-Wald 214. 218 

Zeulciiroda 121 

Zicgcnhal» LU. 

Zlrndorf Ifiil 

Zittau m 

Znaini 'IM 

Zo])trn im 

Zullbriicko 51 

Zoppot 51, (t3 

Zomdorf 5lt 

Zoi)Scn lil 

ZngRPllzo 112, 111 

Zwickaa Ill 

Zwiofnltcndorf IK! 

Zwtltnu 2iil 


^ ^ Google 


For the border districts not incladed here, see Bradghaw'x Hand- Book foi 
Belgium and the Rhint^ and Bradsbaw's Hand-Book to Switzerland and iMi 
Tyrol, I 

For general referenee, see Bradthaw** Continental Guide, published monthly, for the \ 
latest particulars respecting pas^Mnts, hotels, consuls, chaplains, medical meo^ 
bankers, population, steamers, railways, and other matters, which are liable to change. 

PAB8P0BT8.— A passport, though not absolutely indispensable in every part of | 
the Continent, is always a useful document, which no prudent trareller will ever be I 
without. For Berlin, Fraakloft-on-Bfaine, and other of the laiger Gennaii cities, I 
they are still adTisable. ^ 

All the requisite information on this head can be obtained on application to our 
London agents, Messrs. Adams 4 Sons^ 5<», Fleet Street. See Introduction to 
Braddiaw*M Cemlinmital Gvide* 

MONEY.— Circular notes of £10 and ^20 are safe and convenient, and are h^ued \ 
by the principal Lom iou bankers to their customers ; and by Messrs. Keyper & Co., 
21, Combill, City, E.C., where every description of foreign money can be 
obtained. The value of Circular Notes is recoverable if lost or stolen. The 
Cheque Bank, 4, Waterloo Place, Pall Mall, S.W., and 3, George Yard, Lombard 
Street, will be found to be very convenient for Travellers. Its chet^aes are payable 
at any bankers in the principal Continental towns. 

The best current money for travellers in Germany are 20 mark gold pieces or mark 
notes. Prussian thalers, marks, and kronen (for Austria) are the best silver 
coins. Gold Napoleons (about 15s. 9d.) are generally known, and can be got in 
I«ondon at a money changer's. English sovercig^ns are often confounded with them, 
and at railway stations, &c., the stranger is liable to suffer loss by the sovereign 
being reckoned a? a Napoleon. The be>t plan is to change the sovereign for current 
coin at a money-changer's. I falf-<?ovcreigns are liable to be refused or clianged under 
value. F.nglish bank notes are not convenient, and are unknown in some places. 
It \^ n useful plan to provide one's self with plenty of siDall change (from the 
money-changer's), taking care to get rid cf it ■^lien you arc about to leave, as everv 
exchange outside entails a discount. — See Money Table in Brad»haw'» (Jontineniui 

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(Jennan Money. — One nniform onrrfmcy is now the rule for the whole rJerniaTi 
tepire, including Bavaria and Wurtemberg, and Alsace-Lorraine. It is based ou 
fiie mark or reiclu-mArk = Is., and divided into 100 pfennigs. Thit new currency it 
ray newly lik« the Enghsh, but drpiddl dedludly ; «ad if as followi 
f Gold— SO mark piece = £} (strictly 19«. 6d.) 

10 „ =10^ 
jui 5 ft ^ S§« 

'r,, SttTei^S „ =811. 

1 - = is, 

50 pfennig — 6d. 
«0 „ = 2-40. 
lilt VieM-^lO ^ is i k. 

Bronze— 8 y» = O-id. 
ptf I „ == O-td. 

^: N.B.-— The Aaler Itoee le etill liiKsl tender for 8 marks. 

,^ The new Imperial bank notes for the whole of the German Empire are for 5, 30, 

" '0, TOO, 200, 500, and 1,000 mark*, or a multiple of 1,000. Notes for 100, 500, and 
l.OOO marke arc also issued by 12 other bankR. Sovereigns pass for 20m. at the iH >tel e^, 

to ' bat they will sumetimes give 20m. 20pf. In Loudon you may get 20m. aupf . 

^ [It may he convt^ent to refer lo the monetary sjatem wniSi preT«iIea down to 

I« NOBTH QmbMAMT (Tnvf*9ix, 
^ 12 pfennigs = 1 silber groschen ( = l|d. 

30 groschen =: 1 khfttar = te. 

Gold Coins '.^ 

\ Friedrich d'or = 5 thalers 20 groschen = 1 6s. 5d. 

I German gold crown = 9 thalers 16 groschen = £l 7*?. 4d. 

1^. Loms d'or of Brunswick and Hanover = 5 thalers 15 groschen = about ICs. 2d. 

^ S&wr Cmm { — the thider r: Si» Itd^ th« denhle thaler, and pieces of one groschen, 

' 5, and 10 groschen (silber grosehen, or sgr.*'). In Saxony, Hanover^ Bmmmide 
Goi/ici, and Attenhnrfj, the thaler contained 30 groschen of 10 pfenTitps each; ii| 
,\feckUnhurfj the thaler contained 48 schillings of 12 pfennigs eacii ; but the thaler 

^ was uf the same value as the Prussian. In Oldemmrg the pfennigs were called 

t "sehwars In iJesse, ♦* hellers." 

jj Old Bank notes were in circulation for 1 thaler, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 thalers. 
2. In South Gsbmant (Bavaria, Wiirtemberg, htc.) the system Wat 

4 pfennigs = 1 kreuzer = Jd. 
' 60 Kxeiuers = 1 silver florin = Is. 8d. 

Two thaler pieces, 2 gulden pieces, and 6 kreuzer pieces wetecsrrent. Banknotes 

■w ere in circulation for 1, 2, 5, 10, 25, 60, and 100 florins,] 

Austria :^Iii l^-^^ the new system, based on gold value, was introduced. This 
consists of heller and kxoueuj lUU iieiier&_i.l krone=10d. The coins are gold, 20 and 
10 kronen ; diver, 1 and \ krone ; nickel, 20 and 10 heller; hronse» 3 and i heller. 
Tim old ^stem was: — 100 kretizers rr 1 silver florin = Is. lid. 

Notes TOT 1 florin, 5, 10, 100, and 1,000 florins are current, at the rate of abottt 
Is. 8d. per tioriu, or a discount of about 14 per cent. N.B..— Austrian paper ear- 
rency is subject to continual change. 


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Xvili. ISTJloDtclIO!?. 

Oold pieces of 6 and 4 florins were in circalatioD, bat were exceeding!/ lire. The 
•liver coins were 2 florins, 1 florin, end ^ florin. Bat transactioni, as a role, m 
settled almost exclnsively in paper money, and care should be taken not to take anj 
of this ont of the countrv. Bee Bradikaufs Continental Guides page Ixii. for a table 
of the current rates of valne. 


Kilometar Hflunze la now the oflleM measore on Qetman llnest 

corresponding to the French kilom6tre, and divided into tenths. 

1 Germ HQ mile = 7*53 kilometers* 

I Erigiidi „ = 1-61 

Table op German and Enulish Miles, and Geuman Ivilombtebs. 

(N B. — In round numbers, but near enough for common use.) 

GermAn English Uei-iuati Uerniau 

kl]<Hn«t«rt. mllM. miles. 























45 1 

15 ^ 
22| 14 3 

80 18| 4 

37 i 23| 5 

45 28 6 

1 Pmssian foot =-314 metre. 

= \2-?<r, inches. 
I German meile or mile = 4 English miles, 1,056 yards, 
„ = 4| English miles nearly. 

„ . r= I French post. 

= 7*58 French kilometres. 

The German mile, when in use on the ra9, was divided into tenths and hundredths, 
each tenth being 810 English yards. 

2 German miles = 9^ English miles. 
„ =1 German post. 

J, =4 Stuudeu, or hours' walking. 

15 German miles = I degree =: 60 geographical miles. 
The above is the average €tennan mile, which variee slightly in diffeient States ; 

I Prussian meile = 4-681 English miles. 
1 Saxon „ =: 4*66 „ 
1 Wiirtemberg,, =4-628 „ 
1 Austrian „ = d*75 „ 

WBIdHTS.^! German centner =abont ll(^lbs.or 1 cwt. EQg.=r 50kilos. 

1 German pfnnd = l-i^ib. Englidi =50graai«. 

(N.B.—AU we^i^ on the Qevman «ailw«fB are now tgr kilograms.) 

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. ]fcOIJfB8 70 OBRMAXT.— Seellitiof Stewneri tad JUiU to BrtMw't 

Vontmental Guide. 

From London, by South-Eastern or London, Chatham, and Dover Rail to Borer; 
thence by steamer to Ustend, and through Belgiam to Cologne (13 hours ; Frank- 
fort, 17| noiiTs) ; thence to Hambura and Berlin ; 22f hoars to Hamburg, Iiours 
to Berlin {via CSalois, 25| hours). By Flushing to Cologne in 14} hours; to Ham- 
burg in 20 hours, to Berlin in 22? hours. Or from Harwich to Iloek van Holland, 
Hanorer, and Berlin, 2G hours; Wambnrg, 25 hours; Cologne, 17 hours; Frankfort, 
22^ hours. To Cologne in 22^ hours, via Harwich to Antwerp. At Ostend direct 
Routes aftt now open whieli coniecl with chief plM«t In Bel|ianL HoOaad, and 
Germany, and with the Sl Gothard J\miul Xiiie, Ibrongli Smtwrund, lor Italy* 

See Dradxhato*s Conftnrnfal (hnde. 

Through tickets can be obtained at most of the liailway Offices, to the principal 
places in Germany, by yarious routes, avaflable for seren days and upwards. 

8T£AM£B8. — From London^ by steamer direct. To Ivotterdum from St. Katba- 
rinePt Doek, in 18 honvft. To Hamburg, 480 nilM» in 88 to 40 hours, from 
8t. Katharine's Bock; thence to Berlin, &c. To Bremen, by North Glerman 
Lloyd*s boats. To Ostend, 136 miles, for Brussels and Cologne. To Antwerp. From 
Queenborough to Flushing, in connection with the Xiond(ui| Chatham, and Dover Kail ; 
and mall trains from Flushing to Germany, vid Boztel, Wesel, and Oberhausen. 
"ftmHarwitJif by Great Eastern Company^s steamers, to Ostend, 73 miles ; Antwerp, 
140 miles; Rottcrrlam, 120 miles, 12 hours ; tin nceto Berlin and Vienna. T rom Hull 
to Bremen, 380 miles, 3G hours; uiid Hiiniburg, 370 miles: thence to Berlin. From 
Grimsby to Hamburg, ^50 miles, ^2 hours; to Kotterdam, 23U miles ; to Antwerp, 
280 mifes. From West Hartlepool to Hambnig* 

See Table of Bontes ftom London and from Berlin^ Cologne, Frankfort-on-M ain, 
Bresden, Munich, &c., to all the principal leforts on the Continent, pages 1 10 II of 

Bradshaw^s Continental Guide. 

CUSTOM HOUSE, (Zo/MrruO — The officers in Germany arc strict, but civil. 
Every article liable to duty should be declared. Silk, lace, and other articles packed 
with articles of apparel, or other witie concealed, are liable tu seizure. In Austria 
playing cards are forbidden; an onnee of tobacco and ten cigars are allowed free; 
beyond these duty is payable (tobacco being a goyemment monopoly) at the rate of 3 
florins per i kiloj^am (abont 100 cigars)^ — See lBraMaiiiit*9 ContiiUHUU Guides opposite 
the title-page. 

On lauding at a Continental port, passengers are not allowed to take more than a 
small bag on shore. The luggage is carrledto the Custom House and can be cleared 
by the Commissionaire, who will also get a vutg to the passport If required* 

BAIL WATS.— See lists of Time Tables on German raihi, in the German leetion 

of Bradshaw's Continental Gnide. On German rails 2nd class cArn'nges are snperior 
to English, and few persons travel 1st class. Usually about 5u lbs. of luggage is 
allowed free in Germany, or as much as the passenger can stow away under his seat. 
Compartmenis are reserved for ladies Ci}amen'Caiip€) and non-smokers Cfur Nicht 
Banektr), Cl^ldren vnder 8 years, fieei 8 to 10, haif-priee. 

On Prussian lineB,Bzpres8 trains take only 1st and 2nd class pasieagers. Children 

from four to ten years, half-fare. Excellent Sleeping Oars are in use in 1st and 
.3nd (Ifiss. prorided with lavatories and other conyeni^ncet. 

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On Austrian rails, passengers with 2nd dftss tickets maj changd to l0t elwnr, nppn 
paying hall a 2nd clasa fare more, or from 3rd to 2nd at the same rate. Children nnder 
ten jears half price. Smoking is not allowed in the cafri«|;etf mtrfted "Fttr 

Nicht-Rancher '* (non-smokers). 

CONVEYANCES.— Steamers nin on the Uhlne. On the Weser, from Carlshafen. 
On the Elbe, from Dresden, On the Uanube, from Donauwerth and Ecgenshurg 
C Badsbon). On the Uoselle, from TlreTet and CoMence. On Lake Constance.— Sis 
liiat of Steamers in Bradshaw*k Qmtmental Guide. 

IiUfifgagO Abroad. — Passoncrers with throngh tickets shotild have their In f^^gage 
registered. If not reiristered tin } shonM personnllv «;y])erintend the examination. 

Sclmellposten, (or Eilwagen) and MaJlepostes.— These are the mailcoadt^ 
and diligences, condocted by Goyemment officials. Fares abont l|d. per E!n|^lA 
mile. Rate of trayelling abont 8 English miles per hour at tho }'^c-<t. 

About 30 lbs. of lugga<;e are allowed free: and 20 lbs. more if paid for. Every 
package must he labelled with the owner's name and destination. The coaehes take ' 
no ontstde passengers. For list of eoaches, tee BroAhattfs Otnattentdi OmUi* . 

Conreyances, called Eztra-Post, may Ifstoally be obtained at the pett ftrfHffrii 
The copf is about 6d. per mile for 1 to 2 pcr«on5t. and double that for or 4 ftMAik 
In Anstria the tariff is higher. A moderate quantity of Ingf^ge in allowed. 

HOTELS. — Average charges — ^Table d'hote, usually at one o'clock, Ss.; Tea or 
Coffee, with meat, 2s.; Breakfast, Is.; Bed, 2s. 6d.; Attendance and light, Is. eSSL 
At the large hotels in the principal eitito there is a second table d*hdte •! AbM 
6 p.m., at rather higher prices. Porter, extra. Guide, 48. to 4s. Rd. a day. 

In Sonth Germany, the table d'hote hour is abont one o'clock, and the accom- : 
modation is generally good and moderate. In Austria there is frequently no table 
d'hdte. Fer IMS in Atttria, tse ShuMkMp's Cmtinmual QMt, page 498. 

If you Wish to bo well and thmply semred^do not ask ftir onl-of-ilW'^aj thtngL 


Germany, the Homan Gemanta, called 2)eu^cA/aii4 by the Germans, J^i?ema^n« by 
the French, is in the centre of Europe, mostly between the Ehine and "Vistula, from 
lat. 47° and 58° N., and Imig, to 20" E. It has France, Belgium, and Holland 6n 
the west; the German Uccuu (North Sea), Denmark and Jialtic Sea (Ost or East Sea) 
on flie North; Bassia, Poland, Galicia, Anstria, and Hungary on the East; Swltser- 
land, the Alps, and Italy on the South. Though politically excluded from Germany 
since ISfTB, several of the Anstrinn provinces are part of Germany in English popular 
estimation, as being German in race and langua^, and> to some extent, in customs. 

It is watered by the rtren Bhine (ancient mmug) now entirely Oei^an, Weste 
(ViturgisJr Elbe (li^6>s), Vistula (ITeiesAss/in German), Main {%!nuf;,Neckar,Moldau, 
and Danube ( Donau in German, Latin DamUfimJ. The Main is the general boondaiy 
of North and South Germany. 

The Bhenish provmces of Prussia and Bavaria, &c., west of the Rhine, are watered 
by the Mdsdf or MoaCUe (MoieUa), For the ceded prorinees of Alsace and Lorraine, 
now annexed to Germany, see Bradshw*t Han^Book to Belgium and the Rhine. 

"With respect to natural features, Germany is divided into four regions. Pirst — ^The 
"North region, alow saady plain lying along the Baltic, extending inland as far as Diissel- 
durf, Hanover. Magdeburg, Berlin, and Dresden; the highest part of which, the 
^«i|^urger w aid, Is about 1,000 feet abore the sea. That seetlon of it west of tBe 

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^be IS barcj on the other side, trees and lakes are found. 2o4<»Tfae monntain 
region of Central Germany, including the Harz, Kiesengebirgej &c. Srd — The high 
land of ilie Upper Danube, and of the Bohmerwald, 1,400 to 3,000 feet above the sea. 
4th — TheTyrolese and Swi^s, or Rhietian and ^oric Alps, beyond (see Bradshaw*9 
Mtmd'Book to Switzerkmd and Tyrol). 

The second region above mentioned, includes the Harm ranye^ 3,740 feet higb At the 
Brocken; various peaks up and down the Kliine and Keckar» in West Geimany, from 
lySOO leet at the Siebengebirge bills, near Bonn, to 4,600 feet In tbe BUck Forest; th» 
Spesssrt, Bongebirge, TfaiiringerWald, Frankenwald, aad Ficbtelbirge mountains, of 
Central Germany, 1,800 to 8,000 feet high; and !a Bast Qennanj, the 8pitsberg and' 
lUiwitftein^ in Saxon Switserland, 1,300 feet to 2,600 f«efe ikigh; the Erzgebirge rang?, 
MtliaBieaeBgebffgaiMr IHattts* lfoia(italDs» on ^a twideri of Bobeinia ^nd 
(stKtching away towards the Carpathians), of wMeh the higlMit potel, as well af iba 
Ughest tn Qemany, la Am Stkmlf»ps»i 5,380 faat alxmi «e» loml. In this quarter 
the great decisire battles of the war of 1866 weva foof bt. Tbe hiUs of tbis '•8'^ 
we flUefly graalto and gneise, wHb miiies of basalt, tufa, and slate; cspTered often 
^tb pive forests; and prodndng iron, lead» sUvar, copper, zinc, blnnsCb, and other 
loetab. Coal is found in Eiast and West Oermanj. Bohemia abounds in ralnable 
beds of eoal-^he Steinkohlen or regular ooalt and the Brannkoblen or lignite ; 
the latter of which is much used in Central and North fiermanj. Coal is alto found 
m 8^nria and Delmatia. Between the Bhine and the Moselle are thte bills of the 
Hart and Hoeh Wald, in continuation of the Yosges ranges 2,000 to 3,000 feiet high. 
Stieler's Hand Atlas is useful for studying the geology of the countij. 

The most picturuquedUtricta are the Black Forest; the Franconiaa and Thuringian 
Forests; the Harz Mountains; Saxon Switzerland, near Dresden; and the Bavarian 
Highlands. The Salskammer-Gnt belongs to the Tyrolese seetion. 

The principal Baths are Alexanderbad, Alexisbad, Baden-Baden, Brilckenan, 
Caanstadt, Carlsbad, Franiensbad, Homburg, Kissiagen, Kreuth, Msrieobad, 
Pyrmonty Teplits, Wannbmnn, Wiesbaden, Wlldbad. Watsrinff Heees, on the 
North Sea and Baltic — ^Nordemey, Heligoland, Kiel, IVayemttude, Putbus, and 

Citiss and places notic€ahU for their Architecture, Churches, and Public Buildings, 
or modem, are — ^Berlin, Dresden, Ldpslc, Wilrzbnrg, Nnrembeig, Ulm, 
Regensberg (jEtatlsbon), Angaburg, Munich, Prague, Vienna. At Liibeck, Dantslc, 
Stendal, Brandenburg, &c^ some good examples of carved hridh are seen. 

Old Free Cities and Hanse T^oiros— -Frankfort, Hamburg, Bremen, Libeck, Dantsie, 

for Palaces and Cb/feclioRs^Berlin, Potsdam, Dresden, Cassel, Munich and the 
Walhalla C«ipecially), Stuttgart, and Vienna. 

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Fur notices of Hekiclbergi Tnuikfort, Cologne, see Bradshaw'$ Hcmd'Book 

io Belgium and the Rldm. 

Ancient Germany, or Germania, accorJinp to Tacitu5, comprised the Ingtzvones in 
the north, the Hermiones in the centre, and the Istctvonc*, Later Koman writers 
inclnde numeroiu tribes, as the iXmibfi, Saxomu^ CkoMci^ AmgU^ Ttmimu* in the aiNrtb; 
Sigamhriy Aiemannit Martin &c., on the Rhine; the Sutvi (Swabians), Cktnuei, 
Bructeriy BurgundioneSy Catti^ Gothini, Ac, east and west* One of the most po^^erful 
of these tribes was the Herunei, or Cherusci, who, under the Qerman champion 
Anninius, the "liberator of Germany*' (at Tacitns calli him), dofeatod tlie Boinan 
legions of Yarns, in the year a.d. 9, in the Teutobui^r Wald, at the source id 
the Ems ( Ami3ia\ and Lippc {Luppi'a). This Arminius, or TTtrmann^ is the fnvoTirite 
hero of old Gcriniin history ; and is represented at some places by the Hcrmaxisaule, 
or Irminsaule, an armed soldier on a pillar, which became a i»ort of Teuton idoL 
He waf flnallr defeated, a year or two ikttr, by Tlberiiw't nephew, CsBiar G«raianiea% 
wIm> obtained from tiieio Tidories liii snxnamo* 


The f onnder of the Qennaii Empire waa— 
A.D* 800. Carolot Magnva, Karl der Groaie, or Charlemagne, wiiom the French 
call head of the Carlovingian line ; emperor of the Franks (in Franconia, 
etc.), erowned at Rome, and who reigned at Aachen, or Aix-le-Chapelle. 
He added a second head to the eagle, making the doable eagle, for the 
united empirei of Gemany and Bonie. 

814. Lotiii Le B^nnalre. 
840. LothaireL 
848. IioniB n., the Germanic 

875* Chariot the Bald. 

Carloman, the Bayarian. 
Louis III., the Saxon. 

881. Charles the Fat. 

887. Arnulph, of Carinthia. 

889. Louis IV., the Child; the last ol the CarloviDgian line. From his time 

the Empire became elective. 

911. Conrad I., of Franconia, head of the Saxon line. 

918. Henry I., the Fowler, (der Vogebteller), the first Duke of Saxony. 

936. Otho I., the Great, of Saxony; who conquered Italy, and was crowned at 
Rome, 960. Henceforth rae German Empire was styled the ^Holy 
Roman," the Bmpeier, '^Kaiser" (Omar), and the Emperor's son, Eisff 
of Rome." 

978. Otho II. 

983. Otho III. 

1002. Henry II., the Saint. 

1024. Conrad II.. the Salic, or Frank (of Franconia). He established th« 
Trcuga Dei, ov Peace of God, and incorporated Bnisnndy. 

«*9. Henry III., the Black. 

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1056. Henry IV. !!c submitted to the Pope, at Chiiopwi, 1077. 

1 106. Hcnn V., niiin icd Matilda, daagbter of Henry I., of England. 

1125. Lothaire II., tiie ISaxon. 

1138. Conrad III,, the first of the House of Hoheii.^tautien, or Swabia, Ifenry 
the Lion, of the House of Wuel/] was a candidate for the Imperial throne 
ii|i^nst Conrad, who actoallj succeeded, and was a HolienttanilcMi, of 
Weiblingtn. Hence rose the war-cries of their respective partisans, 
oRlled Guelphs and Glubeline^^ {or Ghibelines) in Itnly-, where the 
Guclphs came to represent the popular or Italian and Papal sidei as against 
Imperial and foreign influence. 

1152. Prederlck I., or Barharo$sa. The Hanse Towns established. 

two. Henry VI., who sanctioned the captivity of Richard Cosur de Lion. 

1197. Philip. 

1106« Ollio lY., tbe Proud, of Brunswlclc. 
ISIS. Frederick II. 

1290. Conrad lY., who died 1254, when the Grand Interregnum occorred; the 
aaeeeision being disputed by William of Holland, Kiehttrd of Cornwall 
(brother to Henry ITI., of England), and Alphonso of Castile. 

1272. Undolph I., Count of Ilabsburg, or //op^ftur^, founder of the Austrian line. 
l?91. Adolphus, Puke of Nassau. 

1298. Albert I., of Austria. Bwitzerland became independent, under the half 

fabulous hero, William Tell. 

1303. Henry VII.. of Luxemburg, head of the House of Luxemburg and Bavaria. 

1314. Louis v., of Bavaria. 

1347. Charles IV., of Luxemburg, Kiot? of Bohemia. In 135G the Constitution 
of the Empire was proclaimed in tlie Gohku Bully wliich regulated the 
priTileges and duties of the Electoral College. The Electors were the 
Archbishops of Mainz (Mnyence), Cologne, and Treves ; the Klnpj of 
l^ohemia ; the Elector Palatine ; Electors of Brandenburg, Bavaria, aiul 
vSaxonyj afterwards increased by tbe Llcctor ot Brunswick or Hanover 

1978. Wcnceslas of the Luxentburg line (deposed 1400). The Hussite Reformat 
tiOD commenced. 

1400. Bupert, of Barana. 

1410. JosBus, of Moraria, who reigned three months. 

1411. Siglsmund, of Ltixembarg, King of Bohemia. John Hnss, exeented by 

the Council of Constance, In spite of the Emperor's saib conduct; 
followed by the Wars of the Hussites. Printing Invented, 1496. 

U37. Albert XL, of Austria, of the Hapsburg line. 
1439. Frederick III, 

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1493, Maximilian I, who married Mary of Burf^nndy. The Reformation began 
1517, uader Luther. Utirmauy divided iuio Giiclei*, 1501-12. 

1519, Ckarles Y. The era of the Eeformation. Protestant Xieagoe of Smak&lde 

(Schmalkalden), 1531. Death of Luther, 1546. 
li)50. Pcrdinand I., the last whose election was confirmed by the Pope. 
1564. Maximilian II. War wiih the Turks. 
1576. Budolph II., the astronomer and mathematician. 
1612. Matthias. War with the Turks. 

1^X9. Ferdinand II. Thirty Years' War begini; hit conwetitor being the 
Elector Palatine, Fred. V. OuBtavu Adoipims killed «k LtitMn, 1688. 

WallAnatein assassinated, 1634. 

16S7. J?^rdinand III. The Thirty Years' War ended, 1648, with the Peace of 
Westphalia, and the reconstitution of the Empire* Aliac^ QS^e^ to 

Fiiuice; I'omeratiia to Sweden. 

1657. Leopold I. iSiege of Vienna, by the Turks, 1683. The Elector of Bran- 
denburg declared first King of Prusiu, as FVedeiick I., 1701. ftftitle of 

BtenfafiSa, I'm, 

1705. Joseph I. War of Spanish Succession. 

1711. Charles YI., the last male of the Hapsburg line. Peace of Utrecht. 1713. 
' His daughter, Maria Theresa, succeeded to the Austrian crpwn^ 1740, 
and died 1780. 
1740. Charles YII., of Bavaria. 

17i/(. Francis I., Bake of Loncaine, hu.^band of Maria Theresa, and father of 

"Nfarie Antoinette. Seven Years* War, with Frederick the Great, 1766-63. 

1765. Joseph II., of Hapshur^-Lorraine. Partition of Poland, 1772. 
1790. Leopold XL, Duke of Tuscany, brother of Joseph II. 

1792. Francis II. ; who. in 1806, re^ij^ned the title of Emperor of Germany, nntl 
took the title of Francis I., Ernperor of Austria, when the (Jonfederatiou 
of the Khinc was framed by Napoleon. He died 1835. 

1606. Battle of Jena. Conjederuiion of the Uhihe^ formed by Napuieuu. Elector 

of Saxony created King. 
1807* Grand Duke of Wftitembeiy created a King. 
1810-11. North Qennany inoorporaled witk France. 
1818. Battle of Leipsic 

lili. Germanic Confederation (or Bund) established. The Elector fifKOrer 
(our George III.) became King of Hanover. 

1816. First Diet of the Confederation, 
1818. Zollverein constituted. 

1848. Archduke John, Vicar of the Empire. 

1849. King Fred. Will. IV. of Prussia dedines tke fimpire, 
1851. The German .&aac/ re-established. 

1862. Bismarck, Prussian Chancellor or Premier. 
1863* 34 Dec, The Dannewerke taken. 

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nmoB'iTOTXOii* sdct* 

1864. 30 Oct, J^attle of Duppei fought and the Elbe Duchies, i.e. Schleswig- 

Holstein, Lanenberg^ and part of Jn^and, occupied hj the 
Pnisaians and Anstriaaa. 

1806. 15 June. Seven Week9' fFar begins between Pnuala apd Aailrla. 

1866. 3 July. Battle of Koni^cratz or Sadowa. 
24 Aug. German Bund hissolved. 

80 Aug. Treaty of Prague, with Austria, by Which ah9 agrees to the 
diflsolntion of the Bund, to her exclosioik from (Snrmaiiy, and 

to the cession of Venetia to Italy. 

6 Sept» Hanover. Ilesse-Cassel. and Frankfort,aDaexed toPklUais. (^hA 

ex-Kiug of TTanox'er died 187^1.) 

1867. Mar., Apr. First Parli;uncr.t of Xorth Germany meets at Berlin. 

1#70. l^kQ Franco- Gtrman War. France declared war 15th J uly, 1870. 

Her poUqr urns to oeotraliae SonthOennany by a rapid advattce 
into Hease, over-run Bhenish Fftnaila, seize Frankfort, march 

through Westphalia towa^d^^ Hanover and Denmnrk (assumed 
to be friendly), and reconstruct the German Confederation; but 
Iheae IntentLons were frustrated by the hearty adhesion of 
Sou^ Cktmatij, and the anterior organisation and tactics of 
the German forces. The victories of the Crown Prince at 
Weisseniberg and Worth, 4th and 6th August, were followed 
by the capitulations of Se4an, 1st September, and o| Metz, 27th 
Ctetober, thesarrender of Napoleon (who was sent to Wilhelmi- 
hohe), and a tmiform scries of German successes, ending with 
1871- IJA^o the occupation of Paris, March 1st. King William had been 

elected Uerrnan Emperor at Versailles, 18th January. A 
Treaty of Peace, signed on iuth May, provided for the cession 
of Alsace and Lomine> within anew Franeo-German boundary 
along the course of the river Seille and the Vosges mountain-, 
including Metz, Strasburg, Colmar, and Mnlhonse ; the pay- 
ment of five milliards of franco, or 200 millions sterling, for 
war escpenses, and the occupation of seventeen de^rtments in 
Northern France till the settlement of the indemnity. In this 
campaign the Germans took 445, 7G9 prisoners of war (nearly 
the whole French army), 51) eagles, 20 flaj^s, 5,817 cannon 
(1,059 from Turis), and 171 mitrailleuties. The German losses 
were ISe^OOO. 

fflfar. The Emperor-King, WilL I., eaten Berlin In state ; opens the 

first Imperial Reichstag on 81st ; and keepe his 75th birthday 
on 22ncL Bismarck created a Prince (Furstj not Prinz). 

1^ Mar. Nnpoleoo leaTca Wilhelmshdhe lor Chislehnrst, where he dies 


1878. . July. Jesuits expelled from Germany. About 30,000 of the inhabitants 
' of Alsace take the option and retire into France. 

, Sl Nov. King of Saxony celebrate- hi^ Golden Wedding (50th year). 
Dec. Gaming tables at Baden-Baden, Ems, &c., shut up. 
1873. 5 Sept. France pays the balance of the indemnity ; tmJ^ "Hans 

finally quit the French soil on the I6th. ^ • ^ 

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1874» 18 July. Attempted AflBaannation of Bismarck, at Xiidngm« 

1878. May and June. His life twice attempted by aoiaaliii. 

Jane. Concrross of Berlin. 

1879. The Emperor celebrates his Golden Weddlnjc. 
1884. Conference of the three Emperors at SkiemicTice. 
1886. Bismarck celebfates his 70th birthday. 

1868. Frederick 1. sneceeded bis fatber» and died 1889, 

1889. William II. 

1890. Bismarck dismissed. 

1891. Death efMoltke. 


Which was tinaliy constituted 4th May, 1871. ronsists of the States mentioned 
below; baring a total Population of 49^ miiUons, and an Area of 212,850 square 
Engildi miles. About lOi milHoiis and 48,000 squne mUet belong to the SMk 
(renROa Sitttes; and 1,564,355 population, and 0,2.50 square miles to the eeded pro- 
▼inces of A&aoe and Lorraine. Austria, now shut out, bronf^ht a German spe.nkinnj 
population of nine millions to the old Bund. Of the total iiiillif)ns in the Enqnrc 
(1690;, 31 were P rute^tanti^, 17 j( Catholics, and 006,000 Jews. The national colours 
are blaek* white, and red. 

/. SUUts o/tht Empire, Population (I890> 

1. Kingdom of Prussia and Lanenbntg 29,957 ,.')f; 7 

2. „ Bavaria 5,594,082 

8. „ Saxonv 3,502,684 

4. „ Wurteiinberg 2,030,522 

5. Grand Duchy of Baden 1,687.807 

6. „ „ ITc^^e 992,883 

7. „ „ Mecklenhurg-Schwerin 578,342 

8. „ „ Saxc-Weimar 326,091 

9. ., „ MectdeBbnrg-Strelits 97,978 

10. '„ „ Oldenburg .^.54.9(58 

11. Dachy of Brunswic k 403,773 

12. „ Saxe-Meiningen 223,832 

13. „ Saxe-Altenburg 170,864 

14. 8axe-C6bmrg*Gotha • 208,818 

15. „ Anhalt 271,963 

16. Principality of Schwarzbnrpj-RudoTstftdt 85,863 

17. |, Schwarzburg-Sonderhausen 75,510 

18. „ Waldeck 67,281 

19. Benss (older line) 02,754 

20. „ Reu9s (yountrrr) »•.«.....••.• 119,811 

21. „ Schaumburg-Lippc 39,163 

22. „ Lippe 128,495 

23. Citv-Repnblic of Lftbeclc 76,485 

24. „ „ Bremen.......................................... 180,443 

25. Hamburjj 622,630 

28. Ali^acQ (Eisass) and Lorraine (Lothringen).,.........,...... 1,603,506 

Total (1885) 48,84^.W Total (1890) 49,428,470 

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II* Stains Annexed to Prussia 
Kingdom of Hanover. 
Electorate of Hesse-Cassel. 

Duchy of NasMu, and > now eonsftitating the province o| Hesse> 

LandgraTiateofHesse-Homberg,) Namn. 

Free City of Frankfort. 

Duchy of Schleswig-IIolstein, formerly held by the King of Denmark. 
III. South Germany consists of the following states, south of the Biver Main, with 
a total popnlation of 10 millionB (as abore)— 
Kingdom of Bavaria. 
Kingdom of Wiirtteraberg, 
Chrand Duchy of Baden. 
Grand Duchy of Hesse-DarmBtadt. 
Tlia Duchy of Lnxemburg and of Limbnrg, held by the King of Holland, ceased to 
be a member of the Confederation upon its cussolution, 1867. In Germany, 
*'Fiirsteu" are princes; and Prinzen are heads or cadett or younger sons of 
princely houses, or sons of Kings. 
Iv. JPopmiaiim of Chief Towns (1890) 

Beriln 1,679,244 Leipsie 868,272 I Daniiff .•..••.•••••...120,459 

Hamborg.. 323,923 Cologne 281,273 Strassburg •••• 123,499 

Konigsberg 161,528 i Chemnitz 138,955 

Magdeburg 202,325 i Nuremberg 142,403 

Breslau 385,174 

Munich 348,317 

Dresden 276,085 

Elberf eld-Bannen. 242,078 
Frankfort 179,850 

[Vienna 1,364,548 

Budapest 606,884 

Prague 184,109] 

Hanover 165,499 

Stuttgart 189,659 

Bremen 195,684 

V. Ei§ai$ (Alsace) and Lotkringen (Lorraine), with a population of 1,603,506 (1890), 

and an area of 5,800 square miles, now form a province nnneaeed to Germany. 

Strassburg is the capital. Its revenue when part of France was 3^ millions 

sterling. Chief towns are Strassburg (pop. in 1890, 123,400), Miihlhamen 

(76,968), Metz (60,194), Colmar (30,399). About 1 1 millions sterling were 

deducted from the indemnity of £200,000,000 paid by France, on account of 

102 German miles of railway handed over. The official language in all cases is 


VI. — The Constitution is based on that of the former Confederation of the North; 
and under it the States are represented by a Reichsrath of 58 delegates, 17 
being Prussia, and a Reichstag of 397 members, of whom 236 are Prussian. 
The general affairs of the Army and Navy, Finances, Commerco, Railways, Posts, 
and Telegraphs arc regulated by Committees. The Emperor is General-in-Chief. 
On a peace footing the Army (1891) is fixed at 401,055 men (20,440 officers), with 
93,900 horses; divided into 173 Infantry regiments of 3 battalions each, and 
93 Cavalry regiments of 5 squadrons each, witli 10 battalions of chasseurs, and 
43 regiments of artillery. It can be raised to 2^ million men in war. Service is 
obligatory on every one — 3 years in the Army, 4 in the Reserve, 5 in the Landwehr, 
Or 13 years in all. The Navjf consists of 78 steamers, 31 being iron-clads. The 

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ZollTerein, or Customs Union, covers nearly the whole emj)ire. There are 3,59^ 
merchant ships, of 1,320,720 tons, belonging to the Qerman ports. Wtlhelmahiifai 
is a large and growing Naval port, in the North SetL, provided with docks, basins, 
workshops, and barrack« ; rin l Kiel and Danzig are Naval ports in the Baltic. 
There is a Naval school for tiie; sup])ly of cadets at Hamburg. All the works are made 
in Germany J and German coal is used. The Post-Office monopoly, formerly held by 
the Prince of Thnrn and Taxis, was bought up. The Railway system, taking 
in the Anstro-Hungarian Empire, is shown in HendscheVs Telegraph (Ger- 
man), or hy t1i« German. Prussian, and neighbouring sections, in Prfnlshaw's 
Continental Guide. About 27,000 miles in the German Empire were m work, 1891. 
The revenue of the Empire, in 1891, was 65 millions sterling, mainly from taxes 
on tobacoo, spirits, sugar, salt, customs, post-office, &c. Debt, 02 millions. 

Decorations. — The German States have ahov( :^oo orders and decorations (11 ^ in 
Prussin"^ : or four times more than all the rest of Europe. Titles are very common. 
In South Germany it is polite to call every well-dressed man "Herr von ** ; arid 
every woman Enm em ' ; and every lady is addressed " Gnidige Fran." 


The progress of Pnuda, now the paramonnt state in Germany, is dram bjtbB 
feUoiffiag ngurest-^At the death of Frederick 11.(1471), its area was 726 sqnare 

German nufes; at the death of Frederick the Great (1786), 3,640 square German 
miles; and in 181K), 0.395 square German miles, or 1:^7,000 square English miles: 
with 30 millions of popuiatiju, of whom one-seventh weie annexed in 186G. Of 2^ 
(In 1886) 18 j millions were Protestants, ^ Boman Catholiesi 234 are G^jqpaSr 
speaking and 3| Polish. Bevenite (1891), 79} millions; debt| 289 niilUoi 


The succession of Prassian Sovereigns is as follows:^ 

Slbotoss ov Brandenburg. 

1417 Frederick I. 

1440 Frederick II., ot lihe Iron T«e4h. 
1471 Achilles. 
14S6 John Cicero. 

J499 Joachim (Nestor) I. 
1536 Joachim (Hector) II. 
1571 John George. 

1598 Joachim Frederick. 

1608 John SiglKmund. 

1619 George William. 

1640 Frederick William, the Dreat 


1688 Frederick TIT., who bec^iae King 
1701, as Frederick I> 

King 8 of Prussia. 

1701 Frederick I. (formerly Elector 

Frederick III). 
1713 Frederick William I. 
1740 Frederick II., the Great. 
1786 Frederick William II. 

1799 Frederick William 111- 
1S40 Frederick William IV. 
1861 William L,elecLe»i Gtr man Emperor 

at Versailles, 18th January, 


Leaving the political divisions, Nvith Germanij consists of Oldenburg, Hanover, 
Brunswick, Bremen, Holstein, Hamburg, Llibeck, Mecklenburg, and Pmssia, Including 
Brandenburg, Pomerania, and Silesia. 

Central Germany. — Rhenish Prussia and Bavaria. Alsace and Lorraine (see Brad* 
shaw s JJand-Book to Belgium and tha Jihinejj Nassan. Hesse- Darm&lad^i JAj^P^f 
Waidecky HegsC'Caifsel} Schwarzbnrg, Reuss, Anhalt, and Saxony. 

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South Germany. — Wurttemberg and Bavaria. Under the new arrangement, 
Lichtenstein and Austria are exclnded from the Germany of the present daj. 

As a general mle. North and Central Germany are Protestant; South Qermanj it 
Catholic . About 505,000 are Jews. 

The Ten Circlei of which the okl Empire was composed (as coafltitnted 1501-ld)| 
Inelitdiiig 800 to 400 Independent dnkes, coiint8» barons, prelates, were — 1. AnttrU; 

2, Burgundy (Belginm, Luxemburg, etc.); 3, Prussia and Pomerania; 4, Westphalia; 
5, Electoral Hhine (Cologne, Mainz, the raLuinru i; G, Upper TJhinc TIo^-c ra> r]); 
7, Swahia ( Wiirtemberfr and BadeTi); 8, Franconia (B:iml)ercr, Wiirzburir. Raireuth, 
and ]S u rem berg) ; 9, Lower 6axuny (Magdeburg and iioistciu); 10, Upper baxouj 
(from Anhalt to ForaenuikO« 

These old imhm are reeogniaed is Bniit Moriti AzucU'e eong— 

Was ist des Dentschen Vsterlondf 
Ist's Prmuunlandf ist's Schwabenlandf 
Ist's, wo am Rhein die Bebe Miiht? 
Ist'Sy wo am Belt die Move zieht? 

OneinI neiu! nein! Sein Yaterlaud mnis grosser sein, 

Sein Yakerland mvsa ^sser lein. 

Was ist des Dentschen Vaterland? 
Ist's Baierlandf iat^a JSUmiimdt 
Gewiss ist es das OeUtmiekj 

An Siegen uud an Ehren reich ? 

Oneiu! neinl nein! &c., Sec. 

Was ipt tlo> Deutschen Vaterland? 
Ist's Pommerland? Westphalenjandf 
Ist's, wo der Sand der jbumn weht ? 
Ist's, wo die Donau braaiend geht? 
OneinI neinl neinl &c.,&c. 

Was ist del Dentschen Taterland? 
So nenne mir das grosse Land. 

Ist's Land der Schv-pi-pr') i^t'R Tyrol? 
Das Land und Yuiii getiel mir wohl. 

Dochnein! nein! nein! &c., &c. 

Was ist des Deutschen Vaterland? 
So nenne endllch mir das Land. 

** So weit die deutsche Zunge klingt « 

Und Gott im Illniniel Lieder singt", 

Das soil es seiu, das soli es sein! 

Das, wackrcr Dentschcr, nenne dein, das nenne dein. 

Das ganzc Deutschland soli es sein. 
O Gott vom Himmel sieh' darein ! 
Und gieb nns iichten dentschen ICnth 
Dasa wir ee lieben treu und gut. 

Das soil es spin, da-; soil es sein! 
Das ganze DeutscMand soU es sein. 

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Littrature. — •* German literature (sajs De Quiueey), ^^"^ compass, variety, and 
extent, far exceeds all others as a depository for the current accumulations of 
knrnvledge." One proof of this is the number of books published every year, com- 
pared with the annual product of France or England. In 1890, 18,875 new works 
(inclnding those published in Austria and Switzerlaud) \vere issued. Its intellectual 
activity is diffused over the wliole territory, not concentrated in one great capital; 
owing to the fraternal rivalry of several independent German -Bpeukitig States. 
One conspicuous feature is its great "originality and boldness of speculation, and 
the character of masculine austerity and precision impressed upon their scientific 
labours by the philosophy of Leibnitz and Wolff heretofore, and by tlie severer 
philosophy of modem days.** Lathef^s Bible appeared 1530. Some of the leading 
writers since that date are Leibnits (died 1716), Lcsiing (1781), Biirger (1794), 
Herder (1803), Schiller (1805), Wklind (1813), Jean Paul Richter (1825), Voss 
(162G), Hegel (1831), Goetbe (1638), A. W. Sehlegel (1845), Tieck (1853), Heine 
(1856),RaDke (1887). 

Of the commonest German words occnrrinp as Names of Places, Rij^tis of Inns, Sc., 
with their sign ificat ion. (bee also Vocabulary of Phrases, at tiie end of the Special 
Edition of mMam*9 Caniinenial Guide.') 












Pleasure j^round 




Meadow, Glade 












Bath, Watering place 












Hill, Mountain 








































Wild Boar 



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V auii| v^u^ erii 


vrround, Lrlen 

uood, Lstate 



TT 1 X 



Holy, Saint 










Court, Farm 












Hut (Chftlet) 









Rock, Cliff 
















■»«■ m_. 







Mots, Moor 




Mil lister 













Pass, Passport 





" hana 

Parsonage ' 



PI at 7. 

Place, Sqaare 

















Castle, Palace 
















Peak, Point 






Stone ' 








Street, Road 


Seat, Chair 



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/ V9 %M A \ 



V IcU 

V HI I le 


X cicn 

» ai^cii 

i^amage^ vart 

^ \_f LA 1 V> A 


v\ aid 

J. nux 

V HI ley 


>> uiiiuiiri 

f ugnaaago 

A 11 i 111 ftJ 

w asser 

Til nvin 
J. 11 U.1 ill 

. . i O W CI 

> » eg 


T'rRii hrt 

JL 1 d Li Ul> 

Cluster of Grapes 

TT eiu 


TT liW 

(Pourboire, drmk-raone\ ." ) 


TT uxva 

* Money given to 



Servants, &c. 


W uCI. 



1 Above 








The vowels are protionticed nearly in 1m ( nch, except u, which, when long, is 
English '^oo," and when short, is sounded as in * batcher" and a which when short is 
broader andslUiekto iluui tlie Freacfh otf English short '* 4 " :~ 

a is EngUsli lb late: 





eu is English **oy* 
ie n '^e** long 
6 is like "i '* in fir 
ii „ French «u** 


h, alter a VjOwel» lengthens it. 

bj d, at the end of a syllable or word, are pronounced respectively p and t ; c, like tsr 

exceptions, the consonants ore nearly as m English. 


The accent, in dissyllables, is usually on the penultimate; in4S|Mfa6fs verb^' 
their derivatives, it is on the first syllable-^.^. ab^nehmen. 

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The capital of Prussia, and of the new German 
Empire. Population {Dw,, 1880), 1,»78,2M, with 
tbe environi. 

HOTBLS.— Royal, a firat-rate hotel for all classes 
of tr»Tdlen; exceUent I^Uth cniaine. 

Hotel Kaiaerbor, -vast, lliafei^last hotel, wall 

iltnated, deservedly recommMided. Lord Beaeoni* 
field's residence at the Congress of 1878. 

Central liotel, facing tbe Central Statloa,Fried- 


Monopol Hotel, aitnated oppoalte the ttatton, 
FrledifebetrtMe. See Adn. 
Hotel de Rustle, exedlent firtt-daia hotel, mil 


Hotel de Rome, one of the largest and beat 
lot^a in the capital. 

Hotel de 1* Bnvope^ TanbMiatr., 16, Sue tltnation : 
DOderataehaiget; Bngllih and Fmieh apoken. 

Hotel d'An^leterre, Place an der Banaflademle, 
lituated in the finest part of the town. 

Hotel Continental; St. Petersburg; Grand 
lotel; dn Pare; dn IJ^ord; Meinhardt's ; Imperial ; . 
JndeB; Adler; Kronprtns; iSaxe; Hagdebnrg; 
lemfkow, 4c. 

Pension Kahrn, 97, Zlmmerstrasse. 

Restauxamt: Bauer, in Unter den Linden, 26. 

DxosCBKua: 1 or 2 persons, in 2Dd class carriage, 
10 pf. for i how ; fori hour, 1 mk. ; 1 hour, 3 mka.; 
or tttlbs. luggage, 26 pf . In Ist class carriage, for 
I hour, 1 mk. ; for erery i boor alter, AO pf. From 

the sutlona, w pf. aioie. Double fan fmni 11 
p.m. to 7 (summer) or 8 (winter)ajn. At the exit 

fron) thp railway stations an official (Schutanami) 
liauUs the traveller a ticket with the number of a 
droschky on it, and the porter(Gcpacktriiger) takes 
the packacea to the Tehide, reeetTing 25 pf . for 
one package, with proportionate reduetion for a 
number. In the cabs, 221b. Is allowed free ; up to 
i^m., 25pf4 up to 1101b., 60pf., andaoon; doge, 
26 pf. 

Pmtatb Casbiaoms is to 20 marks per day; 
half-day slightly dearer. Trinkgeld: 1 to S marks. 

Omnibctses ply from one end of the city to th« 
other, and nbo from the subnrbs to places S or 
4 miles off. i arcs average 10 and 20 pf. Tkax- 
WATS (Pffsrdebahn): Ticket received from the 
conductor must be kept to the end of the journey. 
Get in and out on the right side. SXEAMBU tO 
Straku, Potsdam, and Spandau. 

The Stadtbahn (city railway), on arches, runs 
through the town from east to west, and is la 
connection with the Ringbahn which runs round 
the city, nnltfng all the sUtions. (The i^to^- 
Ringbdhn is a tramway). 

PuBUG WoasHir : St. George's English Church, 
in the Monbijon Park. American Congregational 
Chapel, Junkerstrassc. 

Post-Opficb: 60. KSnlgsstrasse, and 19 tO M; 
Spandanerstrasse, 26 boor* fh>m London. 

TuxoUAra: Oberwallstr. 4a, open day and 
night, aod at all the PostHi»ac«s. SubUcnuMMi 
wires to tbe great towns. 

Digitized by Gobgle 



Itinf.uap.t JiouTEs FAOM tlKniix: For list of 
those, to principal places iu Europe, see Brad- 
Mhtm't CwtiiteHtal OuUe, 

Thsatbbs: Open generally at ({80. 0|»mBo«a« 

in the Unden. Boyal SchauspielUuns, In Schiller 
riatz. DcutschGs Theater, Schumanii-strasBe; 
Berliner Theater, Cbarlottcn-strasac. 
Funuc Gardens: all near the Thiergarten. 

Sights and Objects or Notice in and around 
Berlin— (a small 1^ for smn^. For proper days 

andtinu s, s^c■ tlie "Tagstelegrapb," or "Berliner 
Freindenblatl, " at the rates N.H.— Tlie worths of 
Kaulbach, Baocli, and tichuorr are to be seen at 

Ifailifi CluulottenbiugMaaeoleiiintBoyalPalaoe, 
Zoological Qardens, and most other coUeeUoos. 

Stmdenti The Old and Haw Boyal Ifnwnm, of 

pictures, engravings, sculpture, antiqultlea, Ac; 
Bans Souci Fountains (and on Thursilays). 

Monday: Count Redcm'a Picture Gallery 
(Gemaldcgaleric). The National Gallerjf of 
ilodern Pictures (1 ' to 8). I^bd othibr Royal 
ttnseuma' orrv not open on Monday. SSoologieal 

Mfuscuiu. in the Unirersitj-. 

Tuesday: The Rnven^ Gallery, Landwirth- 
sclmftliches Museum (Agricultural Museum). 

Wfilnesdatf: Stcmwarte (Observatory)^ ^^f^' 
iiiiLii (Arsc'iuU) ; Christian Museum. 

Thursday: Post Office Museum; Landwiilh- 
•dhaftlichMMaaeom; BotaolealMaaeaiS; Betttb- 
Scbinkel Ifttieom, in tlti» TeehnUnha HMMhttIa 

at Charlottenburg. 

Friday: Raven^ Picture Gallery. 

Saturday: Sternwarte, Koyal Musetini, Mincra- 
log:ical Mxiseum, at the Musc-um flir Nutiukuiulc. 

Other Siquts arc Murkiuchcs Museum ; Kuust- 
Qewerbe Jjlaseum (Applied Arts); Bl^rse, or 
Exchange; Boyal Foundry (Eisengicsserei); Rcnz 
Circus; House of Lords (ITerrciihaus), in Lcjp- 
ziirnr-strasse, Qext the Parliament House of the 
German Beichstag; near it is the Deputies* House 
(Abgeordnetenbans) $ InTaiidenhans (Military 
Hospital); Kammergericht or Supreme pourt, 
Viuden-strasse; War Office (Krlcg^mlnlsteriura), 
Lcipzigcr-strasse; ^ar^et House, Karl's-strasse ; 
iloyai Mews(HaratlUe); ^oyal i^int ^2^|inze)^ 

[Sec. 1. i' 

j Royal Porcelain Factory; Ranch-Museum i"*^ 
Academy of Music; Tumludle (Gyimia8iaia)|^i^ 
Frlnaen-atraiae; Cellnlar FHaon (ZeUengeflfaqNSI 
niaa); prandtnbttrg Gate; Thlerg^**«M ^mm^ 

other Parks ; Statue of Victory, in Ki. 
Hagen's bronze Fountain of ^rnaa 
erected 1877. 

PcBUC MoMUMKMTS (Denkmiiler): Fn 
Greet, by Bavch, in Unter den Linden. 
Wiiliniu III. (the emperor's father|, 
the Louisa montiineiit, by Ranch, in t 
garten. Another of the same iiing ( 
horseback, facing ^he Schloss. Ttie QreA 
Frederfeic ^^^»n, o^ the Lange bridge, 
jroiiumcnt of 1813-15, on the Kreuzbcrg-, 
Botanical Gardens. Heroes of the Sevei 
War, Wilhelms-platz. Blucher, Jec^ m 
Arsenal. Oraf too Brandenburg, on IM 
plats. Sehiiler (1871), in SdHller-pUtJ^ 
work, hy Professor tiegas. suinioi-ted by 1^ 
Poetry, Trag:edj', History, and Philosophy, 
comers. Monument to the Guards who fell 
The Amaa6n and Ti^er, in the Unaetim, bj 
The FHedeuMkuli, or Paato Golanui, i4[ 
Alliance Platz ("Belle Alliance" is the Pn 
name for Waterloo). On the Hasenhelde' J 
bronze statue of Father Jahn (1872^, the ioxtm 
the German TdXtttercine or Gynnaatto 6o«| 
0e looka towavda 0e Tun fltto, or gysit 
ground, and is supported by an artificial h«i 
rock work, made of stones, sent from the pria| 
towns of Germany, and inscribed witb \ 
Banna. In teUnM-Elats am atftUM ef 8ebt| 
Thaer, and Benlh. For the GcAwnn of Wt^ 
(atag«iiM«ild)« IM W» 4^ 

Berlin, the cdpitalof the Prussian dominio 
and, after the events of 1866, of the North Genii 
Confederation, and now of the German Emiiire, 
«onaftltnte4 1871, ia the growing cantta M Ctt 
man tnde and Indnaliy. B la bniH on a ^ 
sandy plain, on both sides of the Spree (here 9t 
feet broad), neor the Havel, and overlooked b; 
the Kreuzbei g J4tU, about 100 feet high. Thi 
population in the year 1708 vat only 88,500 
Under the '\YeQdish name of Bprlft pt ^.wieiil* 
tlrated," it was originally a small village, united 
with a neighbouring one called Koln, or Cologne, 
{quaded ^y Albert il., in pm. T^q ^urjf^ or 

Digitized by Google 

BAKD-fiOOK to a^aatAKT. — BEBLIK. 


k:blo6s 1«M begun about 14A1 by tbe Electors 
I Brandenburg, trbo from that time resided 
|aere. Uuring tba la&t ISO y«4rs it lias greatly 
ficreased in extent end Importuioe, And la iWW 
a of tlw handwomeit oitlea lb Buope, haTinic 
ting wide streets, with many Grecian bulldinprs in 
them. It is 15 mik-s in circumference. The old 
valls^ removed 1866, were 16 feet high, and had 
17 gates. It contains S2 sqnizw and nuudEets, 6M 
stra^,' ; MO paUie bnUditagB, and 4$ bridges. 
Beiii9 on A dead flat, the drainage is 1>ad; hni 
the sewer system has been applied to remedy this, 
at a cost of two millions sterling. It was first 
lighted with gas lb 1896. The popnlatloa was 
foria«rly crowded into Half in a comparatiyely, 
small number of houses, four storeys high ; and 
there are few parks or squares in the city; but a 
Circular Railicay (Ringbahn), 23 miles long, round 
the city, connecting with tbe lilies outside, gives 
th» InhnWtft*** tbe sane fadlities f oif liflng wk 
aie enjoyed in London, and the death>i»te lias 
beep mml4pinj»iy lowered. 

Cateii (Thor, p?. There). The most celebrated is 
the Bravdftihurg Gate (Hrftndenbiirgor Thor), built 
after the model of the Propyl»um at Athens, by 
Schadov, and leading to the Thieivarlen. On t 
Is^'Vifitonr eeet i» eopper, by Jury. The four 
horses on the car aw 12 feet high. The French 
carried this work of art to Paris in 1807, but it was 
brought back by the Prussians in 1814. The gate 
was conatrncted byLingbans, 178a>9S, PutFnA- 
crldk William tin Wid eoat more than half a mil- 
lion of thalers. It Is on twelve Doric c(>lunins, 
and has reliefs of the fight with the centaurs and 
of tbe Hargrave Albert capturing a atapd^d at 
MliBendHiri^ Its breadth is 205 teet, apd its 
beffhtl wttii the Victory, 85 feet. Outside the 
Brai^denblixger Thor the new Column of Victory 
(of grey sandstone) in Konigs Platz, erected 1873, 
to comfoemorate the battles of 1866-7]^, is 195 feet 
Ul^ir^whicb there are IQO feet for the eoinnin, 
and 48 feet for the stattie. The base is G2 feet 
sqture, surrounded with reliefs of the storminfj: 
of Dlippd (Denmark), the battles of Koniggrjitz 
(Austria), and Sedan (France), tlie entry into 
l^lu^ lMti^e return to Berliii. A Ball In the base 
toifnmwltb mosaics in inetal from guns taken 

uf Victory holds a wreath, and stands on eight 


From the Brandenburg Cfate, a qusctrangle, 
called lhePariser-]'lat2(inwhich isthcold BlUchfr 
Palace), leads into the Unter den Limkn (lender 
the L|mes), remarkable for its beautiful buUdiugit, 
and for the fonr rows of lime trees whidi form 
thcmiddleofthepromenade. On cither side arc foot 
and carriage ways. Its lenirth to the Royal Palace 
is about li mile. No. 1 on the right is the palace 
of Coun^ ^cdern, in the solid Florentine style; 
beyond are t^e Ifiuistry of Beliglone Instmetlon 
and the Bi^ssian Embassy. At the comer of 
Friedrich-strasse is the Kaiser (hxlerie. or ArcadeJ 
On the left of the Linden aro the Directory of the 
Kricgs-Akodcmie, the Home Office, the Aqnarinm, 
and the Aebdnny boUdings with the normal elodc: 
O^iosite is the Niederland Palace; and at the- 
cotner of the Opemplata, the Uoirecsity Bnildings. 

M the eeet end of the ITjBter 4«n Linden, ia tha 
Optrn-pMt^ a noble sqnai^ iii irhicir are the 

University, the Opera House, llOfnl Library, 8t 
Hedwig's Church, the I'alace of Kaiser Wihelm L, 
^9. Between tUiti and the Uniyersity stands 
Ranch^a splendid equestrian hrooae Mue a/ 
Fttdarkk tk» fhr^n one of the ineat in BexUn. 
The groups on the pedestal are U^B-aiae^ "and' 
include figures of the leading military mm 
of the Great Frederick s time, who served in the 
Seyen Years* War; also agues of Ua ainisteri^ 
as well as of Lesaing, QrAnn, bnd Xant»*:dn' n 
are also inscribed the names of 80 soldiers of the- 
time of Frederick, besides artists, statesmei^ Ac. 
The whole monument is 43 feet high. 


A continuation of this square forms the Platr. 
Zcu'-'haus, on the right of which is the 
palace of the Empress Frederick. arcade con- 
nects thia with the palace of the Prjncess^i;. 
Opposite on tbe left are the King's Qttjyd 
House, the Arsenal, and the marble Statves of 
Generals Schamhorst and BUlow, by Bauch, 
accompanied by the bronae statue of Bliicher (died 
181£0t and those of Oneisenau and York, al^ 
Banch.' Blehind the Guard House, in th^<^|(^^ 
grovei are two colossal inor|{^j^|^hig|}e99noiv. 
taken from the French. . . ^ 

Digitized by Google 

4 toftADSHAW' 

Pusiog the Coauaumdmtnr we cohm to tlM 
MpMMcte (PataM BrUge), over the Spree, 

with iU fine c*9t-iron balu»trnde and stntue of the 
Great Elector. Here are eight groups of marble 
Aguret of the goddesses of Yictorjr- The bridge is 
M bnwd th*t MTOn carttafee can pmc ewUjr aide 

Crossinp this brldg^P to SchlMs-platr, on the 
rfcrht \n thf Si-h!oss or Rnynl Cattle, with its new 
domed ciiapel. Ucfure us is the Cathedral, and on 
the left to the Imitgarten, and the Old Xnieam 
osnuiianleattnv behind bjr an arcade with the Kew 

Musenm. In the mMtJlr- of the T/Hstgarten is a 
Fountain, throwing up water 40 feet high, by 
iteam power. Before theMuaeum stands a colossal 
granite baeln, In one pleoe, 93 feet In diameter. 
An equestrian Staiut of FfoderMc William III. 
wae placed b.-rp ip71. 

Ftoom the Drandenbarg Qate the KoniggrStzer- 
etraiea leade to the AdidkHn Gate, and the 
Lelpalgaiwplnti, with the bandseme Leipaiger- 
strasse. The large bnllding on the right is the 
R*ichitagt-Geb<iud^, or Imperiiil T>1f>t HoQ^e; 
next to which is the War Ofice^ with the Statue 
of Von Wrangel, opposite the Btalm of Coant 

Crossing this street is Wtlhelm-strasse, leading 
to Wilhelmt-platz; in which are the bronze statues 
of Prince Leopold of Aubalt Dessau, and Gen. 
Zelteot by flehadow, and the other baroea of the 
B$9m Tmr^ War., flebwerin, Reith, WUiterfeldt, 
and Seydlitr, nil \r\ white marble. This etioet 
contains sererai l aiacen nnd Public buildings. 

In the square arc the foreign Ojk€^ and the 
anelent Palaee of the Order of the Knights of St. 
John, now the residence of Prlnee Frederick 
Leopold It is fittPd up by Scbinkel, and contai!i<< 
a fine collection of armour, Ac, which may be 
seen. In Wiihelm-strassc is also the Palace of 
Prlnee Albert of Pnuala, decorated by Behinkel. 

From this we pass on to Ddnhoff-platt^ With Its 
stone obelisk r from which all distances by post 
were anciently measured. Opposite the House 
of the Prussian Deputies (Abifeonineien Haut) is 
Baron Von 8teln*i ttatae. Further on are the 
l^tal Church and the Spltal Market, the chief 
fUh market of Rerlin Near here, in Wall* 
ftratic, is Raren^'t Picture Qallery. 

*8 ILLUSTBAT«1> fSfC. 1. 

The AnikaU Otttt^ near teminne ef the Berlin 
and AnfaaltraOway, and Anbalt-atnuaa, are both 


The ffaVesrhr Gate i«i on the south side of BeUe 
AMiance I'iatt, ui which is a column of Peace, 60 
foot high. From thtoaqnare the WiUMinia,Undmi, 
and Friedrlehe atreeta biaaeb oil; the laat mnniag 
in n «frfilght line to Gran lenborg gate. Thislsthe 
longest street in Rrrlin, 8trctchingnearly2| miles. 

The other Gates are the ^chlesische gate, leading 
to KCpoicker^nMM, near whiOh la the Modal 
hooae of the ciudel, and Barracka of the Ploneera, 

Ac, with the swimmlnjr p^tsMhhmcnt of Gen. 
Von Pfucl. In the same str«et are nuuiy faetoriea 
and worlishops. 

The Strabmr^aUiM near Stralaner-platz, and 
the sUtloB of the Nledavaehlealaeh and Mlbkiaehen 

railway. The Frankfort Gale leads into the 
Frankfort-strasse, which oontaioa the Nicholaa- 

Bnrger Hospital. 

The Landtberger Oate is close to Friedrichs- 
Haiu, where are the gnTca ct thole who fell on 
the 18th and 19th March, lSi8^ and the boat of 
Frederick the Great. 

Close to the above is the KSnlgs Gate, leading 
by Alexaiulor pinfz, along the Neue RSnigs- 
strasse, to the busy KSniffi-ttroue, At the end of 
KSnlga-ttraiie is the Knifttnten, or Iiong Bridge, 
upon which is SchlUter*B ooloeMl bronae eqnea* 
trlaii Statue of the Great Kurflirst (or Elector), 
Frederick William, who died 1688. It is saRonnded 
by four chained giants. 

The other Gates are the Prenziauer, the SchSn- 
hantcr, the BoeenthalMr and Hamburger ga^ 
The Oranienbui^ gate no longer exiite, bnt the 
namo fsntaincd. Passing thence down Pricdrich- 
strasse, on the right are the barracks of the horse 
artillery; on the left, opposite Karl's-strasse, are 
the bariacki of the Snd r^fiment of the Qnardi; in 
KarlVitrame arc the Fndllera* barrel and the 
large Exercise Ground. 

Near the New Gate arc the InraUden-Haut^ or 
hospital, for disabled soldiers, with its National 
Monument, and the 8ne terminus of the Hamburg 
railway. A little farther out arc the new Priaon 
and the Uhlan barracks. South of the Kew Gate 
are Lonisen-strasse and Loulsen-plata, near which 

Digitized by Google 



are the Veterinary School and a wing of the 

ChaT~itr, yrhnip principal entrance fn Untcrbatiiii- 
strasse. Passing along this, over the Marischal 
Bridge, by Wilhelm-strasse, we arrive again at 
the Iflnden, near (ho Bnuidonbnrg Oato. 

Tbe central portion of the Gens d'armen Markot 
is now callpd the Schiller-plntz, ft beautiful square, 
in which standi tbe Sctiauspicl-haus, with the 
Freneli md Hew Churches on either aide; and the 
fltatveof SdillleraSTI). 

Berlin is divided into twenty Quarters. The 
arf> Alt«it8dt, thr> oM town; Alt-Kciln or rolojmc. 
on an island; Friodrichwerder, Dorotiiecustadt ; 
Keu-Kuln; and Friedrichstadt, the best part, near 
the Polidani Onto. The prinolpel others are Spen- 
dau, KOnigs, Stralen, Lonisa, and the Vogtlnml or 
Orjinlenburg. There nn- thirty or forty Chorchea 
nnrl twenty-fiye Hosj>it .ils 

Fala-cen.— Emperor WUliatH's Palace, built 1836, 
by Lengfaana; opposite which are the Untveraity 
and the Aeademy of Art The RofftU Puia€$ 
(Koniglichc Schloss) is a maprnificent residence, 
480 feet lonp, 285 feet broad, 104 feet high, and 
nearly one-third of a mile in circuit. Including 
fonr ooirts and about dOO loone. It wao began by 
the Elector Frederick II. (l4ilX and finished by 
Diihrne in the reipm of Frcdcrfck William I. 
Here are the library, treasury, archives, picture 
gallery, white room, uiuscuuia, «fcc. Tbe chapel, 
witl\ its dome (SM feet), wai bnf H by Flrederick 
William lY^ who also added the terrace leading to 
the Lustgarten, on which arc ttie t-^vo Ilofse 
Tamers, by Clodt, and a granite column, with a 
gilt eagle. Over the principal gate (a copy of the 
Ardi of Seremt) are reeerrolrsof water. The 
largest room in the interior is the Weiste Saal 
(white room), 1<^') feet lonp-, nud 57 hroad, adorned 
with twelve statues In Carrara marble of the Elec- 
tors, and eight allegorical figures of the Prussian 
ptovineea. It Is need on great festiTala, and to 
fitted up in a costly style. 

The Ril tei-saal (\Li\ightn' room) oontniusthe silver 
throne, costly plate, *c. * The windoTy's command 
a good view of the Lustgarten, museum, arsenal, 
and cathedral. The petntingt on the eeiltnga re- 
present allegoricaUy the exploits of Frederick I.; 
and over the doors are the four Quarters of the 
\yorld, hj SchlHter. Th? ?i9tttr9-Gallery (BUdf r- 

galerie) contains some good pictures, chiefly 
modem, by Eybel, Krtiger, Bllrde, Kafscr, David, 
and Sir T. Lawrence, with a few by Vandyck, 
Lievens, Ac. On the gronnd floor are the Ar* 
chlTea, the Tnaenry, and the Public Exchequer. 
On the fourth storey is the Chamber of Art, in 
which are many hi^orical curiosities— as the bed 
in which the Great Frederick died; ivory carvings, 
Chlneae painting*, Ac In that put fadng the 
Arsenal are the apartmentaof tbe Qreat Frederick, 
and also those of Queen Louise, unaltered since 
their decease. These portions of the P.«lflrf nrts 
not usually shown, but permission to visit tUcm 
may generally be otitalneiL 

For Its Mfutam and Galleries, see below. 

The Palace of the Kmptror Frederick, now of 
his wife, the Princess RoyaJ of Ettg'and, is at the 
end of the Linden and Opem Only 
natlTO materials were naod, and only native artists 
employed in Its constraetlon. The principal room 
is 220 feet long. It Is connected with the Pat0e$ 
of the Princesses by an arch over Ober Wall-strasse. 

The Palace of Prince Frederi<'k Leopofd. in Wil- 
helms-platr., formerly belonging to the Knights of 
St. John, ha* a splendid Armoury. Open daily; 
apply to the Hanshofsmekter, Wilbelras*plati, 

No. 8. 

Tlie PaJace of Prince Albert (No. 102), In Wll- 
helm-strasso, was the residence of the Turkinh 
Ambassador In I76S, and afterwards of the Princess 
Amelia, sister of Frederick XI^ and was decorated 

by Behinkel in The interior dccor.ntlons are 

marked by their siniplicity and tasteful si»len<iour. 

The plea-Hure caiitlc of Moubijou, at tbe end of the 
Oranienbnrger-strasse, on tlie Spree, was fonnerly 
the residence of the mothor of FMerick U. 
Here i-^ thr UnhrvroUcrn Museum, fi\{\\ most inter- 
esting and valuable memorials of the Prussian 
sovereigns from the days of the Electors. 

The SMoH JMhnu, or DeHeme Palace, on the 
Spree, in the Thiergartcn, has a fine garden and 
park, and a good picture-gallery of modem artists, 
including: Lessing s Hussite Sermon, «&c. This 
castle L>elunged to Prince August of Prussia, and 
came to the Grand Otike of Medtlenbuvg. Open 
from May to October. At the Imrcrial Chan- 
ccllor'a Palace, 77, Wiihfln>flt'a>«»i Confreaa 
of 18T3 met. 

Digitized by Gopgle 


the Muse\liji,opP'^'-itcthcSchlos8, at thcothcr 
ej)(| the Lustgartea, consists of two pile5, tbe 
Old Vuieum, containing tho Antiqmrium^ 3ciMl>- 
ture pidleilif, I^bnu7, and Pleture-GallMry; tad 
^he New Mnseum behind it, containing CMts, 
bronzes, ethnogrrapliical collections, vases, gems, 
^c.^ and tlie National Gallery, cmiiplctcd 187C. 
The ofBclal catalogue (50 pf.), obtuinublo imiUe, 
is ife« best. 

The Old Museum (altes Mnaenm) was built 
1823-9, hy Schinkcl, on piles, on u branch of the 
river t?prco. It is a rcctasigic, '2f>l feet h>ng, 
183 foet d«em and 61 feet high. Jha gardtn 
front it a Teatlbnle or colonnade, im 18 Imlc 
pillars. On the right of the entrance, 91 feet 
l»rofirt. is Kiss's Afnazon fighting leifh the Tiger, and 
on the other side Wolffs Combat with a Lion. At 
tho top of the atafrcaae are allej,'urlcal frescoes by 
Cornelius from designs by Sehinkel, whose etatne 
by Tieck stands near the door. From the Hall we 
reach tho Rotunda, in which are pieces of Gobelins 
tapestry, executed IGth century, .by order of Leo.X., 
after th«k cartoons of Rajibaei. Tlie inost remark- 
able ol^eeta are the beantifnl frlexes from the 
nltnr of Zeus at Pergamos. kcre are, also, among 
other statues, an Amazon, anrl a colf>s«ni Juno. 

Sculpture Galleri/^vrith 700 to bOO specimens, dis- 
tHbuted In various rooms, ria., the "Hall of the 
TT< rneV* Etruscah and Greelc Cabinets, IXoman 
Saloon, Ac. The principal room contains the 
statup of the Pram'ng Bon, one of the finest bronzes 
of Grecian nmci. It was found in the Tiber, and 
hought for 10,000 thaiers. Also i^giu^s cl Poly- 
hymnia, Apollo, Calliope, Urania and Baterpe; a 
ynmig pill i)layhip "n-ith dice ; and the Dancing 
Girl; Mercury, an Ilennaphrodite, and a Bac- 
chante. Ill the Roman ri>om arc the following: — 
k bust of jttltas CsBsar, which belonged to Frede- 
rick the Great; iScipio Africanus; a bust of 
H.idri.'in : the celebrated statue (^f AuL'nstns, from 
tl»e Pourtales Collection. In the curroHponding 
foom are some Pergamenian Sculptures, and 
iiiere are miny interasting d'ennan medlwval 
ilguros. Over the gallery in the Rottimla, among 
other 5tnt'i<^s, is the Boy Extracting a Thorn, with 
a slntue of Athene. 

The Collection of Coins is one of the laest in 
Ettrope, being inferior only to thoM of ]>>D4on 

ILLUSlKATEi) [fteC l* 

and Paris. Tlio latest additions are the Fox ani| 
Prokr^ph-O>ten collections, of 11,000 Greek and 
Oricniai cuius. 

Pieture jfhMuy, open, excepting Mwidays ai|d 
holidays, 0 to 8; Sundays, 18 to 8. fCiktaloBAe, 
4 mark?. The collection is especially rich in the 
' (Ji rni;ni and ItnHan masters. The name of tlie 
I artiiit and the subject is placed on the frame of 
I every picture. The foUowiug may be mantkmad 
I as especially noteworthy 

Italian School of the fifteenth century. — ^Vliyln 
and Child, with Saints, niul Portrait of Connt 
Fugger, by Ciaia da Conegliano. Judith and the 
Presentation in the Temple, by A. Ibmlesna. Th« 
Adoration of the Kings, by Fhmc. de Santa Croce. 

Lomlmuhj School. —YirfXn and Child, IHth two 
angels, ami Yir-in nvA Child, with two vnints, by 
Amb. Borguguoue. The Crucifixion, by Franc. 
Sacdii. . 

Tiaeim jSEeAoqZ.<^Portrait, supposed to be the 

artist himself, by Philip Lippi. Portrait of Lucre- 
tia Tomabuoni, by S. Bottichclli. Charity, by B. 
Peruzzi. Virgiu in Glory, and six Saints. Virgin 
and Child with St John, 1^ F. Francia. 

VmibHm S^O0l<-~By Bai^iael: 8»vloiir in the 
Tomb; Virgin and Child with two Salnta; 
Adoration of the Kings; all in water-colours. 

School of Feruifim.--'ViTgin and Child, with four 

itaiimSAoottdimrim. By Titian; PortnUt 

of Adm. Maoro; his own portrait; and also his 
daughter Lavinia. By Poidenonc: Chnst Wash- 
i|ig the feet of his Disciples ; Christ and the 
Woman taken In Adnltery. By Palma Tecchlo: 
Portrait oi a dog. ByA.Moietto: 44oratlonof 
the Shepherd!^. Virg-in and Anna, with the children 
Jesns and Juhn in glory. 

Milan School of Leonardo da Vinci. Portrait of 
Margaret Colonna. By Coneggip: io and L^da. 
The Baptism of St. John, after Raphael, by Sal* 
viati. Virgin niul Chilcl. by Raphael. The .\ssnnip- 
tiuii uf the Virt-'in. hy Uartol. di San Marco. Two 
Luvurb uud un Old Wuuiau, by Gtulio Koniano. 

The Jt0ilim SOool of lMO-1680. Bj Tlntotnttj^ : 
St. Mark wocahi;^d by Aye Vein«tlana.. j|y I<or. 
I da jSologna : Viiljin aiid Child, with four Saints. 
1 From 1590 to 1770. ByM.da Caravaggio: Th« 
; Entombment j St Matthew thp ETan^clJst" fly 

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l>omenIchIno : St. .teromc ByGuido: TheSpr^ 

^p^iAJS^ot, By MuriU6.:^PortmUof fttadf; 

Repentant l^agdalcn; Portrait of Cardinal Dezio 
Azzoliui; St. Antpny of Patlua, ami the Infant 
Jesus. By tfuan Cane no dc Miranda; Portrait 
61 Cbarleii II., King of Spain, 

bthers worth notice An—By ^iVatp^ R(>mi : A 
Storm at Son, By Carlo Dolci : John the Evange* 
li«,t. By N. Poussin: Landscape, with figures of 
Juno, lo, and Mercurjr; Armida antl Rinatdo. By 
Ijilgnnrfl: t^ortrait of Mary Manchri. By C,. 
Biun : Portrait of ifivorard i nl'Mch, banker bf 
( 'ulnfriio, >vith his Family. By Rajilinvl Mf-n^s : 
The Holy Family; Portrait of hin fatlu r. Isnmel 
Mengs. By ('analetto: Palace of tlic Doge of 
Venice; The Bbgana of VenlcCw By Antoine 
Pesne: Portrait o\ Frederick the Gn-at. as Cinwu 
Prince, in 1739. By A. Von dor W iff- Mary 
Magdalen. A portrait of Angelica Kaufmaun, by 

TtMFtmtihmd(ieriaa»SiA0C^ i^lpeeiatiy nole- 
wortity. I'he side wings or screens from tke altar- 
pioce of ?t Bavon at Ghent, where the ccnfrc- 
plecc still remains, "these beaatiful paintings are 
the woric oY kiiberl and ^bhn V«m Hyck, and are 
exeented On nToiriiiMe eertieki^ They hob^ht 
(181S) of a French dealer by Mr. ^ n ui ETTgH«>b- 
man, for 100,000 francs, antl sold by him to the 
luusccm for 100,000 thitlers. On dne side arc the 
tjint Judges, the Soldiers of Christ, Holy i iigi ims. 
Holy ttenntta. AnfOle Sisgliifr. On the remae 
side are John the Baptist; portrait of the Burgo- 
master of Gh'nl, Jodocus Vyts; t he Annunciation, 
the Angel Uabriel, and The Virgin ; tlie Wife of 
Jodoow Vyto} and 8t. Johii the Evan^litt. 
^ Other worke are i Portraitol the SmperorCharlea 
v., hy Cr. Aniberger. Portrait of Jacob Fugger, 
Xiy Hans Cttlrabach. Portrait of George Fmnds- 
hery, by Holbein. The following by h. Cranacii— 
John Frederick, Elector of Saxony; the Fountain 
of Youth I Portrait of Luther as Gentloman George, 
when dis^ifuiscd in the "Wartlnir^^ ; Mclunclithon ; 
Catherine von I5ora, Luther s wife. By i'cter 
Isattfi^— Portrait of Christian IV., King of Denmark. 
By .PavJ Bril— Building of the tower of Bahol. 
Jij Ciiyp-J^»rtnilt of n My. By imhc»»-the 

Coron^itlon of Mary. By A. Vandvf k— Portrait of 
I|||tnco Thomas of Carignan; the Betrayal of 
diirlst; f^lare Eugenia Isabella, the daughter of 
PhUlip IT.; the Children of Charles 1. of England, 
with a Dog; St. John the Baptist and St. John 
the Evangelist. By Gerard Terburg— The Fatlicr'^ 
Admonition. By Bembraiidt- Duke Adolph of 
Ciaeldres Threatehhighia Ca'iitWe Father; Portratl 
of himself. By John Lierensz— Isaac blessing 
Jacob. By ip. Flinck-Thc Expulsion of Agar. 
By Van Ue ilels(— Portrait of a little Prinross 
and her Foster Sister. ByF.Mieris— u Young 
Woman before Looking-glass. By Casper 
^etscher— a Lute Player; Pomona and Vertumn'a, 
By J. Ilackacrt-an Evening Landscape. By 
"W'uuvennans— Haymaking. By J. Van do Heom 
—Flowers and Fruit. 6y Teuiers^-Pcasants iu 
an Alehouse; temptation oif St. Aiithony. By 
R. Ruysch Flower Piece. Portrait of the Mar- 
grav<r Tndwig von Brandenburp:, hy Con«t. Net- 
scher. A Lady feeding her Parrot, by W. von 

Further may be mentioned, collections of curl- 

ositics of ajicient and hi'^torical works of art from 
the earliest times; paintings of the Byzantine, old 
Italian, and old Flemish schools, illustrating the 
progress of art. 

T!h» NmMMMmms erected by Von Olfers 

and Stiilcr, is ronnoctcd hy an arcade with the Old 
Museum. The interior is beautifully decorated 
in fresco. The priocipal front lies to the cast, and 
Is 344 feet Wng; in the middle is a Staircase, G5 
feet high, and 50 feet wide. .The Inscriptions 
• uify that the Museum founded by the father 


(if ltlcs>cd memory was enlarged by the son. 
1850," and that "Ko one but an ignorant man 
bates Art.** 

The Ant{<)imnum.—ln the lower rooms of the 

Museum are various collections, includingjewelsin 
gold and silver, gems, cameos, bronzes, and ancient 
and modern coins. 

The attendants at the museum are not allowed 
to take fees. Cofdes in plaster and glass of some of 
the best things may be houvrlit at a moderate price. 

On the gnnmd floor are collections of Kfryjitian 
Antiquities^^ Assyrian Sculptures, jmd Kaiiy 
Christian remains. The Egyptian is excce^jp^ly 
rich nud Imeresilng. Tbe first noorgT 

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fiB« ooUectton of CMtt of the most celelmted 

Sculptures, In 12 rooin«!; A?oyrian, Greek, T?r.mnn, 
and Italian, down to Michael Angelo. Catulojfue, 
SOpf. The fine hall (Treppenhaus), in the centre 
of Hut ImUdliig, It dflconited witb wall ptotunt In 
■tereoocbrome, by Echler and Mubr, after designs 
■by Kaulbach. illu9tr!itive of great epochs of 
history — as the Tower of Babel, the Oolduu Age 
of Greece, Destruction of Jerusalem, Defeat of 
the Hum at Cbaloiia, the Pint Cniiade« the 
BefeniUltiao, Ac. The Bngravingt are on the 
second floor, and are open to the public only on 
Sundays. This is one of the finest collections in 
Burope, ranghig from the Ifth to the 19th eea- 
tnries. The eumples of the earljr Oennen end 
Dutch artists are numerous and yaluabte, Albert 
Durer being especially well represented. There 
is a rcmarlcable copy of Dante, with illusirations 

The AnHquarivm contains bronsea and various 
objects In metal, terra cottas, vases (over2,000), and 
finally, in the Slernsnal .1 rollectfon of penis and 
valuable objects, including Sabine gold ornaments 
(eost £8,000), and the celebrated Roman allTer 
treasure found in 1868 n«ar Hlldeshelm. 

The National GaJIery, opener! 1^(76, which forma 
a part of the Museum, is a Grecian building 
1^ Stiller, richly decorated; containing the 
Wagner collection and woriis, elilefly modem 
(tome Englhh), bought by the Oovemment. The 
Bttermondi CoUerdon, ncqn'rfd 1874, is mostly 
Dutch. Catalogue, 1 mark It is the only portion 
of the Eoyal Museums which is open on Mondays. 
EmMgniMeta Mtumn, m mm and handsome 
structure, contains, on the ground floor, the SehUe- 
mann Collection f»Tifl prrhistorlr object?;, and In the 
upper rooms, the ethnographic curiosities collected 
by the travellers, Schweinfnrth, Nachtigall, and 
ethera, alto the jnrfAerw AnHfiMett fotnierlj fai 
the New Mnseum, ranging from the atone age to 
the Roman period. 


The CbMfdM^ or Dom^ In tlie Lustgnrten, was 
built in 1748, by Friedrich Wiltlam III^ and is 

837 feet long, hy 13f> feet broad. The altar-piece, 
"the OutiK)uring of the Holy Ghost," Is hy 
Hear it is the half-length picture in mosaic uf the 
ApMtto f rter, a present of Pojic Plus l\. to Fr|cd- 

U«l.U8IAAT£J> [Sec I. 

rich William ill., en hit Tisit to Some. The 

white marble font Is by Ranch. At the north end 
of the clusrfh is the sarrnphnp-us of Knrftir&t 
(Elector) John Cicero, by Vischcrof Nurcmburg. 
On theweat aide the coihis containing the remains 
of the Great KurfUrat and King Fred. I., father 
and son ; and on the east side those of their wives, 
Charlotte and Dorothfn The singing of the choir 
of this church is justly celebrated. Near it is a 
royal burying place, or Campo Santo, with frescoes 
by Comellua, and casts of Qreefc antiqnltlea 
found at Olympia. 

The Marim ChwcJi (St. Mary's), near the Ncue 
Markt, surrounded with buildings, is of the 
fourteenth century, 211 feet by 99 feet. Its tower 
and steeple S93 feet high, one of the higtaest In 
Berlin, was added In 1780. It has paintings by 
Rhode, n marble pulpit, the tomb of Kanita, the 
poet, and a bras? font dated 1487. 

The Nikolai Church (rtaturcd), or Church of St, 
Nicholas, of the thirteenth ocntur}% in the Gothic 
style, is the oldest in Beriin<l283),sitnatedbetween 

Spandnn nnd Post Strasscn ; It Is 174 feet lon«^, 74 
feet wide, and has a steeple, and a nave on six- 
teen pillars. The altar-piece, the Transiiguratlou, 
is by Bhode. The font, made in 1568, la of light 
wood. HcicarethetombaofPnffendOffandothars. 

The Jerusalem Church, near the Prince Albert 
Palace, was built by pUgrims, 1464, wUhaspirCi 
;uid has been restored. 

The Parochial Churdt, built in 1703, has a tower 
94 feet high; urith frescoes by Hermann. In the 

same street, the Klostcr.strns^e, is the old 18th 
century church of the Groy Friars orFranciacan 
Monastery, lately restored. 

The Garriton Churchy in New Friedrich-strasse, 
was built 179S. It contains an altar-piece (Christ 
on the Mount <rf OUtosX by Begas; paintings by 
Rhode, of the death of Generals In the Seren 
Years' War, and a list of those who fell In battle 
against the French, 1818. The old font is from.a 
cbureh prsviously built on this spot. OratoHoa 
are frequently performed here. 

The Kcustiidt, or Dorotheen Church (reetorcdX 
erected by the KurfHr^^tin Dorothea, in 1078, con- 
tains Bchadow*'s marble monument to tlie Count 
von dcr ^Jark, natural son of Frederick William II, 

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The WMtt Ckmrek, In the Werdenofaen Markt, 

rebTiilt i?30, after the deslgiw of Schinkel, in the 
Gothic style, is a handsome pile, with two steeples 
137 feet high, on the south side. The altar-piece is 
by BegM; the Four Bvangelists are by Schadow ; 
and the font Is by Raneh. 

The New Church and Fi-enA GStareft (Frmuttf. 
sischc), were built by Frederick William II., 
exactly alike, in the Gens d'nriucn Murkt, near the 
Thoatra. They have handsome towers and steeples. 

Tbe CethoUe Church of 8t. BMg, behind the 
Opera House; a round church, built after the 
model of the Pantheon, at Rome, 1747-76, Between 
tbe whidows of the steeple are the Twelve Apostles, 
carved In stone, by Bbsnheeht. On the sides of 
the altar are the Birth of Christ, by Pesne, and St. 
Hedwfg-, by Cn^Hari. Anothernoticcable church is 
St. MichaeVx; St. Sophia has a spire ?30 feet hlg^h. 

Amongst the new churches are St. Jacob, in 
Oranten-strasae; 8t.lfattheir,ln Thicrgarten ; St. 
Peter's, in Petrl-platx, vith a tower of Slff feet; 
and St. George's handsome little English chnrch, 
ill the MonliijoTi Park. 

A Synagogue, one of the finest in Germany, stands 
In Onnlen^tntsse, and was opened 18M. 

sity numbers about 5,000 stmlents. Behind it is 
theChcstnutGrovc, with a little Botanical Garden. 

The UniMtHty, in the Unter den Linden, is a 
building three storeys high, with two side wings 
Joined by a court, built 1754-64. It was onee the 
Palace of Prince Henry nf Prussia, was converted 
into a university in 1810 l»y Frederick William 
III., and is considered one of the best universities 
of Germany. In the Audience Itoom are busts of 
Priedrlch II., Frederick WintamlZI., Sohleler- 
niachcr, ri. htf> TTegrol, Hufcland, <tc. 

The Museum fiir Xnhirkttnde, Tnvalidcnstrnsse, Is 
rich in insects and fishes. Open on Mondays 
and Saturdays, 11 to S. Here also is the Cabinet of 
Minerah, including A. Von HnmboldVs cOlleetlon, 
the bes t in Europe. Open Wednesdays and Satur- 
days, 11 to 3. 

one of the finest Indnstrial oolleotlons in the world. 
Oi^eii dally, enctpt Mondays, 10 to S. Snndaya, 

13 to 3. 

In the middle window of the principal front is a 
pablle clock, by which all the docks of tbe elly 

arc re«nil!itcd. On the ground floor of the front 
part of the building arc the pubUo room and 
library of the Academy of Science. 

The AeaOmnf 0/ Seknee was founded in 1700. by 
Fredericlc William III.; it U divided into four 
classes— Philosophy, Mathematics, Physics, and 
Historical Philology; public sittings arc held 
three times a year. In the great hall of iho 
Academy are busts of Frederick William If., by 
Werder; Count Hcrzberg, by Schadow; VoUalre, 
by Houdon; Ilumbuldt; model of the statue ot 
Frederick the Great, at Stettin, by Schadow; aiiid 
portraits of 3faai>crtul8 and Leibnitz. 

The Ataaemy t^f Artt^ founded lOM, and under 
the direction of Schadow till 1849. Hero is a 
ptiMle exhibition of paintings and works of art 
every two years. In the left wing is the IJarnn k 
of the body guard; at the back are the king s 
stables, now partly used as a telegraph station. 

Hohenzdttem Museum of I'msslan antlqnltles Is 

at the Mnnbijou Cbfltcau. Dally, If. to 3. 

/tojfal Library, in Oponi-piatz, looking like a 
"chest of drawers,** was founded by Frederic the 
Great; it contains 1,000,000 volames, and 11,000 
MSS., increased by the famous Meusebach collect 
tlon of German literature of the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries. Among the most Interest- 
ing objects ars Lnther*a Hebrew Bible, with notes 
in his own handwriting, end his translation of the 
Psulms. The Bible and Prayer Book used by 
Charles I. on the scaffold. Gutenberg's Bible, the 
first printed with movublo type. The Witteklnd 
Codex, 0th century, a MS. of the Gospels, with 
ivory earrings, said to have belonged to Charle- 
magne. Miniatures of Luther, Uelanohthon, <tc., 
by T.. Cranach, and a number of autographs and 
cjigravcd portraits. 

The Ubrary and Reading Rooms are oi>en daily 
from nine to three. Books may be taken out 
under certain restrictions. Strangers ar« shown 
round from 1 to 2 p.m. 

The Zeughaus^ or .^rawa/, rnnsldered the finest 
bnilding of its kind, was built after Ncbrlng's 
plan, and forms a quadrangle, each side being S90 
feet long. At the principal entrance is the half* 

, icci long. M \m pnncipai entrance is tne bi 

^:i»e 4e^dmy Bui{ding$, ou Vutcr dcu J^lndcii.— [ leng^b brqf||e f^zm «f Ffcderick I., vl^oj^ 

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10 BBADSMAwli 

bun^tion •iom of aiAgniflieeiii Widing In 
1005. In the Inner ooart, over twdnty'two of the 

wliutows, arc the celebrated<«, or stone 
heads of warriors in the death acrony, by SchlUtcr. 
On the groUQd fipqr, to the right, is the heavy 
ariillery, emonf whicli are eome Zsather tfimi, 
used in the Thirty Teeirs' Wat; Turkish gm», kc- 
To (he left arc rooms containing cn}?inoorJng appll- 
niifcsi, inodels, and phins of fnrtrosst'S. <tc. Fn in-h 
mill other colours, taken IHJ.'J, very tastifully 
iirniiii;«-d ; keys of eaptnrcd fortresses; andioine 
(lirtures. A |Nirt of tke upper storey is occupied 
i>y the I/afl of Fame, with illustrations, in pnlat- 
it);_' nn»l sculpture, of warliko episodes. The rest 
ccintains a collection of weapons, iucluUiiig flre- 
nrins from their drst Invention to the present time, 
mid the anw and accoutrements used by every 
nailun in Europe. It Is oi>cn every d.iy. except 
Saturday, free, from 10 to 5; winter, 10 to 

Thf lioml Fomdrtt i«i behind the Arsenal. From 
here, during tho War of Deliverance, were issued 
iron onuunents to the Prnteian women In exchani^e 
for the Jewelleiy sent by them to the treasury, 

to pay the expenses of the war. Tin sc patriotic 
nietnoriuls are still much prized by their owners. 
I'urt of the foujidry is now removed to 10, Munz- 

The Kin^t Oaard Room (KSnlgiwache) between 

tlic Arsenal and University was built (1818) in the 
hiiupe of a Ronmn fninp CJate, after desjgaa by 
{>chiukel. Near it arc tiiree lar^e cannon. 

The ^tn<7f iij^ .dondmy, built by Ottmar, InlSSS, 
Id the Grecian style, U b«htnd the king** guard* 

The Otmnnnia or ColUget for superior instruc- 
tion are— tho Oymnasium of the Grey Friars ; 
the Joadiimsthal QymDstfnm; the Gymnatliua 
of King William; and the IMedrlch'Werderadte 
Gymnasium. Tho Militar}' Swimming School, the 
fienrrai nnd University Fencing School, theRoyali 
and other riding schools. 

The Architectural or BmfAeadmie, built 1835, 
from designs by Schinkel, near the Bchloss-brileke, 

is a quadrangle of four storeys. evcr\' nfdo hcln^' 
180 feet Ion}?. It i^i ontin ly of red luii k. and 
al( the ornaments, i>culptuict>, Aiv., nro of terra- 

cotu. It Is now occupied by a po||i»c||oii o^ 
Musical InMmmentSi 

ILLtfflTBATSD [See* i. 

^ illieatres.— t^e lionai Operi B^oi^ ai the ^d 
o^ t^e Uoter den Limlen, oppoilte t^e piitversU^^ 

was rchullt (after a larije fire) in IM^, on ail 
enlarpod «ra1f. Tr.i^rrdics and conirdic^, T>osidee 
operas, are performed. It holds 2,0U0 persons. 

The Kitiffi I%mA«, or ktf'nli^l. 8cfiansi)te)-haui, 
In the BchtUer.pUts, was built by ddilnkei, In fbe 
place of one bunit in 1819. It Is 5<5 feet long, ani, 
Including the proup of Apollo, which ci-owns tho 
building, 120 feet high. The carvings, in reiieif, 
on the front tac by Ranch and Tteck. T&e theatre 
holds 1,600 persons. tVeuch and Oeiinan plays 
are pei-formed here. The concert room adjoining* 
holds 1,200 persons, and is well decorated with 
busts of celebrated musicians. Balls arc also 
held here, at which the Royal Family are sonm^ 
times presMit. flehlller*s statue Is here. 

The Deutsclns Theater, Schumann-gtrft>«8e. 

The Friednch Wilhebmtadt Theatre. 2.'i.Chau«sne- 
Htrasse, is both elegant and convenient, and will 
contain 1,600 perMins. Other theatrei (nearly iv 
in all) are the Victoria^ In Mhns-strasse; WaHtuBr\ 
Wallner-strasse; Residetit, niuraen-str.n si^o: ydti<m«it, 
Weinberfr<!WC'L'; Kn,irs, in Kmll's Gardens. 

Other buildings discrvlugnotice arc the Rath- 
or Town Uall, in Kiinig-str&sse, a square solid 
brick pile, 810 feet by 296 feet, and 80 feet high, 
with an ornamented Tower of 874 feet (good view 
<if (lie city). It has terra-eott a ornaments and-f^ 
machicolated parapet, by Wtisemann. Below It 
is the Rathskeller for refreshments. The old 
KDlnltche Bathhaus contains the Brandenbdiy 
(MiirkisChe)Mu8enm. Borse^ or Exchange, opposite 
the Muscnm,on the Spree, was built, 1863, of stone, 
by llitzi?-. and lias n pricat Ilall, 225 feet by 90 fee^, 
Rotjai Mint (Miinze), 2, Uutei-wasser-strasae, wim 
a frleie from the Old Bfint In Werderecheh Harkt. 

The Banyidk»'-'ammg whiidi those of the 
Fusilier Battalion of the two regiments of guards, 
in Karl-strasse, and the Uhlaner l^arraok, at 
Moabit, arc the finest ; also the Exorcising Hou^e, 
j opposite the first, and the Veterinaty Cbitege, 4l, 

Till' War o_ff\o- (KrlegsmhiisteriunO, 5-7, Lclp- 
2iger-8trasse, rebuilt in 1847, and enlarged, 
} The Ca<kUenhaus, or Cadet School, at Lichter/eld^ 
I near the Bacecojirso an^ Speadaii Forettt hee « 
ilofiic ^ tef^ high, and a imd H^r^HT Hnll, 

Digitized by Google 




containing portraits of all the reigning princes 
aiqce the Great Elector, «nd all the Prussian 
Field Marshals ; also Napoleon's sword, taken at 
Jcmappcs, 1815, and prosented by Blticher to l^ls 
institatlM. 8teiii«iis*4 Bleetrie Railway from the 
Anhalt Station terminates licre. 

Inmlidenhaus or Prussian "f'holsca Hospital," 
fk{>{x>sitc tlie New Gate, iu Invaliden-straiise, or 
Parkf w,a9 built in 174^ hy Tttedrfeli H.; and 
4iiiuf|en for a (Bonmiaiidar, IS ofBoen, and 600 
mtn^ In the right wing is the Evangelical church ; 
and in the loft the Homan Catbolic A national 
Memorial to the soldiers who fell iu 1818 stands 
In tbe gnmnde. 

the CetttOar Prttm (ZellengelHpeniss), «t Uo- 
abit, hasn chnrch, a oentie ball, 15 sick and MO 

solitary cells. 

The Vftaril^, 17, Unterbaum-strasse, is the most 
Jmp(U'taiitlioq>ltal inBeiUii.It hai apeommodfition 
for 1,606 patients, and may be viewed from 9 

tlU 1, by application. Statue of Grafe here. 

The Bethanien is a model ho.spital, attended by 
youiig womeu, called deacouesses. It reitemblcs 
on the ontiMe acmtle with two towers, and 
pfOTides every oomfoft and oonvenlenoe for the 
hlclt. Open dally, to strangers, from 1 till 4. 

Rotjal (ili.urra'oy'ii (Stcniwarle), 103, Lindcn- 
strasbc, »us built by Schiukci. Upen on 

Wednesday and Saturday, 0 to 11 Frse. 

Thf PnUle Sessions of tiie Conrts (gerlchtsver- 
haudlungen) are held almost dally in the Gerlchts- 
gcbaude, Alt-Moabit. Entrance by vlsitfi^'Htard, 
free. . 

T^SUndAtylwn, 139, Wilhelm-strasse, Is only 
open to strsng«M on Wednesday, from 10 to M. 
Tbe Ikftf and Dumb Asylum, 84, Llnden-Strmsse, 

open on Tuesdays, from 10 to 12. 

Collection of Works of Ait,— Wagner's 
Cottfetkm<:(fPaitUin<j$, l^equeathed to the nation, 
Is ttooed in the Nattonal OaUevy, and consists 

prfeldpally of works of living arti«U> 

Raven^t Collection. 92, WuU-strasse, has excel- 
lent works of the modern German-Belgian and 
Fcfttdt ielioobi. Tnesday and Friday, 10 to 2 ; fee. 
'JJi^ €Miery of Count BoffniuH has been tnms- 
f^ire^ to tbe National Gailery. 

hauch Museum, in the Kloster-strasse. contains a 
CO)|ect}on of casts nr>d models of the work9 of tbis 

artist. Open daily, 10 to 8, free, except Sundays 
and the last Saturday of every month. 
. Count Redcrns, at the Palace, Ijfp. 1, Unter den 
Linden.. Open daily, 11 to IS. JBtevious appli- 
cation required. 

Royal Porcelain Factory, at Charlottenburg, 
was founded 17()3, by a private individual, and 
bought by Frederick II. It may be viewed daily, 
10 to 12, except Monday and Saturday. 

Jiuyat Fnminf (Eiaengiesserei), in Inraltd^- 
strasse, supplies 12,000 cwt. of cast goods yeai;ly 
from the sm illost to the lai* objects. The 
statues and monuments it has sent forth have an 
Eurot>can fame. Casting takes place in the after- 
noon, ftrom 4 to 7. Admission every Ve^iiesd^. 

The Architrktenhaus, 92 and 93, Wiiheim- 
strnsso. contains the gallery of the Berlin Artists* 

ilarkitche* Mufeum of Provinfi4Ml 4tt<^9af'*M, in 
Brelte-strasse. Mondays and Thursdays, 11 to^. 

Borslg's Foiuidry, in Alt-Moabit, for Ibcpmo- 
tlvo<». near Hm sitr's Gardens, and the Cemetorics. 

Places of Amusement, &c.— in the town, 
besides the four large theatres mentioued on page 
10, there are about 15 smaller ones. The Cfrhw, 
karl-strasse ; Flora Garden, at Charlottenburg. 
Tlii ie is nil Af/itan'iim in Untcr den Linden. Near 
the lirandenburg Gate is the Thiergarten, a charm- 
ing and extensive park. Jt is about a Gennan 
mile (6 English mllw) in ctroiimference. j^ereare 
the Zoological Gardens, which contain the royal 
Menagerie. Admission, 1 mark, open daily. Good 
monuments of Frederick III. and Quceu Louisa; 
with one of Goethe, by Sebitfer. 

CNmeOKtS.— In summer these are hdd fre- 
quently. In the Zoological Gardens, at the Flora- 
Eta bllssmcnt, Charlottenl)ur;r, in the Gardens of 
theBelle«AUiancc Tlteatrc (Beile-AlIiancc-strasac), 
Sehultheisa, 79, Chanss^e-strasse. 7he ^ i w y j»s> f " 

Soirees of the Royal Band are held in winter in the 
Concert Hall of the Opera House. AfansfeldCt 
Orc/ieslra plays at the Concerthaus, Leipzigei;- 
strasse, doil^, in winter. The ^bearsals at the 
Sin^AtqdemU, on Tuesdays, 5 to 7 
cation mu^t bo made to tho director, at, 
building on the Opera Place. The ( 
lioyal CoMerralorium are iilso hel(| 

by Google 


[See. I. 

Ae«deiiile» wlMn aIm the Strloy Qtutftotte Con- 

r(^T*9 nre driven. Enqnlrj* rcsi>cctlng^ them mtiBt 
be made at the hotels, or the daily p ipers must be 
consulted. PhilhctrvMnic Orctuttra in winter at 
th* PhUhanBOBlttt No. Ka, B«ni1mrg«r'ftriMe, In 
■ninmer at the Flora, GhAriottcttlmrg, thrloe a 
week; apply for tickets at the tobncconlsts' shops. 
Stet-n's Gesangverein. at the Phiitiarmonlc, or the 
Garrison Church, Neue Frivdrichs-strassc. 

The large Botanical Garden with Us palm- 
bonaot ctm^ervatory, Jke^ Is at SebBnobeiVt In 
Fot8damer>8trasse« near St. llatthaw^s Camataiy. 

Cemeteries (KirchhUfe).— The cemeteries are all 
outside of the town ; thoy are Td in number. The 
chief arc the Hallesche cemetery, with the graves 
of Fleek and Hoffman; Trinity eemoterycontalning 
the ramains of Bclileiermachar, Naander, Mondftls- 
Pohn-Bartholdy, Von Altcnstoiii. Tieck. the poet, 
Ac. Ill the I'^rench coraeterj' is the monuiuotit of 
Ludwtg Dcvrienz. In the Roman Catholic ceme- 
tery', the graves of Fra von Holtel and Seyddnan. 
In the DoratbeenstKdtische cemetery fire tha ra- 
Tnalns of Flchte, Tle^'el, Huf 'IriTTl, Langhein, 
Schinkel, Ranch, and Schadow. In rit. Matthew's 
Cemetery the brothers Grimm are buried. 

Tha Invaliden Cenieter>% near the Hamburg 
terminus, has the monnmMits of Sehamhoctt, 
Witaleben, Tanenslen, &c. 

In the Oarri«!(>Ti cfmf trTio-? are the grares of 
Field Marshal von Klciiit, Generals Braachitscta, 
Liitzow, liur&tcl, <tc. 

ThaBtrMl CMsX'<NC(RiDgbahn), abontttmHes 
lonK, eonneets the piineipal plaeaa In the neigh- 
bourhood of the capital. Rej^inning at Charlotten- 
burg, it pa«sc8 (amonir otlicr i laci^s) Moabit, 
Weissensce, Friedricbsbcrg, btraiau, liixdorf, 
Tempelhof, flehSneberg, Wilmerador^ Orttnenraldt 
to Cbartottenborr again. 

Oliarletleillnxrg (Stat.), a separate mnniel- 

pnlity, now united to Berlin. A fine tramway 
road leads thither, by the Thiergarteu. Population, 
70,873. At the end<rftbe town Is the iTitey's Ca$tle, 
built 1<RM, by Sehltter, for Oeoige the First's 

daughter, Sophia Charlotte of Hanover, wife of 

Frederick I., by whom the town was founded. 
9|)cl who gave bp wUe's niMne to it. l\ contains 

pictures and autlquee, with a etatua of the 

Dowager Emprc-^-^ of Russia, by "Wlchmann. 

Behind tin ( aMlc is a larpe park, in which ia 
Schiukel s Mausoieum of QuMn Louisa, and King 
Frederick William III. In the hal], over the vmnlt, 
stand the saroophagt. Tlie atatne of the QaeeB» 
by RnTie!i. is one of his master- pieces; the statue 
of the King is also by the same sculptor. On the 
sides are marble candeUbra, the Fates and the 
If uses, by Raueh and TledE. At the upper end of 
the town is the park of the mora SoHttf, with « 
large concert room. There is al'so a winter 
garden and a fine Fahn hous. Open daily; 
Tickets of admission, 1 mark, may be obtained 
from the tram ennductor. Tlie Popular Concerto 
of the Philharmonle Orchestra are given Itere 
thrice weekly in fliimm*T, jmd nvf one of the 
special features of Berlin amusemeuta. Tickets lor 
concerts, 75 pf. or 80 pf., at the tobacco shops, Ac 

The river Spree here abounds with carp, which 
come to be fed when the bell rings. 

The town ii et lphmted for Its ci>ffrc hini«ie«i nnd 
places of entertainment, the place being a great 
resort of the people of Berlin. 

The Piehelsbergi a hill between Chailottenbnrg 
and Spandau, B miles from Berlin, is much adndred 
for its fine prosport Not far from here is 

Spandau (Stat.) A fortress eight miles from 
Berlin, on the Hamburg railway, at the junction of 
the Spree and the Havel. Pq>nbitlon, induding 
the garrison, about 4.'>,364. Of the four churches, 
St. Nicholas, built in the 16th century, is the most 
remarkable. It has some monuments and an old 
font. The Prison will contain 600 prisoners. 
Here Baron Trenok was confined. Ahorsefairii 
held here. Steamers to Berlin. 

Moabit (Stat.) lies on the right hank of the 
Spree, opposite the Thiergarten, and derives its 
name from the Huguenot refugeea who settled 
here In the time of Aederiek I., and called the 
place "la tcrre Moab," and ''Uterre Mauditc;'* 
which In course of time became Moabit. Lat- 
terly it has received the title of ''Kdcbinen 
VergnUgen ' (the cook*s place of amusement). 
Here Is a large Porcelain Manufactory, with 
Borslg's Machine Factory and Foundry, and exten- 
sive ^'-hoDit. Borsig's Paim»ho|tMt and pot* 
houses i\re yf%\l wortb a vU|tt 

Digitized by Google 




TtmpoUlOf (8tat.)i orTcmi)low. 1? mile from 1 
Berlin, was once tbe property of the Kuights 

The JWa)ilM?<aMnmie«r theTiUegeof Boild l l t - 
taS (ttat.X eontelne U,OIK» dUfeicnt kinde of 

plants. Open dally, except hoUdays. 

Gnmewald (Stat.), witii its LutUchto$$ 
(Pleasure Castle), stands in a pica&ant spot, in a 
wood, between Chariottenbnrg and Potadan. It 
w«almlithjjbaebimn.,inl548. Qoedaoeonoio- 
dfttlon can be had at the keeper's house. 

Near the Hallesche Gate, at the distance of about 
f mile, is the 

NtMomai i famm em on the Avucftery, the liii^est 
point In the country ronnd Bciiin, from whence an 
exten«!vo view of the entire capital is ol)tflined. 
This monument is an Obelisk, 161 feet high, the 
top of which i% an iron cross, designed by Schlnkel. 
OnltaretlMnameeof the meet important battles 
of the War of Deliverance, with a dedication by 
the kinp "to the people who at his call proudly 
offered property ntid blood t( I th* ir fatherland. A 
remembrance of the dead ; a tribute to the living; 
ia ezamide to the f ntnie.** 

Oeea l»sr la nvoli, whore good eonoerte are given 

In snmmcr; anri npprn^fto thi<! a cplchrated Bavarian 
beer brewery. Tramways run to this place from 
the Diinhoffpiatz, every 6 minutes. 

The B men l mUk Is a Httlewood of fdneiandoaks, 
l( mile from the town, with refreshment rooms 
and various amusements. In the churchyard 
adjuluing rest the remains of those soldiers 
wounded at the battles of Oroubeeren and Den- 
Mtmlitf In 181S, who died of their wounds in tbe 
hospital here. The gate of tlie ehnrehjrard has an 
inscription to their memory. 

At Orossbeeren, twelve miles from Berlin, an 
obelisk has been erected iu memory of the battle 
of 1819 (near DresdenX * religions festival, 
whi^ is very folly attended by tlie Berllners, 
takes place annually on the field. 

A plefliant mn can be taken by the steamers on 
the Spree from the Jannowitz Bridge to Treptow, 
Stralao, and KSpenlck. 

. Kear the Mihnlsehe Gate, I| inll« fmn the 

city, on the left bank of the Spree, fa TreptOW, 
opposite the vUlafr** of Ptralau, from which is a 
6ue view of the town aud aurruunding country. 

Stralau (Stat.), ft fishinp village on the Spree, 
much resorted to in summer by small steamboats 
and gondolas, especially oa. the Mth of August, 
whi.h :^ a public festival hwe, eaUed '*Der 

Straiiiuer Fischiug." 

Kiipeuick, on an island on the Spree, see page <>7, 
has a royal hunting box, in whleh Joaefaim II. 
died, 1571. It Is now an army depdt. About hero 
are nifttiy beautlfxil spots, with fmo rifw?. 

Near tbe Frankfurter Gate are Llcbtcnberg,much 
frequented, especially on the festival called Das 
Mottenfest;** and, further on, on the Dantsle 
rail, Friedrichsfelde, once a royal pleasure custlc. 
Frcflcrick Anirustns, King of Saxony, was im- 
prisoned here, In 1813. Riidcrsdorf, with its chalk 
hills, and pits, a good point of view, is 17| miles 
from Berlin by rail. 

Outside tbe Prenslauw gate are some edfce 
houses and a park. 

By the Sch^nhauser Gate, after p.iS8iiig several 
Bavarian beer teewetles, we arrive at Pankow, 
vrlth Ita Pestaloaaian Listltuthm, for the poor. It 
is easily reached by omnibuses. Close to it is 
Scbonshanscn, with elegant country seats a royal 
chateau ; and a large public park, the property of 
Prluoe von Ltfgnlts. 

Outside the Boeenthalor Gate Is the Qeaand- 
brunnen or Loulsenbad, a weak mineral spring. 
Thcrf i"^ a park and restaurant here. 

About tive miles from tbe Oraulenburg Gate, 
is Tegel, a romantically situated village, with a 
bouse which belonged to Alexander Yen Humboldt, 
the traveller, who died here, 1859. The large lake 
is imu'h fre/iuented by water parties. Tramway. 

Although a great many of the places Just enume- 
rated aftord good opportunities of seeing the life 
of the Berllners, yet no stranger should visit these 
in preference to Potsdam, with Avliich Berlin Is 
now connected by rail (see next page). 

At ZeUendorf , about half-way to Potsdam, on 
the right of the rail, is the new castle of the Prince 

af Prus-^is, built, ISIT), by Schinkel. 

The new direct rail tu Dresden passes Zosscn. 
Elsterwerda, Ae. At ZMMIL, SO English miles 
fiom Berlin, Is a eamp, to which a MUttaiy 

Railway opened 1874, to Spcrcnberg and 
Schlessplatz. It was made by the railway corps 
of the army, and l» designed for drill and experi- 
ments in tbe mmwi«mant of railways In ' 

Digitized by Google 


By rail in 2^ to 4 hoar4. 

Berlin to miles. 

Potsdam 16 

Qlpss lilrettte ...... 'idf 

Qraudenbiurg ...... 

W^korwlif^ — .... 

Geiithin ..MM.....' '>^^\ 

GiiseU S6 

Burg ••••.*.• 72i 

AM (Btot) 

PopiiL&TiOir, iMiieif Inclnding TtCOO «oldt«n. 

Hotels. Einsicdler (Hermit); Dcutsclies |IaU8 
(German House), both in Schlosv-strasse. An 
excellent Buffet at the Station. 

Convex ANCEa.-~A carriage and pair, for the 
nsnal round to the iny al demesne, ^c, occup^i^ 
fonrbouri; tmnrks. 
Pmchkies at fixed tariff for Babels^ierg:, the 
Neues Pallast, &c., bufc^Utb^tto^rangetiffQfie- 
hand about the fare. 

Railway to B* i Un, Magdeburj?, Hanover, 

This Versailles of Prussia, in Brandenburg, is 
the aeoend iMldMiee of thb king, Mid standi -on 
the Petfdamer Werder, atl.Mtlid lo the Havel, 

over which are f handsome bridges. It is sur- 
rounded bore and there with vioe-clad hills. 

The Giienicker bridge la of brick, <tO foot long; 
and the Lange or Tell^wer bridge reete upon nttte 
maSifTa i^llars and eight iron arches. 

The town is Nitnated on an island in t>ir Hnv l 
which hero expands into a scries of marshy lakes, 
and abounds with handsome buildings, fine 
eqaaree, ttnd broad etreete, tome of whidi are 
almdet deserted. In Wilhelm-platz is Kiss's statue 
of Fredericlc William 111., a native of PotsJam, 
with the inscription signifying that it is dedicated 
to the Father of the Fatherland,by his gratefvltown. 

It was founded by iheGreaib Eleetwfrir Pranden* 
burg, but owes its splendour chiefly to Frederick 
the Great, by whom most of the fine buildings, 
squares, and streets were built. In the Dutch 
quarter the bdnscs are ih regular streets, in the 
Dutch sty^. 

^'e wwn Church (Nicolaikirche), in the old 
snnare, opposite the castle, is built in thp Grecian 
style, with a dome, aif^cr a design by Schinkcl. It 
has reliefs the ||j»i|iTectipn and dennon on the 

Mount. The interior is beautiful, and well worth 
seeing. On the high altar are fresco ^Intings on 
A gm ground. The pntpit, the di^itm of 
columns, Ac, are of zinc. 

This church was restored (on a scale of great 
splendour), and a dome added, iu 1850, and 
resembles lu its exterior' St. Oenevftve'e at Paris. 
Xear it In the square is an obelisk 74 feet high, 
with bas-reliefs by Giese, half-length portraits 
of the tirst Elector, and of the three first kings of 

The Oarriton md Churl OkwvA (Oarnlion* 
kirohe) has a faaudsome' tower in the butch 
style, with chimes and a musical clock. In the 

marble chancel lie the remain'? of Frederick 
William I. in a black marble vault, and also 
those of Frederick the Great In a metal sareophfl^ 
gus. Hfi sword, which was laid on the torai^ 
was carried off by the French, and is now lost. 
Near the pulpit are colours and trophies taken 
from the French. There are also some good 
paintings. FTom the gallery of the towwagood 
view is obtaiiied. 

The Peace Church (Friedensklrche), near Sans 
f=!ouci. was built in 18W, in the form of a Byzan-' 
tine basilica, with a detached tower, in the midst 
of i beautiful garden: It contains the gtvn of 
Frederick Wlllism IV., who died 1861 ; with A 
Pietk, Ranch's Moses, some obi pictures in mosaic,' 
from Murano. and other o})jerts of notice. 

The Catholic Church, a large building, contaUtf 
three beautiful pictures, by Pesn^. - ' 

TheJWMcft Churihy built l|53-4t by Bouniann; 
on the plan of the Pantheon at Rome. In the 
niches over the chief entrance ai"e two lignres of 
Love and Hope. Two bas-reliefs stand over Ui| 
door, viz., the Parable of the Tribute ^oney, and 
the Expulsion of the Money l-enders. 

The Tmn jgra7/(Ratbbaus) wasbuiltby Boumann,^ 
1754. on the model of I lie town ball at Amsterdam. 
On the steeple of the round tower is a colossal 
metal statue of Atlas supporting the four parts 
of the world. 

The Royal Castle (Residenz-Schloss), or Palace, 
built 1660-1700, is a fine old bunding, hear the 
Teltower gate, begun b^ Chlese, and finished bj^ 
Fried, von Knobelsdorf for 9^de^» fh^^feat. 

The third storej', the side wings, the matble mt* 

T-'-z.- '" 71 .:;r. , t.? • :5, i.i v.,.i..>..w 

Digitized by Google 

Route 1.1 

cfse, and other import dnt cmbelUshinent?, are by 
thi^s last architect. The ia^adie towards the Lust- 
^|t|<S)S <^easnN0roiiucU) consists of throe storeys, 
tiie projections of W&Icfe| are odoriied wUli statues 
arid vasis The chief ^'iitcn ay in the court 
of the castle was built 1700-1, by De llodt, 
mid decorated by Charpcntler. On both sieves 
of this porch. In ths wlnig of the building, is the 
itain Guard house! The Interior of t|ie Palace Is 
adorned with prcnt sjiIciuToui-. and amongst the 
apartments bhuwn to stranirci s arc (ho^e once occii- 
Died by Queen Louisa, and Frederick William HI., 
WparUralarlytbbsepf l^'MlMc^ Here 
Arc still to be seen his piano, writing table, books, 
&c., and a rooni in which he dined without the 
attendance of servants, by means of a trap door, 
whioh lets down a table, Ac. To sec the interior, 
aj^lieattofi must b6 made to the castellan, on tbe 
gfoniid 0oor of tb« palftce, oA the bxld^ side. 

The Oomnf<9idg^vr Cffbifm^ or Qomniandsa^'s 

Housf !M>;ir the Palaco. Is from a design by Fulla- 
dio, with fourteen Roman pilasters. It is two 
Storeys high, and surmounted by a fig-ure uf Alt iea. 

Tbc lAtitgof ten. or Pleasure Garden, laid out at 
thn fsyoio time as the Palace, has tjeautiful shadjr 
W#kii tii4 httSs'of flovera; ali6 a rtstotolr, in 
•which i| ^ ^ijiBgionRof ^]«tiMiefuidy^lis,fit. 
tin^ in a carria^'e of shells, draiyu by sea horses, 
and surrounded by Tritons. Upon the four squarc- 
eorncred pillars and jpcdcstals, partly of marble 
and partly of granite, are placed the basts o| eight 
celebrated Russian genoruls, and also that of the 
Emperor Alexander of Ihissia. In tho Park arc 
twelve marble statues, standing in a line from the 
Atvnitt to the parade ground ; si.x j^russian cannon 
df dlmurent mhltafy epochs; 4nd the beautiful 
promenade Idh the watei^ side. 

Other tmidlngs wor|h notice are the following:— 

The Lon^ Stable, near the Garrison Church; the 
Manufactory of Anns; theMilitary Orphan House, 
for the children of soldiers, four storeys hifrh, with 
1^ tower and steeple ; tbe NewCasiijio, by Scliiukel, 
the i^recian stylo; the New'fiarracks of the 
Hussar GfUar4 and Uhlans; a moderate-sized 
'J^j^^i^i the Cadet's School (^adettenhaas). ' 

Half a Day's Sight-seeing.— Take the mil 
from Potsdamer Thor, 2nd cUm xieinm, ^m.i6 pC, 


get out at Wildpark Station (only certain trains 
stop here); then on foot to the New Palncc at 
Sans Souci; seethe interior; ^ben to the rij^ht 
the Frcnndscbaiftstem^l ' to Qbsriot'tenhof (sea 
the interior), Gardener^s Honse and the Soman 
Baths: then to the Japanese House, and the 
Schloss Sans Souc! (see the interior); and next 
thiuu^'li tlie Sicilian GardcQ, past the Win4mUhio 
to the North Garden and the Ocau^ery (see tbe 
Raphael Hall and the Tower)} ba^totheobelisic 
at Sans Souci and to the Frledenskirche. From bore 
a carriage up tho Pfingstbergand thronj-'h the town 
to the Brauhausberg, close to which is the station. 

Places of lnip-eft.—-\xi the environi» are niaiiy 
pleasant walks, nmch f requented by the inhabi- 
tants of Potsdam and Berlin. The ilrewjtoiM&crg 
(Brewhouse Hill), near the Observatory, has a 
beautiful view from its Belvedere and tiymnasiiim, 
over tiie whole of tho town and neighbomhuud. 
lAia» <3i<niiete, a charmiiiglf situated village, with 
a castle and par^ belonging to Prince Charles, Ss 
one of the many near Sans Souci. Ah.miufi'otcka, a 
Uussiian colony brought hert by Fredci ick Williaiu 
^I., having a Greeic Church with three domes, on 
Chapel Hill. The BaMtberg with the park and 
castle of the Emppror William 1. It was laid out 
by Prince Puckler Muskan. Gw>d view from tlie 
Gothic colonnade. In tbe castle is Hum bold is 
study 'y the (great traveller was l>orn at Potsdam. 
kiM^»g, a^nifslan colony oi^site l^faneninsel, 
npon a4teei|[^ wointed hill, vtth f ^ae TieW. 

Paretz, a village with pleasure castle and 
park, which was the favourite residence of Fred- 
erick William HI. iSterawas Frederick Williaiu 
Vt hunting sei^t* The JSkMet$e/mze (Kobber's 
£Drt)/orBlfnet86han«^ a haanttful wooded htli, 
to which many water Jwirties are made. Werder^ 
a pleasant little ])lace on the island of Werdor, 
which supplies fish aud (ruit, aJid is much fre- 
aueqte4. J^amiftf^ CT<WlfflK» Isltnd), agreeably 
sttwted oD the Sarel, 3,800 ii^t long, and 900 
broad, with fine rows of trees, and above 300 larga 
old oaks. Frederick William II. first bopran to lay 
out the island, which at first was only a rabbit 
■#i|MB; hut tt owts tto piM«ifc ^prnvementa to 
ft»d«rlek: 'WI]||amm^ who built a eountiy-Aai 
here after tho model of a decayed Roman villa; it 
has a bridge And.i^« tAFfirs. iom vhlfib these i* 

Digitized by CoogM 

16 BHAi>«aAW'ft 

a fine iricW. flw DiUry represents a Gothic 
ruin, and hns n fine tIcw over the Havel. 
The Cavalier or DaHtigeir-Hau$ is after a design of 
Scbinkcl. The Palmenhaus, a green-bouse for 
iropteal plants, including many kinds of palms. 
Permlssten to visit It must be obtained from the 
Court p:ar*!onor THp Rosntftarten, containing a 
great variety of roses, is open to the public on 
Tuesdays and Thursdays. 

BaaiSoucL— Tbie beautiful retreat was built 
by Frederick the Oraat ia 174ft-.7, after the irtt 
flileslan war. Here Voltaire resided for a time 

It was liittprly the rcslderre of Fredoriok William 
IV. aiid his widow, and was occupied by the Prince 
and Frineeis FMderick WUIiani. The gardens 
eoinmence at the Brandenburg Gate, near the Tllla 
of the Princess de Leignitz, charmingly situated 
on the left. They are entered by a hroad avenue, 
between two colossal sphinxes playing with 
eupids, of Camim msrtile. 

Upon aplllar etandsa fine Bnstof Paolo Giordano, 
Duke of Braedano, of Egyptian porphyry, a lender 
of the mercenaries tinder the RepuMir of Venice. 
Frederick II. bought this head for 20,000 thalers. 
It wae eanied off by Napoleon to Parte, from 
whence it waa restond with the Victory of the 
Brandenburg Gate in 1814. This bust stands 
before the principal Fountain, which sends out a 
jet of water about 110 feet high. It is surrounded 
by twelve mythological marble statnet and groups, 
nine bdng by the brothers Adam. These areas 
follaws; Air; Watpf; Venus; Mlnorva; Mnrs; 
Earth; Ju]iiter, with lo, transformed intuabuil; 
Juno, with the iteacock; Fire; Diana coming out 
of the hath; Apollo and the Taaqialshed Python ; 
Mereury. This last is a copy, by Barges, of that 
executed at Paris, by Pijjalle, 174H. The original 
stands in the vestibule of the castle of Sans Sonci. 
The Venue is also by Pigalle. 

At eome dietance around this reswvotr, are four 
marble eoinnans, soft, high, with gilt Oorlnthiaa 
capitals, upon which are the ftntnrttoH of the 
Venus de'Medici, Apollo, Bacchus, and Hope; the 
last by Thorwaldsen. 

Throngh the gate we arrive at the principal 
walk, paaetng several buete, and statttee of the 
Great Elector and bis wife^ hesidet fonr of the 

*iaMe and Priacesfee of Oiwife. 


On the right, not fair fAmi the picture-gallery, it 

the Orotto of yt'pf line, covered inside v\-hh shplli. 
At the top stands a statue of Neptune, 9ft. high. 
On both sides of the grotto are little cascades, 
epringing from water Jugs, poured out by two 

On the other side of the great reservoir is 
another Imsln, with a fontitain in the siiap*^ of a 
glass bell. There are many other groups iu niair ble, 
statnee and Tases, all dceenrlng of attention. 

Behind the great basin rise six terraces, 60ft. 
high, above which stands the Palace. On all of 
them are lurge handsome hot-houses, containing 
many orange and laurel trees. From the top, as 
well as from the windows of the palace, la an ex- 
tensive view. 

The Palace of Sans Souci is a long 0!i"-st«»rcycd 
building, consisting of three parts, viz.: the C'ai»tle 
itself ; the Picture Gallery on the right, situated 
aomowhat lower; and the new Chambers, or 
Caralier Haw, on the left. 

The principal front is turned towards the garden. 
Behind are three ascents-, r»f which the middle ono 
leads to a colonnade, iu the form of a crescent, with 
88 Corlntbian pillars. Near this are the grarea 
of FNd«rick*a bottle horse, and hie f avovrlto doge. 

Behind the Mew Boom is the WMmBt, oele* 

brated in Prussian history ; the owner of which 
gained a law-suit against Frederick the Great, 
who wished to pull it down. It vtna originally 
very small, but having been burnt, was rebuilt by 
Ftaderiek WUllam Ul. 

8ana8onciwas built from the design of Frederick 

the Great and Frederick von Knobelsdorf, by the 
architects Hiidebrandt and Huhring. Tlie interior 
is still fitted np as it was designed by Frederick. 

Among the rooms, the most remarlcabie is the 
Gyptum MarbU Room^ with Corinthian pillars, and 
naarble atatttos of the Emperors Trajan andXaiena 

The Marble Room is an oval, surr^^'"'^ ^7 sl^c- 
teen Corinthian marble pillars, with groups in 
marble by Ueymlillcr and Benkert. In the two 
niches are two very beantlfnl marble atatnea, by 
CasiNur Adama, of Venue and Apollo; at the foot 
of Urania is the colossal b«al of Ohailet ZII. of 
Sweden by Boochardoo. 

Digitized by Google 

Kuute 1.] 


The Concert Rooms of Frederick the Great, con- 
t4in the music-desk inlaid with tortoise-shell »t 
Wueb he vaed to pUy the flata^ tsd also flte 
benlifol pafaitliigs by WtttMVt Pune, *c. 

The Audience Chamber has the fine old pietutc 
of Hercules strangling the Serpent, and twenty 

to prove that the Sereu Tears' War had stiH left 
Mia mon^y t» t^d. H«f« tito Crown Prfaic^ ind 

Are fotir wingt ih the prindpal front fhclnp the 
jrard*n of Bans Soncl. nltorether fJ50 feet lon^r, 
the Whole ornamented with sorcral htindred 

V» AAVAWWBW oa^-.^...'^ » — — • — B T - I ^ 

beautiful paintings, by Watteau, Fesue, Caae, and i figures and pt)ups on the roof. On the steeple of 

ttft frtnit, ttWrkrds the fiarikh, kn ihe ThH« tdrtdi 

beaifikg ihiB royal crown, and on the cspltil tfce 
Prussinn ea?I.\ with the irmtK "!^cc soU^dtt" 
(Ho docs not give way even to the Sun). 

The Interior is more highly and splendidly deco- 
rated than the rest of the royal i>uinccs,andcohtaiha 
above 200 handsome rooms, of which, however« 
only a part are open to the visitor, on application 
to the head castellan, The principal entrance 
leads to the vestibule, which is wholly ornamented 
by SUesian marble. In the middle is a hand'some 
porcelain vase on a pedestal of StbeHAn marble, 
the gift of the BoqEMfor of Bussla. 

The Givtiirte Saal, or (Jrotto Boom, has a 
marble floor: and the walls and massive pillars 
adorned with shells, corals, and costly mineral* In 
the fonn of a grotto, hare a Teiy effective ^qpear* 
ance. Here are two tables of black stone, inlaid 
with niothtr-of-poarl ; sixteen hi^li reliefs of 
marble, painted ceiling by Ncidllch, and two 
crystal cups on marble. 

The Vintors' Room contalm fine pAiatingt by 
WUhnamik Pa«l YenmM, J. Dmw, Citira, C. 
Mamtta, *e. 

The Chamber of Rt'<1 Dainafl- and CoM. Here 
are a retaarkablc beautiful porcelain Cnp, and 
twenty good paintings by Tintoretto, Poussin, 
Guldo, Titian, Ac. The Writ^g Cabinet has 
sevend Hue paintlngli. 

The Lmv* JUarbte Room is 108ft. ]<nig, 01ft. 
broad, 41ft. high; its floor is in mosaic marble ; the 
ceiling painted by Vanloo. A niafiii''iop,!t view 
from the windows. Here the baptism ot the (.then) 
Crown Prince's youngMt chUd was celebrated, 
1872, Prince Humbert, now Humbert I. of Italf 
standing godfather. 

In the Library is a MS. of Frederick, the Great, 
with remarks and corrections by Voltali-o. Notice, 


The BadHMM of Fndertok maM-A ak II was 

dtiring his life ; the Clock still pointlrtp to the hour 
of his death, viz.: 2h.20m. in the afternoon of 
irth August, 1786. 

Kcar W Vidtak^* aom, ill vhMi are hit wtiHcs, 
and a IMuttfol tlock of IMuiwi tte PMd'iAdottr. 
On the walls are iooolb caricatures of Vciltalre's. 

The Phrture -Gallery near the castle has before it 
ciirhtcen statues of Carrara marble. It is 260 feet 
long, and still contaliis aolUi Bm <dd iMntlBts^ 
thongb the greater part of tho collection made by 
Frederick the GreiA Ha been MuaoTed to the 
ronsenm at "Berlin. 

Exactly behind tho castlo is the Ruinenhury, 
With tfa* AttAi^ xWdervMr fofr \h» water-works. 
Artidelal mins aoiAfend the faasfni. The appa- 
Ht%9 for ralMngtWe ivate^Ho'^ neaf the Branden- 
burg Gate, on the TFTavcl . These water-works play 
on Sunday, Tuesday-, and Thursday. 

A long avenue, 4houi thJfoe-^uAritts of a mil* 
Vinw, leads W the^s Sonci b the Palace. 
^ tfec left is the Japanese ttouse, cSnllei by fc«d- 
erlck II. his "Monkey Honsc." 

On the right of the principal avenue, near the 
Few Palace, is thi ]btui^kim,M Antique Tm 
tchneriy an old bmple, or totundis, In a wood. 

here l8 it llife-size recumbent marble stnfno of 

Qneon T.o'nisa, by ttaucb, on Which he was engaged 

fifteen years. She lies asleep, and a rosy glow Is 

made to *al4«mm«fcitembbUtfe<ott«h*#l»dto# 

it^g wltii i-etl. 

bn the ieh of tfiis avenue is thA Temple of 
fS-i^ndsfifp, built entirely of ttalian marble, and 
surrounded by flowering plants. In this la a 
mirbleMlftteofttie lHOam^ of b41iianih,the 
%ysee of Ihidericfc 11., In a sfttin^ posth^. 

Thfe yew Palace, buUt 1763-69. by FrederieTc II., 
St a cost r.f ? Rnn r>oo tha'.pr?, after the design of . . , 

1 . , ^ A i.^f r^Hhrirk 400feetlimk ^ also, the Upper Marble Oallei^raiid State Apart- 

Digitized by Google 


[Sec. I. 

The CoomiUHt are two piles oppobite the New 
FtlaM, in the Bcnalmaee «t7le, formerly ued for 
the Moeptton of strangren, but now tnmod Into 
barracks. Next to this are tlic Park and the 
Castie of CfiaHottmhof, a beautiful villa of the late 
king's, designed by Schinkel, and adorned by 
Mm, wlion Crown Frinoe, in imitation of a Piom- 
fitUm house. In the garitoni is a Pompeian bath, 
with a pavilion, and many works of ait, brought 
from Herculaneum, Ac. 

The Marbtt fiataee (Harmor-Falals), near the 
Kanenor Thor, In tho now gardm, was ImlU for 
IVodarlck William II , by Gontard, Langhaus, and 
Kriiger, of native marble. It is a handsome build- 
ing, at once tasteful and gorgeous, and contains 
•rabesqaflt tram tliaMibelangen, witli modon pic- 
tnroi, busts, and portraits of omlnont Germans. 

In. tlie middle of the vestibule, supported by four 
pillars, are two statues of Carrara marble, viz.: 
Girl playiug the Harp, by Broghes, and the Fisher 
Boy, by WiAL 

The Orotto Boom has its walls inlaid with shell 
and marble. The ceiling represents Koptune and 
his wife in a shell carriage There arc also two 
beautiful statues by Wolff and Wichmonn. 

The Ttttovf Room lias a painted ceiling, by Rhode, 
a valuable astronomical clock, andapiateof yellow 
and white agate, on which is a statuette of Merle 

In the WMte Lackered Room are landscapes by 
HttteC, beautiful Etmsesn Tuses, and a splendid 
dodc onoe bdon^ng to the M anshlonees de Pom- 

The Blue Lackered Room— A painted ceUing by 
Ff Iseh, and a camp stool on whl^ EVederick II. 


The Writing Cafttn^<— A very beautiful vase, by 
Canova, of Carrara marble, and three fine marble 

▲ splendid maible etatreaee^ lighted flram above, 

leads from the Te<;tihn1e to tho second storey. Here 
is the Oriental Cabinet, hung like a Turkish tent, 
with a table in oriental mosaic which belonged to 

The Landeeape Room contains landscapes by 
Lntkc, anfi n beautiful alabaster vase. 

The Brotcn Rtyim f^ontaiiis a marble chimney- 
plcce, on which are caryatides, by Cavazeppi, from 
Romet and seven vases by Wedgwood. 

The great marble staircase leads to the Belve- 
deie; whence is obtained a splendid view of Pots- 
dam and the oottntry aronnd. 

In the new garden is the OrangeHe^ bnllt by 
Langhaus, with a luind^oino saloon. The Kitchen, 
built in the form of n half-sunken tenipic ruin, is 
Joined to the Marble Palace by an underground 
passage. The Boed Bmtto is by Brandel. The 
Grotto, built of ironstone and scoria, is inlnid with 
minerals and glass in the interior. The Ha-mitage 
has a marble mosaic floor, representing the five 
parts of the wiwid. TIm (ktekhiOHee^ with an cx- 
odlent view. Other objeets are the TMnMigo, 
the Little Fisherman's House, and the OotMe fbiw, 
with Its Library of French books. 

From Potsdam the rail passes Qross-Kreutl, 
whence a dlllgenee nms three times a day to 
Titlwrilii whereisallneoldabbey^hnreh,restoied 
in 1879. 

48 mDes from Berlin. 
PopDLaTioir, S7,fltS. 

lIOTEt.f;. Schwarzer BUr ; Sohwaner Adler 
(Black Eagle); Brandeburg'. 

Droschkies at the railway station. The diivers 
have tickets, with the number and ttie fares. 

Diligences to Rathenow and to Belalg. 

This is the chief town of the old Electorate; and 
the Havel divides it into tho Old Town, New 
Town, and the Dom — or Burg — Insel, a low lying 
district between the Old and New Towns, caned 
Venice, built on wooden piles. 

Upon the Dom-Insel stands the Old Cathedral, 
1170-1307, restored In 1834 by Schuikel. It has a 
fine altai^piece by Lucas Cranach; the tomb of a 
Margrave ; and several antique statues and paint* 
ings, and some relics. A stone, inscribed "Judith 
the gem of the Polacks," marks thr vault of the 
wife of Albert the Handsome (sometiiucs styled 
thoBearX fheJIfet Maigrave and the founder of 
Berlin, who took the town by assault from the 
Wends, 1153. 

A amaWov Cathedral Church is Catholic, and is 
ono of the oldest buildings, dating from 1400. 

The KathoriKOH Chnrch Is an Interesting Qothle 
brick building. At the npper end are large screens 
of rich open tracery, with a fine altar-piece of 
carved wood, an old hronzo font (14iO>, and a 

Digitized by Google 


In tlie Altetadt U llie old B<iiium«iqti«-Gothtc 
eltlirch of St. Goilebard, a portion of which dates 
from IICO, and the llathhnus, which bplonjrs 
to the 13th rcntury. Beyond the Altstadt Is the 
Mik.olai-Kirchc of the 12th century, close tu tb« 
wMtern cemeterjr. 

Tbe Bolands Saule, before the n.\thhnu'^, is 
eighteen foet high, built 1404. The New Rathliaus 
dates from the I4th century, but has been modern- 
ised and spoiled. Some of tbe town gates af* old, 
»nd hftTO (deturef que brick towen. Both Old and 
Kow Towns were once surrounded by walls. 

There nre pleasant walks to the old CaMJc and 
Church of Maricnberg-. On this hill is a tower, 1 14 
feet high, erected in 1880 as a inonnment to Bran- 
denbnrgorswbo fell In the warSf 1864 to 1871. The 
Plancn Canal unites the Havel with the Elbe. 

Brandenburg was founded in the third century, 
and was formerly called Brennabor (the Forest 
Burgh) ; it was the chief town of the circle or 
IMrovlnee, from which the Old Marie of Brandenburg 
derives its name. The province is a sandy plain, 
including Berlin, Potsdam, Priegnita, KiSnigsburg, 
Ktistrin, and Frankfort-on-the-Oder. The Old 
ICarfc having lapsed to the imperial erown In 1820, 
was pledged by tbe Bmperor Sigismiind for 400,000 
gulden to Flrederick Burgrave of Nuremberg, of 
tbe House of Hohenzollern. :if forwards created 
aerentb Elector and Arch-Uhaa)li>erlain of the 

This prinee, ealled the Elector Frederick I., was 

the first independent sovereign in the line of the 
reltnilnfr hoose. He died 1440, and was succeeded oy 
Frederick II. of the Iron Teeth, who redeemed tbe 
Kew Mark which had been pledged to the Teutonic 
Knights, and increased his possessions by the 
acquisition of Pomerania and Mecklenburg. Joa- 
chim II., styled Hector, built the new Palace at 
Berlin. Joachim Frederic founded tbe Joachims- 
thal School. His son« John SIgismund, Inherited 
the Dnehy of Prussia, hitherto a Polish llei; but 
from henceforth united with Brandenburg. In 
lft40 reigned Frederick Wiliiani, the Great Kur- 
fUrst, or Great Elector, so called from his skill 
and stiecess as a statesman and soldier. Ho died 
ftt 1688, leaving Prussia greatly increased in terri- 
tory and Twwer. His son, Frcrlrrirl<: III , in 1701, 
was tbe first to take the title of King of Prussia, I 


under tbe title of Frederick I. He was the father 
of Frederick tbe Oreal, or Frederick II. in the 

regal line. 

Burg (Stat.), on the Ihle. Population, 
16,890. A town with large cloth uianufnctures, 
established by the Huguenots, who, when driTen 
from France, 1088, were settled here by the Great 

MAaDEBURQ (8«At.). 

On the Elbe. 

Population. 202,32.5, inclnslTe of KSCSTADV^ 

Maodeiu K(;, and Hlckai'. 

Hotels.— Magdcburgerhof; Central: Wcschoi 
Raiscrliof; MUller. 

Railwatb. — > To Hanover, Hambuiv, Wltten- 
burf , Halle, A;e. To Lelpslc direct, vl4 Zerbst, 
was op^ied 1874. 

Steamers.— To Hamburg in 15 hours. 

Tramway from Neustadt and Buckan to Sudan* 


DnoscuKiBs.— 1 to 2 persons, iO pf.; 3 persons, 
75 pf.; 4 persons, 1 mk. 

This important town and fortress stands at the 
iunctlou of sevenlnils, and, though comparatively 

modem, its streets arc mostly narrow and Irmg nl^ r, 
except the Breite "Weg. or Broadway, a wide 
thoroughfare, running the whole length of tbe 
city. It Is the seat of the Oovemor of the Province 
of Pmsslan Saxony, and of a Protestant Bishop, 
and is the centre of the l>cetroot sugar ludUftiy, 
and also of large manufactures. 

The Old Town was defended by a citadel and 
several forU { the old ftkrtlBeatlons were removed 
in 1866, and replaced by outer bastions, Jkc. The 
citadel was built 1680, on an island, and was 
approached by a long bridge. Hero La Fayette 
was imprisoned, 1811. Tbe Frederick William 
Bridge, 1,080 feet long, is near the Thnrrosehanse 
Fort. In the Stem or Star Fort, Baron Trenck 
and Grnrrrti Walgrrave were confined. The latter 
was the builder of the Fort, and died in !t confined 
as a traitor. Napoleon annexed the town to the 
kingdom of Westplialla, 1800-14. 

In the Thirty Years' War Magdebni^ was un- 
f TiccessfBlly be<^iep:ed by Wallenstein, sifter seven 
montlis' Attempts, while Otto v. Guerike (inventor 

Digitized by Coogi4i 



of the air pump) was bur?omas|f r ; htit two years 
later, on 10th May, 1631, after three months' 
mlataBM, It WM taken by TiUjr, and giT«ii up to 
thf«e ikj9* idlUtge. Uinrards of 30,000 of tM 
Inhabitauts were killed, and all the buildinga 
burnt, except 130 houses, one church, and the 
Cathedral, in wiiich about 1,000 of the aurviTora 
found refuge. The leit was aayed at tbe Inter- 
eeetioa of Canon Bake, who had been Tilly's 
schoolfellow A stnnc head over the house of the 
•Bnrpomaster Kiihiewein, in the Broadway, with 
this inscription, "Think of the 10th May, 1631," 
eommemonitei tbe name of the manthiongh wboM 
traaehery the town was taken. The sack, howerer 
dreadfnl, was according to the military practice of 
the arf>. and was one of the penalties of employing 
041 ill-paid aoldierj'. Harte's "Life of Guatavua 
Adolphni'* eontotns a diary of OTonts as kept hf 
a Lnthetin dergymni. 

Near the Town Hbnse, bollt 1601, stands the 
equestrian SUfttie of the Emperor Otho /., with hifc 
twn Queens, one of the oldest monnmentf< of the 
kind in Germany (13th century) ; it was restored 
18^8. Close by is a bronse of Burgomaster Flranke, 
' t^l. In the Bltter-ttitsse is « statne of G. O. 
8chr5ter, a afttlvii, M the lAtMtoir of the piano- 

The Cathe^-al is a vetieralile Ootliic building, 
founded by the Emperor Otho about 1211, and 
anished about 1363} it was completely restored by 
Fkederiek IVllliam lit. The f rencb need it as a 
megasine during their oecnpatiott of the city. 

It httl tiro ■teteenilMedtuty towers, that on the 

Hbrtlk 340 feet high, and is 690 feet long. Under 

the prlnclf)al entrance is the bronze monument of 
Archbishop Eniest, by Peter Vischer, of Nurem- 
berg, 1497< The nave rests on twelve pillars. It 
eontaltfl & fln'ety earved dlahdster Pulpit, hy 
Sehitsttitt t^i-tet or Caput, 1691; A Fdnt of por- 
phyrj'- a \l\ir\\ Altar of fssper, arid many small 
Altars. In the transefH ire Veiy old wall paintings 
uf former bishops of tbe Cathedra]. A remarkable 
stone, ealled lAe «*Bidbd flttitfV* ii peinted 
out, ott ift'hieb the diss6lilt(e Blsb'dp Odo wis 
t!er!\iprtftt<'d In t!i4 lilght by in In-risiblei spirit 
H^re they Bbow Tilly's piitol, helmet, glove, and j 
baton, and Tetzel's Indulgenoe Box. The great 1 

Organ contains some mechanism by which the 
statues of the apoitlei and angels sremoted. 

There arc three painted windows, presented hy 
Frederick William III^ Emperor Mlchdlas of 

Russia, and Ernest, Kinpr of Hanover, in remem- 
brance of the conferences in 18SS. Portraits of 
Otho 1. and II. are discerned among the arches 
at tbe east end, and the carvings, wttleh Are Teiry 
bcautlfuL The founder, Otho I., and his (^iiebn 
Editha, who was daughter of our Edyrard T., were 
buried in the Cathedrnl; from the tower of which 
is a fine view, including the course of the Elbe, 
the country as far as the Brbeken 111 the Bars, and 
the Petersberg at Hatte. 

Among the monuments is one of Canon Bake or 

Beke, who used his influence with Tilly tn ^^tc 
the cathedral from destruction when the town wa5 
sacked; and aiiio one to Frau von Asseburg. a 
woman, who liaTlag been hurled alive by mistake, 
returned home the night following, and surrivcd 

this accident nine years, during which she bore 
«CTeral children. On the walls nre tablets to the 
memory of the men of Magdeburg, who fell in the 
War of Liberation. 

m, Mm** onm^ has two towers, feet higi. 

gt, Catherine's Cfhttrch, rebuilt 1669, contains a 
portrnSf of T Titbi^r in an old glass painting. Luther, 
when a boy, went to the Franciscan School here, 
1497-98. The BAattitm <7Aiireft contains the tomb 
of Otth rom Onerike, nbove mentioned. 

The Komanesqnc Liebfrauenklrche is in the stylo 
of the ^2th and 13th centuries, and is near ihe 

TbH FMrttenwall (Prlnee*s Bampart), on Ihe 
Elbe, is h public pvomenada, on which are Ihe 

Government buildings, near the railway station. 

In the public Cemetery, neur the Kriiken Gate 
at the north end of the town, a plain stone marks 
the grave of Ccmot, the mathematidaa and 
Minister of War in the French Bev«4utton, who 
dird bTe In banishment, 1823. 

Magdeburg is the centre from which railways 
start to the Ilhine, Hamburg, Halle, and Leljpsic. 

AlttM 40nrttes long isopentoBailslMB, Venliml* 

denilelMn, and OebiSfU^lift towards Ila never. 

AtnofLf the plar<»?5 of arnn«^eTnenf i« thr- Fricdrich 
Wiihelm GArdeo (1810), in which a pillar is 

Digitized by Gopgle 

Some l.J HASu-Booit to os^^A^r.— V9I'?]»v|V'^«l« baukswicm. 


From Magdebui'g to Brunswick, 
I)y in II, as under:— 
EfigiUh I 


K(iiii.rf^lilttcr 45 
Brunswick 54 

Ma;r Jol)nr{? to miles 
NiedcnulodPlcbcu ... 6 i 

Kilslchoii I'.t 

Mafienbom 24 j 

HebBctedt 96 j 

Vp to 1872 the onljr line was hy Hadnwrsleben, 
OidienltttMHi (bran^ to Tbnic in the Harz, sec 
Routes ?5 and 2f:), Jprxhoim (branch to Uetmstedt, 
16 miles), and Wolfenbuttcl. 

This line is now only used for slow trains. 

BHatttedt (Stat.), an old town of Brnnswlek, 
fonoerly noted for Us University. 

/ttn. Dcutschr's Tlan'?. in the !^Ir\rlcpt-plnfp. 

lo the ijchut^f nHatz is n bruuzc monument to 
Wl0»e who fell at \\ aterloo. 

the Jutet$m, f ormeriy tho ITnlverslty, l» in the 
Byzantine style. At the suppressed convent of St. 
I^udp-eri, near the town, is :i fine church with a 
holy well, and an iron cross, cn ctcd 1845, in honour 
•fthe Saint, who first preached the Gospel here. 

The IMbautelne, on Comellns lllil, are sussed 
to he sacrlfioing stones of heathen times. 

The "nppressed Convent of the Augustine order, 
oa the Marienburg, has a Idtb century church. 

A short distance fnmi the town are the Clarabad 
•nd Bad Hdmstedt Hydropathic Bstahllstunents, 
*Uh iron and steel springs. 

(Short direct line to OObiSfelde.] 

The only station of note between Ilelmstcdt and 
Bntpswick is Kdnlgsluttor, with n Romanesque 
church, fonnded 11S5, by Lothah: H. Tombi of 
l>lmselt his wife, and son-in-law. 

[The old rail ^rocs by ^^schcrslebenand Jonthcim 
Siap the Brun&wick t( n itory at 

n^PPenstedt (Stat.) An open town on tho 
4lt^n«u, witii alaive chnreh. '* Till Enlenspleecl," 
Was born in tho neighbourhood, at the village of 
^eitlingcn, in the first haU of the fonrteenth 
•Wtury. Then to 

?«?^Xl0ir, 14,^4. ' 
AovtiL— kcoBftrlpa. 

A town on the Ocker, in the Duchy of Bmns- 
It the |:]^ii4enc« of the I>ii|ce tlU 11^ 

and ftUl the seat of the Sapceme Covrtt of 

Justice, Ac. It consists of the town proper bk I 
two ruinous suburbs, on the site of th( Id walls. 
Chief objects arc the Arsenal, Castle, and Barrack 
the Pttbllc Gardens, and the large and excellent 
Librcfrg, which contains abore 800,000 vols., 8,000 
MS8., 300 Bibles, among which is Lufhcr't BihJr, 
with notes in his own handwriting, his wedding 
ring, glass, spoons, and portrait by Cranach, a 
great number of iH)litical pamphlets, and a missal, 
pahitedby A. Dttrer. Letting^ the Getinan scholar, 
was for a long time the librarian, and nore lately, 
Ebers, a well known bihliographt'r. 

At the entrance is Lessiiuj s siattte, on an old 
altar <ii Blankenbniff marble; with tnglc and 
comic masks, and the inscription, ''G. G. iLessinc, 
philosopher, poet, and the pride of Gcnnany, at 
once the favoni ito of the Muses, aud of his friends. 
Some of his grateful contemporaries erected Ibis 
monument to him, 1795.** Here he published his 
learned '*Wo1fenbttttel Fragments f also, his 
Fables, in prose and verse, an English transla- 
tion of which is p iljli!*hed by Nntt, In the Strand. 

The old building was replaced (1888) by a new 
one, but the small house In which Lessbig llred 

>'^f. Man/s Church 1?; a bpantlfnl old building, 
with a ti' w tower, and contains the vault of the 
ducal family. Leather gloves and paper goods are 
made here. 

^car the railway station, where the Magdeburg 

and Bmn<5wiclc. and the Brunswick and Ua.rTh\\r>^ 
lines unite, is a rcstauraut, having a fine view 
of the Brociien.] 

BBUN^HnCK (Stat-; 

FOFULATIOM, 101,047. ' " 
IlDfS.'-Dentsehefl Haus; Hotel de Prusae; 

Blaurr Kngel; Schraders; Eiche. A good refresh- 
ment room at the station, near Wilhelm's Gate, 
Brunswiclc is noted for its sausages, and Mutiime, 

a k^nd of pwee^ beer, once known In England. ^ 
grooveless Triun is open. 

Tlie chief town of the Dtiehy of Brunswick 
(called £raunachu€ig in German), and someiime tho 
residence of the duke; watered by several aiuis 
of the (kHuT. The thousandth year of Its f onnda- 
tion pj Bruno of Saxony was celebrated in ISi^t. 
It was a member of the Bwieatie League^ and is 


Digitized by Google 


now An old-lookUig picturesque town, oontaining 
nMny timbered houtet of the isnh century, a 
peculiarity of theio boln^ that their sides fnce tlte 
■trect. The v«.v - j^ates remain, but tlic fortifica- 
tion* and walls wura razed by tlic French, 1794, 
and the site laid out in wullcs and gardens. The 
ta,g is btoe aad yellow. 

Most of the iiutlqaitios here originated with 
Henry the I. ion. Incladiiifr h\-z oivn momnnejit, 
called the Lijwonsiiulo, near thc» C fitlicdral, a 
broii7.e, said to )iavc been bi'oujjflit by bim from 

Constantinople. It faces his ancient palaee, used 
as a banraelL since 175S, and now restored. 

The Cathedral of St. Blaizo (Burgklrche) was 
briih ill tlie Romanesque style, by IIcnr>- the Lion, 
after his return from Palestine, 1194; and was 
enlarged by the addltkm <^ aisles, in the 19th 
eentury. On tha high altar, beneath which is an 
ancient cryjit, is the seven-branched Candlestick, 
glren by Hcmy, lilce the one seett by him in the 
Temple Church of Jerusalem. The altar is of 
Pnrbeck marble, on Ave pillars; the table was the 
gift of his wife Matilda, sister of Bichard Coeur 
do Lion. There arc maiij^ relics brouprht from the 
Iloly I-and, besides some early frescoes, broiigbt 
to light in repairing the church, 18M. Here are 
the tombs it Ucury the Lion, and his wife 
Matilda; also the family vault of the Dukes of 
Brunswick, surrounded by four sleeping lions of 
iron. Among nine of the line of Guclph buried 
here, are Duke Charles William, who was mortally 
wounded at Jena, ISOff, and his son Fredericlc 
William, killed at Qnatre Bras, at the head of bit 
famous Black Brunswiclters. The pari an ds placed 
there by his people are still seen on his coffin. 
Here also is the grave of bis sister, Caroline of 
Brunswiclc, the unhapfiy wife of George IV. 
Burgenhagen, or Fomeranns, used to preach here 
at the Reformation. 

The Ducal Palace (Hcbidcnz Schloss) was burnt 
in 18S0 during an insun-ection. A new palace 
built in its stead was also burnt by accident in 
1865, and has been rebuilt in a handsome style, 
410 feet lonc' Priiu-*' Albert of Prussia is the 
present Regent of Brunswick. 
^^|^i(ar<M'« Church, a fine Gothic building of the 

^■jiigTy, remarkable for ltsseul|ilnT«d p«lpit, 
trass font (1444). 

lYear it is the Altstadt Bathhaas, or OM JbMi 
HtUl^ a curious Gothic pile of 13th to Ifith century, 
adorned with statne!^ representing the ancient 
Saxon rulers. This is faced by a curiou^iy 
decorated metal Fountain, crvctcd Iji 1408. 

Near the Cathedral Is the fina bronze Lion, put 
up by Henry the Lion; the pedestal is modern. 

Some of the other Churches deserre notice for 
age (mostly nf 13th and 14th centuries), carvinprs, 
windows, or paint iii^rs. Among these are St. 
Catherine 8, fiit. Ulrich s, and St. Peter's. The 
Magnikirche is the oldest of all in the town. 
Another, called the Aegidi (St. Giles) Church, ts 
used for exhibitions and musical performances. 

On the promenade between the Stein and 
Augustine Gates is an iron Obelisk to the memory 
of Duke Charles William mid Frederiek William, 
tiefore mentioned. See Boute 11. 

Near the Stein Thor, in a garden, is the monu- 
ment (1840) to the metnory of another Brunswick 
I hero, ikhill, who was taken at Strainiuid, and shot 
I by the French in 1809, with fourteen of his eom- 
p;inions in arms. 

The chrtpel contains the bust of Schill,in bronxe, 
made from one of the cannon taken by the Prus- 
sians : also busts of the Archduke Charles of 
Austria; of Hofer, presented by the town of luns- 
kmck; and of Dnke Frederldi William. Among 
other relics of Schlll here are a letter case, pre- 
sented to him hy Qiier-; T/iiii^r. hi^- clothes, sword, 
and pistols, and escutciicous uf uli the officers of 
Schiirs corps. 

The Dueal Mttmm Is in the Park. It contains 
a fair collection of Dutch and Oorman p.ilnt- 
infT?! and otiier works of art, coins, prints, 
cngravutgs, and designs, with the uniform In 
which the Duke was Idlled at Qnatre Bras. 
\ Among the paintings aro Adam and Eve, by 
Pahna Vecchlo; Ccphahi'? n^id Procris. by Guido 
Reni ; Old Man witli a iiook, by Caravaggio; 
Marriage Contract, byJanSteen; Hugo Grotius, 
by Bembrandt; Spinola, by Bubens; Yandyek** 
\ Lord Str.ifFord; Kneller's Lord Macclesfield; the 
Four Seasons, by Tenier*!; Vfi7i der Mcnr"? Girl 
with Winejjlass ; with inany others, by Flemish 
artists especially. There is a Holy Family by 
Bembrandt, painted with his finger. 

It conuins also a fine eoUeetton of majoltea 

Digitized by Google 



ware ; but the greatest ornament of this collection 
it the famous Onyx Cup, which Duke Charles 
carried off Sn his flight to England; brought back 
since his death at Geneva. 

This mtiamim la op«i frM to the public durfaig 
the summer men the, dally, from 10 to 1 i, with some 
exception? There are upwards of 900 paintings, 
many of slight merit, (^at.iloguo, 1 mk. 

Other bulldingrs are the Ducal Pulytechiiicum, 
now a Tectanleal School, or Caroline CoU^, 
fonuded by Duke Ferdinand Albert, 1745; School of 
Anatomy; the Stadt-Muscum, with a fine collec- 
tion of antiquities. Open, Sundays, 11 to 1, and 
Thursdays, 3 to 6. 

Lessh^was buried at BmnswIdL Hlsafatne, 
by Rictschcl (1863), Is in the Lessings-platx, on the 
site of the old walls. It to also the birthplace of 
Spohr, the musician. 

An avenue of limes leads from the town, past 
the Dncat Tllla, or WUhOm SOIou^ in the Gothic 
style (1830), to Richmond, a casUe httilt as a 
summer residence, in a park, iriiitatcd from Rich- 
mond Park. Tlio gypsum quarries at Thiede con- 
tain many fossils. 

The beautiful Promenades, handsome Theatre 
(1861), the Holland'scher Garten, and the Botanical 
Gardens (closed on Sundays nnd festival", also 
every day from 12 to 2), form special attractions. 

A direct line from Brunswick to HUddSlieilll 
(Hge 90} was opened in IWt, 

^nm Lulirte, the rail hnini^ea off on the south 
to Hildeaheim (see Route SS>, and on the north, to 

liUnebcrg and Harbui ir 

The Duchf/ of Brunsmck was formerly Inhabited 
by the Wendii, and includes the Harz mountains, 
Which lie on the south, and are S,8M feet high, at 
the Wormbergr. During the French ooenpatlon, 
Napoleon made it part of the Kin j2rdom of West- 
phalia. The roif,Miitif,' family is one of the oldest 
in Germany, deriving its origin from Guelph, 
Dukeof Bavaria, whodled tlOl, and was descended 
Anm Albert Azo I., Marquis of Sate, in Italy. 
Two lines sprin» from him, viz.: the elder or 
ducal line of Brunswick-Wolfenbiittel, and the 
younger, or Electoral line of Brunswick-Liineberg, 
t'^reiented by the ex^King of HanoTer. Of this 
Isttcr line was George Lewis, son of the Elector 
Bmcet Augustus, who ancceeded as Geovfe I., to 

the crown of England, through hla deaoant on the 

female »lde from James I, The diMUlltne expifad 

with the late duke, and in conseqn«>nre of the 
events of 1867, the duchy is now under the 
regency of Prince Albert of Prussia. 

From Brunswick to Hanover, 

By railway (Uannoversche Eisenbohn), as 

Brunsw ick to miles. 
Vechelde............ 8} 

Peine *•■••>••«••••» 

HlmelerWald ... 32 


Lehrte Junction .. 27| 
IBranA to LiinebergO 
Hanoyer .««u*m«*** wft 

PopnLA^TiOK, 165,499, inclusive of Linden. 
Hotels.— Royal, a capital house, opposite the 
station, and open all night; Continental, near 
the Royal Theatre; Union Hotel; da Rnaalit 
Budolph; Hotel Borremann; Hotel Hartmann. 

in Klagea If arkt, on Sumdaya. 

Ekoltsh Books, Ac, IndudingAwMois'sfiMdSf^ 

at 14, Bahnhof-strasse. 

Bailwat. — To Minden, Dusseldorf, Cologne, 
Bmnawiek, Magdehuig, Halle, Leipslc, Berlin, 
QVtklngen, Ae., see MrtMhm^M OuOSamtaS Ouktf, 

Tbam — Throuprh the city ; about 15 miles. 

The capital (since 1G41) and seat of government 
of the now extinct Kingdom of Hanover (JSfoa- 
Mfaar In German), on the Lelne, which la naTigabla 
to thia pofait. It was at first a fishing town, 
founded In the twelfth century, by Henry tbo Lion, 
and was a member of the Uanseatlc League. 
It is a good specimen of an old German town, in 
s4Mne of Ita narrow and lnegular atreeta ; but the 
new town, with the .£gidian quarter, including 
Georfrc Frederick and Adolphus streets, built 
(1837-r)l) bytliolatc king, Ernest Augustus, Duke 
of Cumberland, and Frinzcn and KSnigs-strasse, 
Is handsome and regular. The auburba cover the 
site of the old walls and pate, levelled 1780; and 
contain tlic public Gardens (Gnrtenpemeinde). 
Lutdcn-vor-Hannover, 28,000 inhabitants, is a 
separate, chiefly manufacturing, quarter near the 

Near the station is WolfTs statue (1861) of King 
Emeat Augustus, who, thoufl^ dtollked in England^ 

Digitized by Google 


WAS liked h«rf|, «|id proye^ • bMB^f^tor to 

ms capital. 

The JSoj^a/ Caslle (Iviiiiigliche Sclilos»), coitUiuj 
the old Rl$Una«a, or Kjiight's Rooni, entirely 
wainscoted with oak. It contains maiiy family 
portrnits, from Gcorj.'-o I. nii'l Tfim . T.i in. in- 
cluding Jmues I/s daughter, the i^uucuof Bohemia, 
throp,|^'h whom the Uousc oi Brunswick inb^^ the 
EnglUbi crown. The SUm^Soom iSUberkainmer), 
muiarkable for its silver plate; among which are a 
complete service for 300 persons, and the shield of 
Achilles, which on festive occasions is hunjf up in 
^e Rittcrsnul. 

The Sehhss Chapel, the best of the churches here, 
has some relics given by Henry the Lion, besides 
painted windows, and ot^er decoratiou^. ppeu 
doily, except Sundays, for 50pf. Opposite the Caetle 
is tbePilace, with it s col Icct ion of en^aTlngs,cbIai, 
and arms, in •which the late kin^ resided; with the 
Royal Stubli s (Mai stnll),now occupied bytheXraqi 
Company, and Riding School. Near it is 

mip Wuterioo SMOt, fn Wateiloo^ftts, formerly 
the Esplanade. This if a piUar IH feet high, and 
12J feet m diameter, with 190 steps in the interior, 
Icailiiig- to the Victory on the top (18^2). It has 
tbib iusciiptlop, "The gratuf\il Fnthcrland to the 
CoMWfrorv oi Waterloo " On the ba«eave the 
n^llttt of SQO HfUkOTorians who fell at WatOiOo, 
sprvlnjr under General Count Alien, whose stntne 
by Iviimnitl is here In the same square, on 

one side, is the Monument to LtsiimUs, wiUx Hew- 
l|lKi|i*4 oolotial marble Imtt of the great pblkuopher, 
Wder a circular temple. On anotli^ aidfl of this 
square arc the fine Barrack of the Guards; and the 
Arsenal. The Wall Promeuatie atSvrds A view as 
f^r us the Uistaut hills. 

The Moi^ Zi^rqry or AvchiT»l» eontaitif iTfi^OOO 
voIumes,and3,000MSS.,includingtho&eof Leibnitz, 
and his arm chair in which be died; also *'Cicero's 
OtticQs," printed at Ment2, by faust, on parch- 
ment, 1466 ; a miftal, the gift of the Emperco* 
Charles V. to Henry VIII.; and a large nnmher of 
letters, including sonte by Leibnitz. 

Facln^r the Marktkiiche. a church of the four- 
teenth century, is the old Gothic Tom Jlall^ with 

lis library of 40,000 voiumee. ft wa* twtored, 1846. 
At the Museum, boilt 18S6, by Hase, are ooUee^ 

tions of natural history, antiquities, casts, and 
^ctuies (open daily, except Friday). Gfoi'gf y. 

I (^PVf 9t nftoilires, in Landschaft-ttnae* (open 

daily). Other noticeable buihlings are the Pofij- 
t<fcJtnic ikhool, in which the trades exhibition takes 
place; the Gcorgianuui, established 1776, for tho 
cdntattkm of noUemen^a sona ; the Xofvrt Jflu^ old 
ParHanmi House, and Jtofsl CSmv'I TReofre, one of 
the largest in Germany, seatingr 1,800 spectntorf. 
The ex-king, though blind, was a performer and 
composer himself. Count WaUmoden's collection 
of palntinga anji antiqnitiee now bekmgs to the 
Eu.peror. Thaitt k aa Industrial Exhibition, 0|ieil 
for 2r>pf . ; with an Industrial School. 

Engelhart's Ulatuc of Schiller (18€3) is in the 
Georg-platz, near the Lyceum. The Home in 
which L^fanitt waa bom i« an old bunding in 
Sohmiede-alnMae. Hersehel, the aetronomer, who 
was a musician in the royidbandt was born hero. 
Zlmmermann is buried here. 

Tho Heii'cnhausen Palace is approached by an 
avenue above a mile loug, thi-^u^h a garden l^ivl 
out in the n«nch style, with f orful df ppe4 hedge*. 
The Blectresfl Sophia died tnddenly liere. It wa* 
the favourite seat of her son, George I. Here are 
a private theatre ; water-works and a prreat foun- 
tain, which rises 220 feet; tho Weljen Mmeum; 
Mme antiquities and paintings ; and the Matiso> 
leum, hi w^ich Ktaig Ernest Augnetns is buried, 
\vitli his statue, by Rauch. 

Mot far from this is the Welfcnschloss (Palace 
of tlie Gnelphs), a royal castle, now converted 
in^) a Polyteohuie aehooL 

The Zoological Gardens (chiefly deer and hares), 
at the vi!ia$re of Kirchrode, aco situated en the 
railway to Brunswick. 

The Con^^ert Garden of Tivoli is very fine, and 
frequented hy good eompany. 

The Kingdom of Banover,nowlnoaiporatedWll& 
Prussia, forms tbenorth-west comer of Gommny, 
between the Jllbc, the North Sea, and Holland; and 
is divided intQ six provinces. SThe royi^ family is 
descfoided from 4 youugttr bnlieh of tlie BrtmS' 
wick Hue. Duke Ernest Augustus was created 
ninth Elector of the Empire, 1692; and his son be- 
came King of |:ngl4nd, a» George I., ou the death 
of Anup, 1714. In 1667 thi Muntry «aa InolidAd 
hj Hfppleen iu the hingdnm of Westphalia, fn 
181$ the Elector took the title of King, and the 
t Iw4 creiro9 remained united till tht death oi 

Digitized by Google 

UAMO-fiOOK Tin QSMU]rY.rTlUKQT«ft» MINl>lir. 


WiUiom I v., without lUAle l$su^ (1837), when in 
c«3nformity with Saliclaw, his next brother, the 
Dulce of Cumberland, ascended the throne of Han- 
over, as Kla^ Erueat Augustus, the govemuxeut 
liSTlng been pravionaly adminlrtercd by a z«g«ii^ 
vndcr the Duke of Cambtidge. 

The first step of the new kinpr was to rorokc the 
charter Kriiuted by WiUiiun IV'., whieli was fol- 
lowed by a protest from the Gottingeu professors, 
«ttd the ^fttsalqf iievexal towiu to retumdepntics 
tu the Estates; bat without any useful result. 

In the eventful year 1867, Hanover drcitied on 
joiuiug Austria and the Gci-man Bund against 
Brnetla. In consequence of this the Prussian 
tocet under General von Falkmstetai took posses- 
•km of the Stade on 17th June, and of the city of 
Hanover on the 5th July; the Hanoverian army, 
In its attMupts to march southward, beiiig com- 
peUod to surrender after some fighting, y^hen 
A^tarla wfa defeated, Hanover applied for an 
armistice uritb l*rassia ; this wa» refused; audtbe 
kingdom was annexed to the Prussian dominions 
in September. The blind ex-King removed a 
largo treasiare In bon^s and shares to England, and 
was sometime a resident ft Hletiing, nearViemia} 
then in Paris, where he died, 187$. 

A line from Uanover to Alt6Zl1)6keil 
opened 1873, past Wcctzen, Bcnnigsen, Hamelu 
(Route 20), ^'y^mont Spa (Route 20) and Berg- 
ffheim; 61 miles long. 

Hiaovar to mnden. Cologne^ aaA AmImiii. 

By rail, 1 to 'i hours. 
English miles. En>,'lish miles. 

Seclze 7 Stadtha^'en 2<i| 

Wunstorf ...*..... 13 Kirchhorsten 30 

Hasto »... 171 Bllekebnr? ........ U 

Lindhorut 22^ | Minden 40 i 

At Vunstorf (Stat.), the Bremen line turns oH. 
Diligence to RellbUI|^ ^acL in 4i hours, see below. 

HflBte (8t{^t.)~Here a branch Hue, 14| miles 
long, was opened 1872 to N^mdocf 9allne and Snl- 

phur 'Rii^ho 

[Kenndorf (Stat.), which belonged to the late 
Elector of Hesse, who has a seat here, is mu^h 
fl«qiiented for its alkaline snlpbnr spi'bigs, used 
fpr bathing and drinking. The establishment 

possesses all needful appliances for the usu of 
i^ral)^ an4 a t^file d'hutc. Chca^ lodgUigs 

at« to fa# hod, and there tH nu^hy WDlht In the 

nciq:hbourliof-il ] 

BuGkeburg (Stat.) 

Population, i,oyo. 

irof«f«.— Pentscbes Haii«; Berliner BoC. 
Capital of the little MwfgiaUty ^ on the 

river Aa. and residence of the Prince of Schainn- 
burj;-Lii>i)0, whose ("astlc is here suiTOundcd by a 
good |iark. Populatiuu of the Principality, 8i),lSJ. 
The Church was bnUt 1618. If oar It are the Castle 
of Schaumburg, and the Paichcnhurg.,fihS\\ l,14-i 
foot hlfrh, with a fine view of the valley of the 
Weser as far as the Bi-ocken and tho Teutobur^ 
Wood. In summer tficrc is a diligence to 

fitMMf where are four sulphur springs, called the 
Jullanen, Georgcn, Augen, and Neuwicsen, whieii 
you may bathe in or drink. Here also arc the 
slimo or mud baths, which arc useful for rheu- 
matism, siim, and many other diseases. 

Eilsen nay be reached quite as qnlekly on fcut, 
by a pleasant mad* 

There is a monument to the Princess Juliana, 
and the mausoleum to Comtt William of Schnuni- 
burg-Lippc, of our George II.*a time. This Count 
William was the founder of a Military Sohool, near 
Rehburg (below), In whieh Sehamhorst, the gre:it 
rcg^encrator of tho Pmsslan army, was afterward* 

Pleasant trips may be made to the Amsberg, the 
waterfall at Langenf eld, the Porta Westphalica, the 
Ludner KUppe, the Harelsberg-, and the Pasohcn- 


A few miles north of Biickeburg is the baihixg- 
place of Belllltt^ Stelnhiider Hcer. 

seven milos'from Hanover, v^tk salt and Irou 
springs, good for scrofula, 4kc. Diligence from 
Wunstorf Stuli'.n C!»)><«ve). 

MINDEN (St^t), iu Prussia. 
Population, 20,208. , . 

HoTSLS.— Qcnnania; Victoria; Stadt London; 

Railway.— To roIo-;nc, Berlin, ttc, and Osua- 
briick, Rheinc, on the direct line to Englaud. 
DiuGSKCES.— To LUbbecke and Stoltenan. 
Hin^en, in the Pmsslan pnnrtnce of Westphalia, 

is an old town, once fortified, on the Weser. at it-j 
junction with the Bastan. in a }>leasant and fertile 
spot. It cousbts of pld-fabhiyuud narrow str9Qt^ 

Digitized by Google 


«k4 wm f«nK«rly inekned by ftnuif forUfteatlotts, 

rebuilt !n 1815, but levelled in 1872. 

Tlif Homrtn Catholic Cathe^hnl, in theDom-platz, 
la an old Gothic building, partly of the eleventh 
century^ with fine windows, a tower, and a good 
Btatuo of St. Antony on the high nitar. Here also 
i« n painting by Aldegrcver (a Westphalian artist 
of the sixteenth century) of the baptism of Wltto- 
kind, the Saxon, by Charlemagne. 

The ehnreh of A. MarHn hua an altar*plece by 
L. Cranaeh. Several Diete of the empire were held 

There is a new stone bridg-c across tlie Weser, 
replacing the old one, wliich diited from HjT^. 

Ilerr Kruger has a gullery of old fk i uuiu works. 

The town carries on a good trade in sugar 
reffnfaig, vinegar, beer, ite. Steamers and smell 
Tessele oome up from Bremen. 

About throe mJlee distant is the famous Porta 
We.ifphah''-tt formed by t wo hills, t lirouf,']! which 
the Weser Uows. These hills are called Jacob's 
and Wittekiud's Hills, and command an extensive 
Ttew. On the top of the latter, about 760 feet 
high, WIttekind was baptiied by Charlemagne, a 
fact commemorated by a niinf^u'^ '-hnTM-]. 

The Batile of Mindm was fou^jht at Todten- 
hausen, in the neighbourhood, where Frederick of 
Bmntwidc, on the let Augnit, 1759, with 4(1^000 
Prnssianfl defeated a French army of twice the 
strength, inflicting a loss of 8^000 men. 

In thirty<one peraont were bnmt hete for 


From Minden to Cologne. 
By rail (C(nn>Mlndener>Eltenbabn) In 6 to 9 hours. 


BngUeh mile* 


Minden to miles. 

Porta Si 

Rebme (Bad Oeyn- 

hausen) 9^ 

Lohne 18 

IBranch to Osna- 
bruck, 80m.] 

Herford 19^ 

Bielefeld 28 

Brackwede.,*....*.... 80 
OUtersloh ............ 89 

RhedA 44} 

Oelde 61 

Beekum 56 

Ahlen 63 

Uamm 70 

IBrm^at to Hun- 

ster, Socst, and 
Unna, t.n the 
direct lino to 
Cologne, as be< 

Camen , 79 

Dortmund 88} 

ILoop Line of the 
kisehe to Essen, 
vid Steele: 
I^ngendrcer 8 
Bochum ...... 12 

Stctde IS 
Essen ..m..... 38] 

(At Lfc^ngendreer 

a branch conies in 
from Ha.M-n. on 
the Bergiseb-MiirlC- 


Castrop , 974 

Wannc 99| 

{Branche* to Osna* 
huTg, Bremen, 

Heme ..................101| 

Oelsenkireben ..*...107| 

A line from Hamm to Dfisseldorf, 71 mOes, 
passes the following stations:—* 

English miles. 
IBfmek Imm to 
MOnster, vid 


Essen lllf 

Oberhausen llSf 

Daisbnrg 123| 

Caletim 183 

Diisseldorf 139 

Bunrath 145 

Langenfeld 150 

KUppersteg 164 


Rhine 160 

DeuU 168 


e e ■««*« e ■ a 


Easen 47| 

IBranch to Alten- 

Rellln^auBen M 

We r den .............. 63 

Hosel ..... 


Rath gff~ 

Gnifenberg fi74 
Diisseldorf .....M..... 71 

« « a « eaeae«* 

Boenen $ 

Unna lU 

HolzwickedeM 15^ 

[Branch toSchwerte.] 
Aplerbeck 17| | 

Iloerde SO ' 

Dortmund 2o 

Marten 30 

Lnn-,-ciidreer JWi 

Bochum ............... 37f 

Steele 4»| 

(On theVohwinkei 
and llerdccko to 
Hagen line.) 

The priTi iyal towns are Dortmund (page SB), 
BocbuTn, and Essen (jiajre 

At Porta, the direct line to Cologne pnsscs 
through the Porta Westphalica (sec under Minden), 
and croeses the Weser between the little town of 
Vlotho and the wateiliiff-plaee of 

Bad'OesmliailBen, also called Helime. The 
Tillage of the latter name lies about 2 miles off, 
and contains the important salt mines, called 
Neusslawnk, wboe Is a shaft S,SOO feet deep. 
The small town of Bad-Oeynhausen has capital 
arrnnpremcnts for visitors, about 4,000 of whom 
come nnnnally. There is a handsome bath-room, 
iHth a Korsaal, and gronnds for exercise after 
taking tiie waters. 

Xitflllie, the junction for Osnabrllck. 

Herford (Stat.) Population, 19,000. 
Stadt Berlin ; Rhode's. 

An old town on the Wcrre. 

8i. John*» Chwth has a tower 390 feet high, some 
good painted glass, and the crucifix and drinking 
enp of Wittekind, who is buried hMe. A moan- 

Digitized by Google 

Roate 1.] 



merit, erected by the Emperor Charles IV. to this 
old Saxon chief in 1377, is In the nei^rhbonrinsr 
TlUagre of Enger (5 miles), in the Muachkirche, 
aUjoining the tvnwiiia Of an «bbey. Btanclllliie 
through Ligt to Detmold (Route 90). From Lage 
imll to LefUfo (page 77> 

Bielefeld (Stat.) 

Inns. — Drci Kronen ; Ravon^hrrper Hof. 

A town with 39,942 inhabitants, in a tine valley 
watered by the Latter. It has largo Ueaoh- 
Ing grounds end spinning mlUs; with St. Maria 
and Nicholas Gothic churches of tbe lath century; 
and the old Castle on the 8parenbor<r, built in the 
12th century by the Counts of Ravensbcrg, and 
afterwards inhabited by the Great Elector, Fried- 
rleh Wilhelm of Brandenburg, about 1989. Good 
Tiews ffom the Johannisberg, Ae. 

(Short llae 37 miles to OnUklmiCk, page 4S.) 

From Hamm (Stat.), the capital of the county 
of Mark, on the Lippc, an iron manttfacturlng 
town, with 35,000 iiibabitauts, a second railway 
goes north to Ifttnster, and east to Paderbnm by 
the SoestandLlppstadt route. TheFftneh Princes, 
after thcirfll^ht, 1790, resided here at the Nassauer 
Hof. The river wntrr i*! prK-. l for aoro eyes. 
Remains of a Roman ( ainj nra; Ik'ckum. 

[From Hamm to Miinster. 
The stations on the Wei^tpbalisch Line arc- 
English miles. 
Drenstelnfnrt.**...........^.*....,.......... 9i 

Miinster 31 

Thence to Rhelne, 24^ miles, on the direct route 
to N. Germany from Holland, where the lines from 
Eniden and Osnabrcick unite. 

MtTNSTER (Stat.), In Pn^ssia. 

Porur.ATioN. 49,344. chiefly Ro^iian Catholics. 

HoTELS.—Konig von Englajvd (King of Eng- 
land); Rheinlseher Hof. 

Railways.— To Faderiioni, Hanover, Cologne, 
Ac, to Osnabrilck. in the direction of Bremen 
and Essen, riti Htiltem and Oelsenkirchen. 

This town, on the Aa, is the capital of the Fro- 
9liteetfW0MtpkaUa; was founded I» the sixth een- 
tury, under the name of Mlnlngerode or Meiland; 
but Its present name is derived from a Monastery 
and episcopal Church, built by Charlemagne, about 

972. The bishopric, which was usually held by 
the Archbishop of Cologne, as Prince Bishop, was 
secularised in 1808, and annexed to the Grand 
Duchy of Berg. It is famous In htetory for the 
Anabaptist rising of the sixteenth eentuy, under 
John BockoU. a tatlor, better known as John of 
Lcyden (the ProphH« of Mcj-erbeer's opera), who 
drove out the Bishop, and callod himself King of 
Zion, his new name for Miinster. He stmek a 
silver cofai, one of which Is In the Hanorer Mnsenm. 
From the tower of St. Lambert's Church once hunjf 
the three iron Capos in which he and the other 
leaders were suspended, to be tarturt^ with red 
hot pincers, pre^Hous to their execution. His 
enrionsly carved house stands In the market-place. 
The cages are still preserved in an n!d convent, in 
Salz-strasse, and the pincers in tho Kathlifiif*. 

Miinster is a picturesque old place, abounding: ai 
ancient Gothle churches and earved hmidlngs of 
great beauty and Interest. It contains sevei«l broad, 
well-built streets, and good hf^'h hou'^cs, some of 
which, as theRomberjr an<l Droste Palaces, deserve 
notice. Tho lower storeys of some of the principal 
streets, especially round the market place, are 
1 ined with arcades. Here the Peaee of Westphalta 
was signed (1648), alter the Tblrty^ Years* War. 

The Cathedral, Sn the Dom-platz. 5;? a beautiful 
building of the thirteenth eonniry. half Roman- 
esque, half Gothic, with two transepts, and the 
chapel of the brave and warlike Bishop Bernard 
Ton Galen, who contrived to maintain a large army 
of mercenaries;, and sometimes tnnied them on his 
own people. It contains an ATVf>st«'lf.''n7]f' or Roodloft, 
with a Une stone staircase, much stained glass, 
a clock with the signs of the aodUe, Ae., and 
a large library. It was greatly disdgured by the 

The prraveof the Archbishop of Cologne, Clement 
Augustas of Droste, who died 1845, Is marked by 
a simple stone. 

The CoMtU (Schloss), formerly the residence of 
the Prince Bishop, has a Botanical Garden and 
park behind it. on the site of the citadel and walls, 
razed in the last century. 

The flue Gothle Town BaU (Rathhaus) contains 
tho /WsdnisnMif, or room in which the Peace of 

Wcstphnlin was sifmcd, lfi48. Its vrills 
mented with fine wood carvings (i 

Dipieo by Coogle 



and tli« portrait 4 all the princos and ai^bassa- 
doi^ present ou that occasion. Their scats are 
pr^A^cci, irittt mmoriol* of thp Aiiatiap- 

Uit timit{ •moiig oilHnnii %h» UMTvmmt* id tor- 
tvf9 ai«d St the •noBtloQ of 4olui of Layd^m of 

whom there is a portrait. 

at. Lambei-tm (Lombertililrcbe), a beautiful 
Qotbic church of the iourteeoth century, bad a 
ti^l Steeple, irhtcb was taken down «a unnf e In 
IMt. TtaM« am tomb rMtiwed paiatiaga of the 
Komancsquo period. The St. Maurice Church, .n 
Komanesque ImiMing, by Bishop Erpho. with , 
three towers, rebuilt in 1862. St. Servatius Church, 
of the aaiaa ase, haa a aev iplxa (19M). Tbe 
UebwwaMorkiicba waa ballt by Biahop Qalaa, In 
the l£th century. It has fine stained p'la^s and 
mural paintlnq-s. The St Clonient's Church has 
an excellent huspitul, in which the Sisters of 
XMey attand. Tba St. Ldgar Cbuxeh (Ludgeri- 
kitelifl), partly Bonaneaqiia of the 12th century, 
ha^ a {rood Gothic tower, reatored 196Q. Tiio J«aitit 
Church (1&9Q-9) is disnsed. 

Tbe principal relicii uf ulUcu tim^s are thu i 
Zwingar and tba Bnd^cntlinnn (remoiita of the 
fortUlcatiolka); tbf» Weigb-bquse, early 17tb cen- 
tury, near thcRathhaus; not far from thi>. thu 
Stadtkcller (1<>70), containing the eariy Italian 
and Gennan pictures of tbe Kunstvercin; the 
9eboabaiis; and tba IS^ramer-Anitbaaa; in the 
Alte SteinFcg. It bait a good trade in Rhenish 
wlnr^, •woollen yam, and Wcstphalinn hams. 

Dortmund (Stat.), in Westpholiau Prussia. 
PoputATlOX, 89,592. 

/an.— Belle Vne. 

An old Hans town and imperial city, one of the 
princlpnl scats of the Vehmgericht, or Tritmnal 
of the Red fcjoil. Near tbe station is a lime tree 
uitder which, in the Kouigabof, the £mj>eror ! 
81ginnnnd took the oath to this famona tribunal 
In 1429, the Archbishop being Prealdent. 

The Dominical Church has curious Westphalian 
paintings of the IGtb century; and the other 
churches, especially the Reinhold and Haricn, arc 
worth seefaig. The Town Hall is one of the oldest 
in Germany, built in tlic 13th century. 

A line <)|)t.ji tu Welver (|)airf 79). Another 
Via Dulmen and QjTOIiaU, to Kn sch o(!r\ und 
Aruheu) in Uolland. From Gronau it i& 30 miles 

to MUnnt' r Th^re is a connection with Cref9l4 
and Rlieydt. At Kray, a branch to Gel^n- 
Irirflh^ ti goes ofiT. The whole district is iuti;r- 
seoted with idiort branch lines. 
SiMII la Prasala. 

PoppLATioy, 78,723. 
HoleU. — Berliner Hof : Ksscnor ITuf. 
Till 1802, this tuwn was a free imperial town» 
where the Frttatentagc or Diets of the provinces 
of Westpiialla and the Rhine were held. It stands 
on the Heme, 1| mile from the railway statim:, 
, and is the centre nf a coal district^ and large iron 
and steel manufactures. 

At Krupp'$ Sttd Work* there are alwnt 1,<I90 
fnmaoea, 1,558 oyena, 450 steam-engines, hesidce 
numerous for^'es, lathes, planing, l>oring, and 
other machine- ; and nl»oDt steam-hammers (»'nc 
50 tons). They employ 1 1,000 hands, and can make 
200 tons of steel dally, and 900 guns a month. 

The old Monastery Okardl (Hlmtarkirche). 
originally founded In 878, has a remarkable 
hrHnrhr d candlestick of bronze, and four gold 
I crosses ornamented with |>reciou8 stones, presented 
by the Emperor's sister. Mecbtildts, in OM. The 
QnlrlniM ehoreh was the oldest Christian church 
in these i>art- A line to Scliallce (towards 
Wannc), and n.i c xi usiuu from BodHUn (popula- 
tion, 47,018 ; to Heme were opened 18». Bocbnui 
has a handsome new Protestant spire Church. 
About 6 m. from it, towards Essen, is Steele (Stat. ), 
mnn-i;- rnni ^vork^ 1 weeu OsteEfOld and Al- 
tendorf- on-tiie - Ruhr. 

Oberhausen (Stat). Here are extentiTe Iron- 
works. Thi8hitheJanetionoft]iellnetoFluihii.g 
and Queenborongh, from Cologne, DUsseldorf, 
and Duisbur/ 
Doisburg (Stat.), in lUianlab Prussia. 

PoifCLAWON, 69,300. 

/aas.— Priaee Begent; Europflisehcr Hof; 
Bhelnlsefaer Hof. 

This manufacturing town lies rear the Knhr, 
al>ove its junction with the Rhine, which once rail 
by it. It is eucl<>bed by old walls and towers, ud 
is th« chief seat of the coal trade of the valley. 
The SalTator (or St. SaTiour's) Cjinrch is of the 
15th cpntury. Ilortabouls was tlie Castt-um 
Deu<ouis, or camp of the Teutonci, in the Forest 
called Sallus Teut^burgtensis. 


Digitized by Google 

Rottte 1.] 



Calcnm (Stat ), in Rhenish PmssU. 
* Two miles from this is — 

Kaimtwerth (or CiBs«r*t Hoiim), onct an Isliud, 
and the rasidenM of the Gonuan Honanha. Fnm 

a castle here, now in ruins, Henry IV., when a 
c!iild, was stolen by the Archbishop of Cologne. 
Tito old Church contains the silver shrine of St. 
Bnlbert, ua English preacher of thoOoipel. Bare 
are (he ch«rit»bla Inatltuttona founded bj Pastor 
riicdner (died 1864), for Protestant Deacone^ee. 
There is a post-wacen from Calcnm. 

Dilsseldorf (Stat.), on the Khine. 
PoPtri.A.TiOH, 114,682. 

//ofA. — ^Breidenbaeher Hof ; Hotel de rSnrope; 
Hccht; nil ezoeUenk and bif bly reoommended. 

RtflailaclmrKaiaer; Kolniacheriiort Ac. 

See tlbramaw** itmi-Bo^ id OH JBMa«, for 

further particulars. Its Acndcmy ifas tinfor- 
tunately burnt down, 1872, with part Of the 
pictures \ but Babens' "Ascension of the Virgin" 

KupyorateiT* Mnlhefm, and Dents (for Cologne). 

From Hamm, a.«i above, .mother rail to Cologne 
passes Unna, Schwertc, <$cc., to liagen, Schwetm, 
Karmcn, Elbcrfeld, and DOUtZ. 

. Hageu (Stat,) /fo/e/«.— Ltinensehloss; Kalscr- 

In the county of Mark, on the Yolme, and ha^ 

85,376 iTib.ihitnntft, and factories for locks, cotton, 
Ac. Near is the little town of Zdmbwy. on the 
liOnhe, with a castle of the Prince von Beutheim, 
and the ruins of the castle of RbbenfcyllttfS'f which 
helongcd to Duke. Wittcklnd. From Hagen, a 
lino runs toBHi^Tge M>rnn'^h to (QtUlimfer8bd,Ch), 
by way of Oberhagen, Dahl, Ac. Another line 
proceeds to Slegen, by way of Letmatbe (wherb 
A branch tnnis off to Iseilob^ jPihneirtrdft (bnttdi 
to Attendorn, OIpe, Rothcmtihle, Altenhnndem, 
and f'rcuztbal). There is a short branch riil to 
Baufe. At Stegen (Stat.)« now a mining place, 
with two CastleSi Bnbena was bom, wfata hts 
mother was rsalding here, 1577. 

riserlohn (Stat), in #<Alpftitfil. 

Population, 22^119. 

fe'^.i-^ln&r; Port. 

An Impertani oMivfaetiMr liMNK HSISft ISI Hi 

bronze goods, needles, Ac., which are sent fai* and 
wide. The environs are full of iron foundries, 
smelting hooaes, paper mills, Ac, dispersed among 
the TQinintie sesnetr. At Ibe CHIws are eatamine 
mines, and an Iron cross to commemorate the Wir 
of Dclircrance. Close br are the Grilrroanns- 
Hoble, in which fossil bones are found, and Idle 
DeohenhShle, a stalactltJe cavern .j 

The wbolb of this dlsfcrlei is a network ef short 
lines, for which see Bradthavo't Continental Guide 

Schwelm (Stat.), in the Froaaiaa Wnp|ier- 
thal, 10 miles from Hagen. 

POPVI.anoH, 14.000* 

ifdM.— Rotonkrans. 

Here are steel works, and factories for locks and 
cutting in'itmments, Ac. About 2 miles distant is 
the remarkable Klutart Cave, visited with a guide. 

The RtmMrWnpper here formed the old line of 
separation of the 8a»nls and Rranka. 

Barmen (Stat.) 

PorctATioy, 116,248. 

BbMs.— Vogeler; Vereinshaus; Frinz Wilholm. 
U the Ttlley of tt« Wupper, near the Sanerland 
blila. fts east end, at Unterbarmsn, Joiaa BUMT- 

fold, to which It is unltrd bv :i bridg^e oyer the 
Wupper. and Inrith Which it forms one large strag- 
gling town. 

The population two eentoiies ago waa soaroeiy 
1,000. It is a remarkablj' clean place, la about 

Smile? long:, arid has extensive manufactnres of 
silk, velvet, cotton, tnpo, soap, with spinning milh, 
Turkey red dyeing and print works, Ac. (one 
ehhnuejr H Ul feet high). The best rlew of the 
place is from the Hohenst^. 

There arc five Chnrchea. a Tovi n Tfouse in the 
new ■Rathhaus-platz. a widows' house, bronxe 
monument to Frederick William III., a Real or 
Prsetiee School, Weartag School, iBchool ot De- 
sign, Ac. 

The Bcr{?i3che->r:irkische railway passes thronprh 
the long industrious valley of the Wupper, and 
lias two stations at the Barmen end. 

SEBBBVBED (8lttt3« InPniada. 

Hotels. — ^Weldenhof; Victoria; Post, Ac. 

This U the most important and f!-'T!ri«hing seat 
of manufactures in Crormany, takmg name from 
the ElberfeM family, who wtabliflhed yarn and 

Digitized by Google 



blMcbittff works hore, thewatorof theriver being 

of p-rcat purity. It occupies a fine part of the 
Wupi>erthal, hi a country abouridluff with r-onl, 
and stands about 400 feet above the sea level. 
With Bannen, to which it is Joined by a bridge at 
the west end, it mekee a well-built, but sptendlng 
town, nearly six miles lung, Gcffinnn W«r Xona- 
mont, by Albcnnann. 

Here they manufacture all kinds ..f rotton. silk, 
nnd linen goods, ribbons, fringes, J»ea-ticks, cover- 
lids, tnble-cloths, with entleiy, and iron arUdce. 
The sitk business wan introduced abont 1760; tliat 
of Turkey red, for dyeing (for which it Is noted) 
in 1780. Yarn is sent here to be dyed, but some 
of this trade has lately been transferred to 
llohemla. There are Urge print works, for dyeing 
and printing caliooes, and trade has for the last 

30 years boon in a very prosperous condition. 

Kxcept the Urge factories there arc few build- 
ings of note. It has an Exchange, Town Hall, Ac, 
with several eompanies and societies for trading, 
ediv ifi nal and other purposes, and an excellent 
system of poor-law inspection. Thore a wpirn- ' 
did view of the town andthe Wu] i < rtiuU, from the 
Bdveden on the Hsardt. From Leimep a branch 
of 11 miles runs off to Wenatfitfdndnn and 
Opiaden. Bemscheld, near this, has a popu- 
lation of 40,382, and Is ti place for iron goods. 

From the next station, VohwlXLkel, the railway 
passes by HiAB, Ollllgswald (branch to Solln- 
gtn, a small Blrmingharat fw swords, knives, and 
scissorsX thenmniilBFfiBrBllIlM, Drati, and 
COLOGNE (Stat.), in Bhenlsh Pmssia. 

Population, 281,278. 

Hotels.— Hotel duNord, most centrally situated; 
Arsfr-rate aoeomraodatloii. 

Hotel Diseh, in Bridge Street, reeommendedt 
it is centrally situated, and much frequented 
by English families and siiiplo gcntlomcu. 

Hotel do HuUande, a first-rate establishment, 
facing the quay. 

Grand Hotd Tictorla, in the Saymarket, oloso 
to the river; good. 

Itotel Ernst, first-class, five minutes* walk from 
the station; Hotel de Mayence. 

Hotel dnDome, neartbaDom, opposite thebridge. 

Hotel de rCnlon, nearthe Statton and Cathedral. 

Belle Vne at Denta, 

For description, sec Bradshav't Hand- Book t6 
Be*gUim mt4 the Mine. 
From Cologne the line to Aachen passes 
Bftm (ttet), In Ehenlsh Prussia. 

/niM.— Monimer; Windhnufer; Rheinischcr Hof. 

A very (dd and hnsy town, on the right bank of 
the Ruhr, or Rocr, In a rich and fertile plain. It 
was called if«r«pdbir»m, by the Roaums ; and from 
this its subsequent name of Mark-Duran was 
derived. Here tlio < i)hnrts of th" I'hii were defeated 
by Civili-, llio ]?iitavian lc.i<ier. 70 a n It was 
tiiu favourite huuiing-!<cat of the Emperor Karl der 
Qrosse (Charlemagne), and was taken by Charles 
V. after a long siege. It eontains an Unntlne 
Convent for the education of young girls, and 
two other convents; with seven Churches and a 
synagogue. At Mariaweller \ ilia, remains of a 
Roman Bath (bjc 19) have been found. 

The parish church of St. Anna has the head of 
that Baint In a ehest. on a marble high altar, and 
a beautifully carvi-d chancel. From the tower, 
ma feet high, is a magnificent view as far as the 
Sidien-Geblige, sarronnding the Draehenfels, on 
the Rhine. 

The Town House was Inillt 17S9. The Casino, 
by Zwirner, the restorer of Cologne Cathedral. 
The principal branches of trade are iron fonnding, 
tools and jmper making, aad also some manitfae- 
tnres of woollen stnlTs, eovetiida, soi^ leather, 4fco. 

Or Aix-ia-ChapHie, as the Freneh call It. 

PoT'ITATlON, 116,000. 

HoTKLa. — Hotel du Grand Mouarque, Hotel 
Nvdlmis, and Kalserhad Hotel, all three excellent 
hotels, kept by M. Dremel. 

Du Dragon d*Or, well situated, close to the 
Knrsaal and principal bath-houses; reasonable 
charges. See Advt. 

Dublgk*s Hotel. 

Hoyer*s Imperial Crown Hold; Hoyer's Union 

Hotel de TEIephant. 
Hotel dnHord. 

See ^%Miai^4 BmtiSo&k to Jkiftitm and thB 
IfMm for parliralart. 

Digitized by Google 

.Boute 2.J 



Berlin to Witteiilwiise»Bttcheii, Lub6dik,tnd 

Hamburg ; th«iC6 to Kiel, itc 
By rail, 176 wiles, in 4| to StiOttiS, to Hamburpr. 


Berl?" — 

SpauUiiu 4J 

Kaucn 19 

FriesAck............... 37 

N«ttstadt-«rD 47 

Zcrnltz 51 

Glowcn GU 

Wilsnack 69} 

Wittenb«rg«,w...... 74 

(ArcmeA to llftgd»> 

Karstadf — 

Wend Wamow...... 92 

Grabow ............... 97 



Hagenow 116 

[Branch to Ko.Htock, Ac] 


Brahlsdorf 129i 

Boitzeiibarg 134^ 

Uiichon 144 

[^liyandtes to Lauenburic 
and Lttbeok; see be- 

Schwarzeubeck 1 5*2^ 

Friedrichsrub 157} 

Reinbcck 162 

Borpredorf 16-ii 

Hamburg 175{ 

From Bileben (as above) to Lttbcek. 

Batsebnrg Ifii f Lttbeck 29 

Spandau (Stat.), described in Bonte 1. Here 
Route 5a parts off (si'c p.i«re 85). 
Paullnenaue (Stat.) From liero a line runs to 
FehrhaUn^ 8 mttes, wbere the Great Elector 
defeated tbe Bwedet, 18th June, 1871!; and Neu- 
Huppin, on a lake of the same name, which is con- 
nected with the Havel by a canal. It contains a 
statue of the Elector Frederick William, and i» 
near BhetiurtMrg, the residence of Frederick the 
Great, when eadled by his father. Near here the 
Great Elector (in ICT 5) defeated a Swedish army 
doublc the h'izc of his own. 

Frlesack (Stat.) 

Situated on the left from Olttwen (Mat.), on 
SI short line of rails, is 

BoMlherg, with a bridge over the river Havel, 
and a cathedral, the s<>at of a liishupfroni 946 to 
164«. Ship building is carried on. 

Wilsnack (Stat.) 
/«».— Dentsehes Bans. 

A small town, having a flue old Chnreb, with 
arcbes 80 feet hig-b. 

Wltteuberge (Stat.), on the Elbe. 

On the M eeklenbnrg frontier. From here, on 
the left bank of tbe Elbe. Is a branch railway to 
Stendal and Magdeburg' A linr- tn nrctucn, from 
Wittciiberge, passe* dnv n tl r t;i!h», to Domitz, 
Dannmbtrg, HUzafcer, and Lixnoburg, and thence 

rid BuChllOlS, for Bremen. At Liinehnrjr you 
can turn off, rid Ilarbnrg, fur Hamburg, as in 
Route 4. 

LndwlfAliat in Meeklenbar^- 


PorULATIOK, 4.000. 

Hotel. — De Woiuiar. 

A small town (the name of which idgniflce 
Lonls's Pleasure HonseX with a cathedral church, 

and a summer palace of the Dnkc of Mocldeiiburg- 
Schwerin, containing mmc good Dutrh paintings 
and antiquities. Here, also, are \Vinti>rhaIter's 
|)ortraltOf the Duke of Orleans, and mausoleums of 
tbe Grand Duchess Louise, and the Grand Duchess 
Hclenc Pauleuse; thelatter in a Greek chapel. At 
Wohht-Un is thc^Tftve of Thcodor Kcirner. the |>oct, 
who fell ill a skirmish at iiadebutcJi, August 26th, 
1813, after writing tbe Song to bis Sword. A bust 
marks where he Is burled under a great oak. Tho 
ronmins of his sister repose near blm. 

From Ludwig.slust a lino rnns through Parchim 
(birth-place uf Count Moltke) to Ncu-BrauUonbufg 
(see Boute 10). Ball also to Wismar. 

Hksenoir (Stat) Here the rail turns off to 
Schwerin, Ac. (Route ft). 

Biichen (Stat.) Lines to LUbeck, and to 
Laueuburgand LUneburg. (Routes 4 and 8.) 

HAMBURG (Stat.) 
POPULATIOK, 824,00U; or ^G9,000, including IS 

Hotels.- Streits Hotel; Hotel do I'Enropc; 
H i l l s t Petersburg, first class, well situated, in 
the J uugf ernsticg. 

Hotel Victoria, first daaa family hotel. 


Hotel du Belvedere, first class, well sltUatedy 
and recommended; on th*- Alstenlamm. 

English Hotel, *'Kestauruut and Cafe' attached. 

Harienthal Hotel and Pension. 

Rheinischer Ilof: llotul Schadcndorf; Hotel 
Central et Pension; Waterloo Hotel; Hotel Zingg. 

Coffee i/atMM.— Alster-FavUluu ; Alster-Halle; 
Z ingg'8> Beerhouses and gardensin all directions. 

pott and THegn^ Ctfieet In Post-stnuse, near 
the Exchange. 

ENr.i.i.^iH CiTUTicn Skrvicf,.— At the Church in 
Zeughaus Markt. Englisb Reformed Church, In 
JobanaisboBvark. ^ 

Digitized by Google 

CvxvKrAir«Bf ^Trun to Altonai Ac. Bteamers 
lo HarlmiY, CttxliaTen, HeUgoUmd, L(»udoii» Hull, 
arimsby* See BradOam** Oontiitemai OuUk, 

Hainbarg, the first port imd the eeeond city 

after Bciiiii. in North Germany, marked by its 
thrcctull spires, stauds on the north or IM^tefn 
siile of the Elbe, where the Alstcr joins it, 
about 75 miles from CnxhaTcii, in the ITorlh Bea ; 
97 hours from Lohdtin, 40 hoars from Ilnil. Altone 
lies to the wrst of It. ITcro !t wns f(nni(!t (l. %vith a 
rimrch and ( astle, by Charlemagne, in 803. 
Adolpbus of Uolstcln defeated the Danes at the 
bftttle of BomiiUHe, 11^, and ttecnred the ttbeitles 
nf the rising town. The Emperor BarbarossA made 
the river duty free to the mouth. H8f>. The 
refugee Walloons afterwards settled here. It 
was declared a free city of the Empire, 1770; 
and as a poti aikd fttaM Town, lb prosperity has 
been nninterrupted, f xcopt during the period of 
its occapatioti by the French under Mnr«ihat 
Davonst, 180*-14, when it was robbed of several 
millions of property in the shape of fines and con- 
Rscatlon. The oocnpied by the dty Is 10 to li 
iMiuariB mllei; but the territory over which the 
Two Bnrjroraasters and the Senate rci*rii is about 
150 square miles. Hamburg, in common with two 
other Hanse Towns, Bremen and Lttbeck, remains 
an Independent OcrmttA 8tMto» MTd forms a membeir 
of the German Empire, styled Stadt-Republik, or 
(Mty Republic. Naval Schools for the snpply oif 
the Qermau Navy are established hero. 

The Alster, coming from the north-east, forms 
the basins of the Inner and Outer Alster, ahd pas- 
sing on by leveitl banats balled Slete or *^ Fleet," 

falls Into tho Klbc roadstead. The Inn^r Basin or 
Blniien Alster is nnn-oundcd on three sides by 
hotels and handsome buildings and villas; th^ 
foattll side, to^rarMthe Anssen Alster being opeii. 
It Is planted with trees all round, Ahd in the 
favourite promenade, with a Rowing club and 
c oncert room at Uhlenhorst. The oM rmriparts 
arc converted into pleasant gardens and n carriage 
roa^. Two oat oif the ihree ihhiibiti^ sides of the 
Binnen Alster, whteh are call'ed Alsi^^r Damnt, 
and the Old and N^-.r Jung-fcmstleg (or Ladies* 
Walk) have bepn rebuilt oi> n fine scalp Since the 
ineHtfire oflWt, which in 3 day .5 dcstroyfed Ihfeih, 

[Se^ 1. 

houses, several churches, the Town UaU, and 
other public buildings. 

The old Town consists of old-ihshioued streets 
and houses, of no great date or interest. A new 

and Improved town has sprung up in the Eastern 

suburbs, near the railway station. The ware- 

honses are in Neuer and Alter Wall, round the 

Alster Basin; the b«ilest trailo ia on the Alte 

Jungfenistieg. Many misrchatttti 1IV6 up tibe 

Alster. and at their villas at Blanimese, down 

the Kibe. One of tlie best points of view i§ tTic 

Stintfang at Elbhdhe, over the harbour, the Elbe, 

Hamburg, oiKU it ITrie port, is now lotlittfM 

In the German ZoIIverein, or Customs Union. 
Every description of goods, to the valne of about 
250 millions sterling, inwards and ontwards. 
posses through the port, which surves as a depot 
for North Europe. One third of the irade Ss with 
En-land, to which half a million cattle are *ent 
yearly. The established relig-ion is Lnthcnm, hut 
all others are tolerated. A cathedral formerly 
«toodln<he]>o«H>Iata. It belonged to tbv AMh- 
blshop of Bremen, but was ttade over to tho city 
in 1 803. A Marine O bs ervatory i» optn^d.\v.9. F^f . Prf'n Kh-he, destroyed by fl^ 
1842, was rebuilt in the Gothic style, l^e (Ad 
tower is S70 feet high. 

St. Nikolaiy in the Hopfcnmirkt, destroyed at 
the same time, has been rebuilt by Sir G. O. i^cott, 
in stone and white brick. Its aplre is ill English 

feet above sen . or the frond hiahesi in Europe, beftig 
3 feet higher than 8trassbnrp, but 14 feet lower 
than Rouen spire. Burgomaster Schroder is 
buried here. 

A. IAcAmTs KMe was built by Bonnio, !751-«t, 
except the towen added in 1789, which risos |ft7 

feet high, coramandlni? a splciidid view. The 
Chnrch will hold 0,000 persons ; and has an nltar- 
piece by Tischbein, with a tablet to the memory 
of those who fell in the War of lyeedom. Open 
free. For the tower, a fee of 1 mark 30pf.forone 
person. The OatcUan lives close by. 

F^t. Knth^inen Kirchc, built in the 13th c6ntnry, 
has also a very lofty tower. It contains a pnttmit 
Of Pastor GStJs, the oppo«cr of Lessing; a fine 

and sixty streets adjoining, wltft uirlrArdi 1,7^ ^ lMlrbt» p«lp«ti imtt tfl altiMr^Mtc* by OtwM. 

Digitized by Google 



Jacob'* CImr-h, !ii >!toin-stras8c, ha^ a tower, ■ The StaUt Thtaht, ill Damm-TiiorsUasiC. by 

old Ave an d six. ^ Scblalitl, 182G, will holiL2JM?0 infrtaKira,. Open, 

c Alter 

til \% a 

vlng' of 
lUin in 
I, aiiti- 
*(», Ac. 
lienm ; 



not Air 

of the 

H»: the 

rhavs i 

ts bust 

■^ms, 4:c., attached to it. Accessible by tram. 
^4^omluiuiK in til (11 Wandrahin, buUt 1660, 
'infantry Uarrucka. 

is the 


hill try 
fid by 
oy b« 

fischcr-ewers (j»ronounced "ayvwt.") 

Harmtende is a pretty TUtaee otttfide the Damm 
Tlior,on • road lined wlthbrndeome oonntiy houses. 

Digitized by Google 



CoxvirAKCKS.*— Tram to Altmai Ac. Bteamm 

to llarburg, Cuxhayen, Heligoland, London, Hull, 
Grini<^f See BraiWMw'$ ContiHenta l QvMe. 

37 not 

Afloli . 

of t he 
the r 
rcf uff" 
WAS i 
and a. 
its o 


fisca ti 
sq u v%.r^ 

Two : 

1119 «<1 

of tlxe 
City 1 
tli« CH 

the t>« 

sinj2f o 
falls *> 


honaea, aerenl cinmhet, thd Tiyini Eall, tnd 
other pabUe buildinga. 

foil 1* 

It is 

are eoi 

rna <^ - 

ana «ll 


an<i »i 

' upwards oir 1,7<>0 * tt^rbt<^ ptitpit; and an aUar-pi«c« by 

Digitized by Googlc 

Route 9.] 


Jit. Jacob's Chunky In Stein-strasse, hns a tower, 
vebnilt 1827. It standi near some old five and »ix 
•lorey timber houses vblch escaped the fire. 

The Geman Befonnod Chureh is in Fetdinand- 

The Frmek Protestant Church, 134, Kouigs- 

Little St. Michael's ChunA has been nied by the 
Roman Catholic!? since 18»4. 

Synagogues for the German and Portugticso 
Jews at Etb»4trasse, in the Neuc Steiiiweg; 
besides a Jenrish Trngle In PooI'Stmsse, built 
1844, in the Norman style. 

(One of the buildings which escaped the fire of 
1842 ia the 
iKw £»!Aa«0w(B8rseX In Adolphs-platz, a very 
handsome pile, by Schlnltel, opened December 
^n !, 1841. It is 250 fept Innp, and 180 feet broad, 
and surrounded by a colonnade, and oftices for 
|btokers, Ac. It contains a library and reading 
I room, where tbe jonmala may be read. Intro- 
duction by ft member. High change, 1 U to 
^ 15 p.m. Adniis>.ioii, 30 pf. 
iNear this are the New Town Hali and Courts of 
^lee (jQstfsgeblhtdeX bnilt by Sir G. G. Scott. 

The Now Banlc, by Schinkel, Is opposite tbe 
panic in Adolphs-platz. 
The Johanneum, or Johanniwhttlc. U a large 
lilding In Dom-platz, on the site of the Cathe- 
Inelnding the Ojrmnasium Thor College, 
Ith a staff of professors, and the Liblwy of nearly 
">,000 vols, and .^OOO M8S., Including- a bequest 
Joachim Jungius; with museums of natural 
story and local antiquities. Open free; Sunday, 
to 12; Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, and 
Hdny, 11 to 1. 

The ^ran*e«/iau*(Pul.lic Hospital) in the suburb 
\ St. George is designed to contain nearly 
tOOskk of all classes; the poor being admitted 
ee, while others pay according to their means to 
nre the benefit of good medical advice. Its Chajjel 
Stains Overbeclc's Christ's Agony In the Garden. 
• HMsmAmis (Orphan School), where 600 in- 
ts are brought up and edueated. There Is also 
Usuhehaus or Rr fnnnntory forneglcctod Children 
bide the town, with a mission Seminary, print- 
press, Ac, attached to It. Accessible by tram. 
The Komhaus, In the old Wandnhm, b«Ul 1480, 
m the infantry Barmeks. 


The .Stadt m-afre. In nftmm-Thoistrastc, by 
Schlnliel, 182G, wiU hold 2,5yu spectators. Open 
6 80 p.m. The Thalia Theatre, at the Pferde maritt 
holds 1,800. There are large Bagaan in the Alter 
Junprfernsteig; and at the Hotel de Bttseie, a fine 
building with a glass octagon. 

A ifusic ffaU at the comer of Neuc Wall is a 
large building, with a room capable of containing 
2,000 persons. 

Among the CoRecHmu In the town deserving of 

notice are the following: RbMing s Museum In 
Diechtliorwall, of stulTed animals, and shells, anti- 
quities, coius, engravings, Ac. Open daily, during 
the snmmer months, frum 10 to 1, with lectures, &c. 
The Natural History Museum, in the Johanneum; 
a welI-arran?Ted collection of shells. The Town 
Picture Gallery is at the Knnsthalle. or Gallery 
Of Sculpture, near the Schiller Statue. Open 
dally, Mmdays excepted, to strangers. 

Botanical Gardens, near the Damm-Thor; not fur 

from the Zoological Gardens, and Ethtbltlott of the 
Horticultural Society. Outside is the puWIo 
cemetery, with a monument to 1,1. Hamburgers, 
victims of Davonst*s occupation in i«i a. 

Mendelssohn, the musician, was born here; the 
son uf a banker, and grandson of Moses Men< 
delssohn, tlie scholar. 

Esviito-ss.— There are various places of amuse- 
ment in the environs, such as Uhlcnhorst (stca.iier 
from the Jangfernstieg), with the Flhrhaus- 
restnurani; ooncert several times a week. ' 

The Elbe Pavilion ig situated on an eminence 
between the Millcrn and Altona Gates. The Uux-r 
leads out to Altona, at a short distance, its htst 
street is Pahnallle, In the middle of which is a 
beautlAd avenue which leads to Ottenstcln. 

In Land-strasse, under a large lime tree, Is the 
gravcof Klopstock. Klopstock >vasbonil774attj|^ 
house iu Konig-stras«e. Reyotifl tins, on the Kibe 
is Booth's Nursery, ut Fiottbeck; then Meinstadteri* 
where Hugo Groans lived t and many fine couiury 
houses round BlanktWM, a village inhabited by 
sailora and fishermen, to which a trip may he 
made by steamboat. Tbe Elbe is full of small craft 
fisoher-ewets (pronounced *'ayvcrd.") * 

ifonMslMMlsls a pretty Tillage outside the Daoun 
Thor,oii a road lined with bandsomeeonntty houses. 

Digitized by Google 

34 ' ^Al>ftllAW'» 

Miar the Outei- Ahier ia Eppendorf^ » place of 
amuieraent. with the AndnM Branntn, readied 
by water on the Alster. 

At Horn is the Ranhehatu (page 32), and the 
annaal neea are heM on a eomnioii near here. 

Ham, Horn, nnd the fraft and Utcben Gardens 
at Vu'vlatule (which supply vegetables and fruit 
to the markets) are lucalitiea deserving notice. 

WaaMbecJt^ alKtnt four mllca from (be Stain Ghite, 
totioogtaff to Holeteln. It vas Aa realdencQ of 
Claudius, wboae ^Krc u heia; ami alioef Tyebo 
Brube, and Voss, t he poet. 

Uantburg is the largest of the Hamt Townt^ the 
. Others beiiiff Brentan, Ltlbeck, ana Ftankf orum^ 
tha-ftUiOtthalatteriiowaanexedtoPnueU. Tbeae, 
aft«>f 1641. were the only renmanta ,,f the powerful 
iianseatic League of eighty-five |>orta and towns 
in the North of Qomtany and nraii4 Iba Baltic, 
formed in the 19th ceatncy, for tho prolactlon of 
trade. They had a factory in London, at the Steel- 
5*ard, a site now occupied by the terniirnis in 
Cannon-street of the S^outh Eastern liuUway. 
The arebf ves of the union are kept at Lttbeck. 

The Steamerfl across the Elbe to Hftrlnirg 
(Btfttt) arc now superseded by a rail, 7 miles 
long, completin^j the line to Liincbnrg. 

In summer steamers ply regularly to Cuxharen 
and Heligoland ; sea passage, 3| to d hours. 

The Lower Bllie BiUl to Cttxhaven, 65 m.1ong, 
on the south side of the river, passes Buztohudo 
(Stat.)> Sta4e (Stat.), where the Stade duties oit 
8hippftig were formerly collected, and Cftddll- 

berge (Stat.) 


PoPULAtloy, 5,m\ with Ritzebflttel. 

lloTKi,. — DtHlc's Belvedere Hotel. 

Railway to GecstcmUnde (page 40). See Bf€ui- 
$hak9 CaOliimta Guide, 

This Is an oatport of Hamburg, to whidi it 
belongs, and is about 70 miles below it, at the 
mouth of the Elbe in the North Sc.-j. It serves 
ns n paclcct station, and as a rendezvous for 
sliipping in winter, when the rivers are frosen. 
Since 1870 the mouth of the Elbe has been strongly 
fortified. The district nroun 1 f« part of the balll- 
wiok of Ritzebiittel, under the ^'ovemment of the 
Hamburg jiienale. There are bathing machines and 

. lodglhg booaaafofttlm&Mof vMtoit. Ooodiodg-. 

: iflgs mar 1>* I>Ad from 7 to 10 marks wetMj. ' A 

club room at the Belvedere Hotel. Promenades 
by the mm fihore. and to Brockswaide. There art 
lighthouses here, and at the island of Neuwerk, 
' two miles oir. 

About 45 miles from Cnxhaven, ont in the Noitb 
Sea, facing tbemonth of the Elbe, is MetgeUmd, or 


PorcLATioy, 8;0M, In 400 bouses ; ebiefljOevw 

man Frieslanders, who aredshermen and pilots. * 

Steamers at least twice a week, to and from 
Cuxhaven, in connection with trains from an^ to 

Hovna.— City of Loiidonj Queen Victoria; and 
Restaurants; table d*hdte at the CouTersatloQs 


Au island (ceded to Geraumy, Aug. lOtb, 1890), 
consisting of reddish day.mlxed with round stonep, 
of the Keuper formation, which the sea is con- 
tinually wearing away on the north side. 

During the great European war. when the 
island was taken possession of by England, 
1807, to servo as a depot fur trade, il|o 
population amounted to 4,000 or A,00^ aad 
the port was lined with warehouses. It Is abopt 
three miles round; and is divided into Vor 
or Uuterland, a few feet above the sen, and 
an Oborlandor Clid, 90 to 200 feet high, reac^^ 
by 190 steps, on which the little town is |iac«d, 
and a ll^rhthouse. The landing-place is In the 
Untei-land, where thero .irf tno little harbours 
with deep water. It is joined to tlie cliff by a 
sandy Isthmus, Tbero if a Murtaxe of 4 m. per 
week, or 9 m. for a family of more than three. 80a 
bathing at Rothe Mcer I.s enjoyed here In perfec- 
tion at all times oX the tide, the ^imsta being 
peeuiiai'iy mUd. 

Carriages and iNTses are not used; t#o or three 
cows and a few hundred eheep are ssen. 'PrHwIke 

i lodgings are reasonable. The amusements eon- 
sist ebiefly of water excursions, and bathing at 
Sandy I4and or the Oliae, i mile off, to which the 
bathers are oanied in boats in tkeeaHy mentti%. 
A theatre has been trallt by the late Ocfvenior. 

The Church has a ship hanging from the roof, a 
Frisutn custom; also a brass font, and scripture 
panel paintings round the gallery frpnt where ti^e 

Digitized by Google 

fiouta 8.] 



nwn dt tn th^ blue ddrtf and cordvioyf; ivlitte 

the women sit below, dressed in crimson petticoats 
with a dark bodice, sUk sun-bonnets and veil. The 
women do all the work ashore, while the men fish. 
Engliah, German, and Frbtan are spoken. At the 
Dttnenpavilloni on the Bade>InMt, la * reftaurant. 

The Nordhorn, 180 feet high, la the highest 

point In the islnntl. There arc sea caves and 
grottoes at Jung Gatt and Muhruierii Gutt, &c. 
Around the Heligoland are Sandy Island, the 
Monk, and other reefs, gradnally formed by tiie 
aAtlOO of the sea ; which since 1770 has worn a 
channel 10 fathoms deep between the mainland 
and Sandy Island, once no doubt a part of it. 
In early tiniee the temple d a 8«soo deity was 
located In Helgoland, on the site of whleh a her> 
iiiita^>-c was established ; hence the prCiOttt namOp 
signifying' Holy Island. 

The Nordemey, and the Wanger Ooge, are about 
twenty miles distant from Heligoland. (See 
Route 6.) 

Berlin to Spaadau, Steiidal, aardelegen, 
UHswML and BraniMi. 

By rait, 100 miles, to SalawedeT; 310 to Bramen. 

Spandau (Stat.), as in Route 1. Here- the 
line parts off to Rathenow (Stat.), on the Hayel. 
Population, 16,000. Here is a statue of Fredericlc 
Wtniami to commemorate theoeenpatlon of Rathe- 
now, Ifith June, 1075. 

SchonlLaUSen (Stat.), near the Elbe — This 
was the birth-place, April Ist, 1815, of the famous 
German statesman, Prince Otto Yon Blsmarck- 
SchBnhftQsen. The estate -was pnrehased and pre- 
icnted to Ton Bismarck In 18W. 

Stendal (Stat.), where this line intersects 
the line fVom Wittenberffe to Magdeburg. It is a 
busy town on the Uchte (population, 14,»0i»), with 
a handsome Cathedral (restored), St. Mary's 
Chnreh, and Bathhaus, aU later OetMe. One 
line passes hence to Vlnzelberg (Stat.), and 
Oardelegen (Stat.), thence by OobisfeMe and 
LehrM to Uanorer; while the other turns off 
ndrdi'west toirards Bamhvrgt past HlBBUlt 
(Stat.), Bnmau (Stat.), Ae., to 

Sal2wedel (Stat.>, population, 9,000,iMm«riy 
a Banae Towu, oa the riter Jeetse. 

Fhan here to VKtun. (on the Hanover fnd 
Hamburg Ime), Soltau, VlWUlhSf^de (Hne to 

Hanover), and Langwedol, jotainpr the direct 
line from Berlin to Bremen. (See Route f.) 
Salzwedel to Bremen is about 10» English miles. 
The line la devoid of any special intenst. 

Hamburg to lUehoe, Kiel, Rendab^, 
SatUdswlf , TdnaJflf , Ftaulnirg, fta 

leaving Hamlmrg, we veaeh Attona (fltst). 

pronounced Altona, tfaa old capital of BMstata, 
forming part of the west inbnrba ef Hamlmrt. 

Population, 148,249. 

HoTSLS. — Holsteinisches Hsus; KunigUohfr 
Hof; Sonne. 

Bailway, Tramway, and Steamer to Bambnr^. 

It is quite a new town, the popnlation haying 
quadrupled in 60 years, and contains no Tcry old 
public buildings. One or two of the churches are 
rather remarltable. There is a Museum and Flo- 
tiire Galleiy (in the Beal Schvle). The town la 
pleasantly sltnated, and the port admits laiv* 

Plnneberg (Stat.), near Ktllingen Church. 

Eimslioni (Stat.), popuIaUon, 8,000, on the 
Kruclcan, near thebrawdi to OlSek^adt, Itzehoa, 
Hald«, a little town bvUt by Carolns Hagnnt. 81f , 

and EUBUm, for Uvidding. 

GliiCkstadt (Stat.) in the former Duchy of 
Holstein and a small purt un the marshy bauk pf 

the Elbe (population, 5,600). 

lieumiuLster (Stat.; 

TiOmMtOBt 11,600{ employed in tha linen and 

otbcr Tnannfactures. A direct line runs pftst 
Helde. to TOimIng (Victoria Hotel; population, 
4,000), a port at the mouth of the £ider on the 
North Sea; having a large cattia trade w}(h 
Ei^land. At Heide the line f mm Altoaa ofqpfa 
in, and a branch goes off to BttguSL, a small 
Ing place. 

Here a branch turns off to Oldesloe and Bucben. 

BOfdMholill (Sl»t.>» near a lake and a 
^nreh containing tombe U the Danish ?pyal 
family. The line eoBtlttOie down tte HtfUT ^ 

Digitized by Google 

86 hRADgUATV's 

Kiel cstat.) 

PorVULTIOK, 69,214. 

BOVBUL— GcnuDla; Bellevne; Maraily; Hall- 
way HoMI (Bahnhof Hold); Stadt Kopeiib«c«a. 

The former capital of the Duchy of HolBtain, and 
one of the best havens in the Baltic now annexed 
to the German Empire. It stands in a yery plea- 
■ant ooantry, and it iralled round and regularly 
built. ItcarriMonagoodtnMlewlthtlieDaiilab 
Islands; the Epiphany fair 1» largely attended. 
Large ships of war can anchornear the tf>wii in 
the beautiful Bay called Kielerfiihrde, 3 mUes by 
li niia, wlUi deep water for large ships. Here are 
« MaYal College and FUMOng Doeita at Ellerbeek, 
pioteeted by land Ibrta. There is a Church of the 
Itth century. 

. Theold University, founded 1665, hascollectiuus 
of mineiali and antiquities; Sunday, Wednesday. 

and Saturday, II to 1. At the new University 

la a library of 100,000 volumes, and a Zoological 
Huaeuui; Sunday, 11 to 2; Wednes«lay. I to S. 

' The Sea Baths are near the DUsternbrook wood 
ftad the promenade to Bellevtie (Snilea). Other 
points of view are the imiheimshShe, Neamtthlen, 

und Friedrlchaort Fort, to which trips can be made 
by boat. The old Cattlf is the seat of I'rlnce Henry 
of Prussia, it has an Art Museum, open Sunday 
and Thursday, 11 80 to IS 80. The new Thaulow 
Museum of old Wood Carvings is open Tuesday 
and Friday, 11 to 2; Sunday, 12 to 4. Tlie Xorth 
Sea Canal runs from Holtcnau, near Kiel, to 
Brttnsbnttel on the Elbe^ 61| miles, and is wide 
and deep enough to aliow the lieaTiest Ironclads 
to pass. Thi.t shortens the time between Kiel and 
Hamburg by 2^ days. 

■ GoMTBTANCES. — By rail to ilauiburg, Neustadt, 
Bebleswlf , Ae» Btetmers (when no iee) to Copen- 
liagen, Btoddiobn, and St. Peisnbnrir* A steamer 

for Copenhagren leaves on the arrival of the last 
train for Korsoer ffi^, hours), in the (ircat Holt, on 
the island of Zealand, where the rail to Copen- 
hagen is taken. 

Al Neumtinster (page »)t ■ branch turns off to 

SeiuUlnirg (Stat.) 

Population, 12,800. 
iisNi.—Stadt Hamburg; Hotel Pabl. 
▲ String post on the Elder« u4i1eii marts the 
4 boundary between Holstein and Scbleswlg. It runs 


' downtotlieNoriliSeaat riVnnin(7,aiidcommttuicates 

with the Baltic by the Schleswig-IIolstein canal. 
I Not far from fiendsburg Is the site of the Dtmne- 
I vtrk^t a lino of eutrencbmenti which extended 
across the iieninsula to Friedrlchstadt on the North 
Sea. After having been tnkan by the I'russiana 
under Von Wraugel, April 23rd, 1848, and after- 
: wards much strengthened by tlie Danes, it was 
I taken by the allied Prussian and Austrian forves. 
I February Mb, 1804, and eventually levelled. 

j 8CHLBSWZ0 (8Ut) 

PorCLATIOM, 15,4^* 

Iini8*--HotelBaTen; Hotel Stahn; StadtHam- 

Local railway tO Bchleswig Altstadt. 

An old town, extendinfr alor.r the Schlci to a 
bay in the Baltic, once the chief scat of the Duchy 
of SeUeswig-Holstein. The houses are of neat 
brielE in the Dutch style. 

The Cathedral, originally 12th century, burnt and 
restored 1440, In the Gothic style, has an altar- 
screen, carved by Hans liriiggemann, 1521, the 
finest worlc of art In these parts. 

GoU^rp CatUtt in tlie Friedridisbeig Quarter, 
wa<i the seat of the former dukes. It was taken 
by Gen. Von Wrangel, February 1st, 1864, com- 
manding the Allied armies, and annexed to Prus* 
sla, 1866. 

Steamer to Kappdn (in 3 hours), past Uit$tindf^ 
which was strongly fortified to protect the passage 
of the Scblei ; but the Danes being ovemiatched 
in men and artQlery, were defeated by the 
Frusaiaas undw Prince Charles, Feb. 6th, 1861, 
after the latter had crossed in a <tnowst(»in. 

Kail, 25 miles, to Siidcrbrarup. 

Jiibeck (Stat.), Junction of the branch to IIu- 
snm, TQnning, iat, 

RiitfbiutK (Stat) 

Population, 36,873. 

//off-^i. -Bahnhof; Fey's Hotel; (>r,t:fi1 Hotel. 

Diligence to Sonderburg, &c., past Diippel. 

A thriving eommercial town, and the chief place 
In Sehleswig^ pleasantly seated on an arm of the 
Baltic It has a good harbour, and many oil mills, 
brewerie«i (Ustilleries, foumiric"?, rope works, iic. 

In this nei;;fhbourhood ore Sundeunit, the e:urr.«.Mi 
ofSebleswig, and serwal spots whieh fi^pu^u in 
the war of 1864. Among them are Qm nts, 9 mSUuk 

Digitized by Google 

Route 4.3 



whcte the Aottrlanif nnder Gftbloits, defeated the 

Danes, February 6th. DSppel, and its rertonbts, 
mi the channel of Alsen, here 150 yards wide. It 
was held by 12,000 Danes, but at leugth bombarded 
and taken by asMiiIt hf tlie Pniasians, under 
Prinee Frederidc Cbariea, April IStb, after a siege 
of two months. The Prnssiaiis, In nttcmptln^ to 
cross the channel, were repulsed by the llolf 
Krake irond&d. Sonderhurg^ on the Island of Alsen, 
faeea tlie mainland, tbe paange of whteh was 
forced 29th June, when the Danes retreated into 
FUnen. By the subsequent peace of 20th October, 
Schleswig-ilolstein, Lauenberg, and part of J ut- 
laud became Prussian territory. 

Steamm to Flensborirt er to Kid— Tuesday, 
Thuraday, and Saturday forenoon. 

Hanover to Lelirte^ Celle, Liinebuxg, Lauen- 

IIS mllea in 8| hours. 


...... fiOj 



Bevensen Giif 

L1inehur;r 82f 

[Branch to Lauen- 
burgand Bttchen] 

Harburg ............».10tfi 

Hamburg ••••m****.* 118 

H.inoTcr tu miles. 

Lehrtc 10 

lliraMh from the 

Sohnde 4 

Alfrerniissoii.. S 

Jlarsuui ...... 12 

llUtkisheim ... 19 

Nordstemmen S8] 
Hurgdorf.^..M....».* 15 
CcIJc 26j 

Hanover (Stat.) Se*" Koutc 1. Thence to 

Celle, or ZeUe (StatJ, m UauoTer. 

POPOULTIOaf, 18,800. 

/iHtf.— Hotel de Hanovro. 

An old town, on the Aller, at tlie jnnetion of the 
Fnse. It WHS occupied by the Pmaslans, July 
10th, in the German war of 186(5, 

rsic Stadtkirehe is a TCry old church, containing 
the tombs of the Brunswick LUneburg family, 
from whom the rojral house of England Is de- 
scended, and also a sarcophagus) of the unfortunate 
Queen C.nroliMp Matilda of Denumrlc, sister of 
George III., who died here in exUo in 1773. It 
stands in a fine chapel. Near tbe Soyal /Vifoca In 
Schloaaplats are tbe stabl«s of the ex-Kfng of 
HanovCft now a stud esinblishmcnt. Tbe chapel 
contains » food altar-piece by De Vos of Antwerp. 

The rail traTerses the (teat dreary Ltfneba^lf 

Heath between Bevensen and Llfaiebug. 

Lunetourg fStat.), Iti Hanover; where the 
direct line to Hamburg and Bremen, coming from 
Hltzaker, falls in. It passes on via Bucholz for 
Bremen. (See Route 3). 

POPCLATION, 20,681. 

//o/e/*.— Hoffnung ; Wclloukamp. 

An old walled town, formerly the sent of the 
Dulces of Brunswiclc, containing many gabled 
houses. It stands on the Umenan, near the 
Kalkbcrjr hill, which is about 280 feet high. 

The Michael iikirche has a fine altar-gmttp, a 
crypt of the 14th centurj', and tombs of the 
dukes, whose Palace stands near. 

St. Nicholas, early Iffth century, has some good 

The Church of St. John is a Gothic brick churcli of 
the 14th century, and contains many curiosities. 

At the Bathhaut Is the Furstensaal or Princes* 
Room, ISO feet long. It bas some sixteenth century 
carvings, with 64 portraits (nfc-si2e)of the Princes 
of the house of Brunswick; also curious stained 
glass, frescoes, Ac., and carving by Albert of £jocst, 
1568. The gold and silver plate, electro copies of 
whkh are still here, was sold to the Berlin 
Museum for £33,000. Outside the wall are the 
Salzo salt works, yidilin^ nbout 10,000 tons a year; 
with saline and vapour baths. Gypsum is worked 
in the quarries of the Kalklierg. Two engage- 
ments, in which the French were beaten, were 
fought near this 1813. Part of the countrj' between 
the Elbe and Weser (to the left of the line) is 
occupied by the Ltiucburg Heath (Uaide), u i>urt 
of Arabia Deserta <rf sand, onrered with straggl ing 
blocks of stone. It Is noted fat Its bees and a breed 
of coarse-woolled sheep, called Heidcsknucken. 

Hail to Wittenberge and Bnohliolz. pnpc 31 

[llei-e a branch rail turns off towards Liibeck, 

past Adendorf to HolmstOKtor Stohnstorf, 
on the Elbe; thenea to LaiMBlmXl opposite, 

ami (b' uee to BiichOD (Route 2), on the wny 
to >f;i>|n. |{;itzeburg, and l.iibeck (Koute S). 
Lauenburg is the small capital u)upuiation, 
4,800) of a UtUo dukedom annexed to Prussia* 
1888, otmtaining the ^wartzbcck estate, which 
the Emperor prnntcd to Prince Blsmarck after 
the Franco-German wnr.J 

Digitized by Google 


[Sec. 1. 

About i mile from Liinebnrg is Bardowiock a 
tm&ll pUce (pc^aUtioD, 1,400) on the Umeaau, 
Witt til* iMMint of « ftM Cafthednl fonnded 
bf GhuleiiMgne, rained liy Henry the Lion, in 
1189, after having: hcen a considerable trading town 
of North Ocriuany, and a rival to UAiubarg. 

Harbiurg (Stat.) 

PorvLATiow, S5,000. 

Am. — ^KSnig von Schweden. 

A port on the Elbe. 7 miles south of Hamburg, 
a good free harbour for the carrying and 
transport trade. Junction of lines to Bremen and 
CvidisTen. Neiur it U BSmuibwrg^ a summer resi- 
dence for the weattby^ people of 

Hamlmrg (spc Route 2), which (bo railway 
reaches after crossing the South and North Elbe. 

From Hamburg a rail Is open to I4ibeck, past 
QldMlO^t * watering-place with baths, whence a 
line of 27 miles to Keumunster, on the Hamburg 
and Kiel line, was opened 1874. 

HanoTor to 

By rail to Bremen, In honrs. 


. Hanorer to 
Wnnstorf 134 

Nienburir 34f 

Vcrden 61 i 

Langwcdil — 

SebaldsbiUck -< 



Burg-Lesum 84 

[Branch toVcgesack] 

beck 90 J 

GecstemUnde (Bre- 
merhafen) 116 

BREMEN (Stat.) 

Population, 125,684. 

Honis.— Hotel de VEnrope, a first-rate honsc. 
Hotel du Nord ; HlUmann's ; Albert! ; Stadt 
Frankfurt; Siodenbtirg; Hannovcrschcs Hau9. 

HACKJCsrCABniAOKS.- Droschken, one horst\for 
one or two persons for half an hour, UO pf.; two 
horses, for half an hour, 1 mark 20 pf. Portman- 

TftamTAT, round the town, and to suburbs. 

pf><T jurp TaLBamam oimcB.— In the Dom- 

RAiLWAr.— To Burg-Lesum, OeestCttUnde, Han- 
evwr, Oldenburg. Emden, Gnming«n, Ac. 

B&IX18H AMD United Statbs Conscls. 

Steamers from Bremerhaven to Oldenbnrg, Nor- 
dcmey. London, Hull, Sontharopton, and Hew 
York. (Bee Bradthaw't Continental d^Ms.) 

Bremen, in the new German empire, is one of tha 
three Hanse Towns, and an old free city, on both 
banks of the Weser, about 86 miles from the 

North Sea; the old town on the east bank, and 
the new town on the west, being connected with 
each other by three bridges. It was made a See 
by Charlemagne about 790, and made an imperial 
town by Otho I. It founded the port of Riga, and 
took nn active part 5n the Crusades, as a raeraber 
of the iianseatic League, and also acquired pro- 
perty at the Steel-Tard in London. It was the 
head 4rf an arch-diocese, which was afterwards 
converted into a ducby in 1648, when Bremen fell 
to the crown of Swedan. 

In 1731, its rights as afree city were established, 
■vshilo the duchy was annexed to Hanover and 
Oldenburg. Ni^Mleon made it a pait of bis ex- 
tended Franeh empire, 1810. It Is now an lade* 
pendent member of the German Empire under 
Prussia. It stands in a flat rejrion of good 
pasture land, intersected by canals, and is closely 
built, having few o]>en places, except the dlsvsed 
gnraTeyards. The old town (Altstadt) especiaUy 
consists of crooked streets and dark tall houses; 
but those in the new town are more regular Fine 
quays line the water side. There are many hand- 
some well-built houses in the suhurbt. The site 
of the old fortSfleations Is cftnTertsdinto walks and 
Gardens, outside which arc the moats ; some of the 
ol d G ates remain . At the Ansgariithor is the monu- 
ment of the war of 1870-1. 

It is froveniod by a body of two Burgomasters, 
and a body of Senators styled "Die Wltthrtt^* 
(The Wisdom, or Wise Men), who have soreralgn 
authority extending over 70 square miles of ter^ 
ritory. A fundamental law, " Die neue Eintracht," 
agreed to in 1433, is still valid. 

The Dom in the old town is the Lutheran Cathc- 
dral a larg-c bnilding begun as early as 1043, and 
finished for the moat part about llOd, In the 
Bonaaesqne and Gotblo styles. It is 936ft. long, 
lt4ft.hraad,ftnd VMu high. It h«a aei1ch4ii*a 

Digitized by Google 


**LMt Jii4ffraetii;" a Bronze Fout with four ; 
itatiM M Old as the Mil century ; and a good organ . 
Umtar ftbftoMlMdzMl i» thocigrptor BloiMlw (<.«. 

Lead Cellnr), so called because the lead of the roof 
was melted here Here are several mumiuies; 
among theui are the liodies of two Swedish officers 
of tho Thirty Yeon* War. Tho towor has a good 
view of the town and environs. Behind it is tho 
Cathedral square, or DomxJieide, in which stand 
Fugell>erg's bronze statue of Qustavus Adolphus 
(185C), and the Hall of the Artists' Society (Kilnst- 
lerTsrein)^ in the Gothic style; irlth the now Im- 
perial Post Office of brick and stone, on the site of 
the Cify Schools (now behind it). The KUnstlcr- 
vereln, open Sunday, Tuesday, and Thursday, has 
a fine Nalttial HbtiMry CoUei^loii. 

Tho iitafvwmiikirdi^ (Our Lady's Chnroh), buUt 
1100, near the Town Hall, With two towers, has 
been partially restored. 

St. Aiisgar Church (Ansgariikirche), bnilt 1229- 
41. ItlsmarkedbyahandMaMtowora0fMt.higb, 
with lancet windowot nid hit a good altar^leoo 
paint cd h y Ti-^c hbein, of Christ andTonngChildren. 

The church of St. John's Convent, for the 
Catholics, contains the tomb of the Prince of 
BwBrtMtt-CMd, grandson of the Great Condd. 

Th« Amt Ball (Rathhant) is tho handsomest 
and moat Temarkablc bulldiiiff in Bremen. It was 
the Archbishops' palace, built 1405, in the Gothic 
atyie. On the bouth side, which is iu the Henals- 
sanoo Style, are ancient statnee of seven Electors 
and the Emperor. In the large hall is tho statue 
of Bur<?oinaster Schmidt, and a finely carved 

Under the Town Hall Is the famous Urcuaeu 
Bathdtelln; a trim tOlar^ remarkable for Its ex> 

cellent Rhenhdi and Hosellc wines. It also con- 
tains .some immense vatfl, styled tho "Rose," and 
the " Twelve Apostles." The " Rose " is so called 
from a large painting of a rose on the ccilmg, 
iMueath which the more important ddtberatlons 
of the Town Council wore held "sub rosA." The 
large public driuking-room for wine and oysters 
here has an elliptic arch, giving out an echo like a 
whispering gaUory. A shoemaker's house is 
marked by three life-stze statues of aboomakers, 
viz., St. Crispin, Hans Yon 8a|an (living 1870), 
an4 lUm Sachs. 

Opposite the Rathhaus is the statue of Koland. 
eighteen feet high, erected in the 14th century in 
the plaoo of a wooden one, and looked i^ion «• 
symbolical of the pclvllegos of tho town. 

The Exchmtgr, built In 1865, conthlM m hand- 
some hftll celling-, nnd mnral paintfnf^s. It can bO 
seen from 12i to 2 o cloek. Near to if is the 

SchUtting, a stately old building, IGth century, 
the seat of the Chamber of Commerce, in which 
are the archives and a public library. 

Olbers, the astronomer^ was a native, and died 

1811. He dheoverod Pallus and Vesta. A statue 
of bini, hy Su-inhitnser (1860), bAs been erected 

uuur the Kun.sthalte. 

Not far from the Domsbof is the Stadt Bibliothek, 
with a library of 70,000volnmos. Near the Church 
of St, Anegar Is a good bnlidhig In the Banais* 

sanco style, erected in 1619, called the Gcwerbo 
Httus, or Trade Hall. Originally the K^uild-hall of 
the dotti morobants, it still serves for commercial 
pnipoeas, and has been Internally restored. Thb 
Kaiser Saal, with portraits of the burgomaatonii 
can be seen hy applying to the custodian. 

The Theatre is on the Stadtwall promenade. 

Among other buildings worth notice nrc the 
Arsenal, the Granaries and Weighing IIouhu \ the 
New Hospital, capable of feeding 6,000 persons; 
the Workhoose; the Catharlnenstlft; the Deaf and 
Dumb Asylnm ; the Trade and Navigation Schools. 

The eastern side of tho town, especially about 
the Oster Deich and the Oster Thor, is the newest 
and handsomest. 

The KwiihaUint the Art Union, on the old Ram- 
part, was finished 1849, and has paintings (chlefiy 
modern) and sculptures, some by Stelnldlttser, a 

native artist. It is open free, Sunday and Tues- 
day, other days, a small fee to attendant, llecren, 
the historian, was born here. Statue of Ki>rncr on 
the K8mer Wall. The Town Park la near the 

As a free port. Bremen possesses a large tnmalt 
trade in cattle and Continental produce. Here are 
above ninety tobacco and cigar manufactories, 
vpwards of 34 million lbs. being imported ; a dosen 
sugar refineries ; chomioal works; tall-eloth aUUI1t< 
facto/ion; beer brewerjts, 

Digitized by Goo^e 


Tlic Wescr is very fchallow here. I^rgc vessels i 
catinut cotue higher than Yes^O&cK (Stat.), 10 | 
ratiM below Bremen, a Dutch-looking town, with 
large warehouses and shli»-yards. , 

OeeBtemunde, population, 1G,000 (Hotel Han- 
nover), w«8 established by the Hanoverian 
Government as a rival to Brenoibafon. Steamera 
to Nordemey and Heligoland* Blreet rail to 
Cuxhaven (pn:<e 34), opened 1896. | 

Bremerhafen (Stat.), i>'>i«uintion, 
Hotels— Lobrs; Bcermanu »), o-i unia^ below 
Bremen, at tbo river's month. Here are Docks, 
an BmlgninVe House, Ao. From this point a 
regular steam navigation line, the Norddcntsclie 
Llnvd, i.i ostahlished, by which over 100,000 eml- 
grauts eujbarlt yearly for America. The trade 
o( tha plaoe Is steadily increasing; much shlp- 
hnllding is carried on here, and at Bremen. 

Here nn explosion took place on Itoard the 
Mosel, alongside the quay, 1676, which killed and 
wounded 200 persons. It wasooeasloned hy a box 
of dynamite, which a man named Thomas liad 
planned to ospltnlo, by mc:ins of clockworlc, in the 
Atlantic, that he nii.'ht pet the insurance; but 
wbich blew up too toon. Tlic projector shot Iiimsclf. 

Steamer trips can be made In the summer to 
Wangcruog and NordiTucy on the sea coast (see 
Ruutc R, following') ; by the Wcser to Hauovor aiid 
Mundcu; and to UUii iilmr^'. 

Bremen to Oldenburg, Emden. and 

By roll, to Oldenburg and Leer, 62 miles. 

£ngllsh • English 
Bremen to miles, i miles. 

Dchnenhorat 9 Zwiscbenahn ^7 

Hiidc 17} Oehnit 42 

Uldenlmrg 27| iBraneJi to i 

Ihixauh to I Westerstede.] 

Varel ............19 Stfckbansen Si 

Wilbelmshefontt] Leer 62 

i Emdcu 81 

At Hude, a branch of 27 miles goes off to Brake 

and Ifordeii/Mmmt down the Weser. Brake is a 

i-liip building port with several ship-yards. In 
I8!i6 a lino was opened between Bralie aud Olden- 

0XAS1IB1IB0 (Stel), in the Grand Duchy 
Oldenburg, which includes tho Principalities of 
beck and BIrkeufctd. FoBUL^mt 21.31'). 

[Sec 1. 

HoiKui. — Hotel de Kussie; £rb-Gross>Hcrsog. 
Capital of the Dttchy, and residence of tha 
Grand Duke, on tho Hunto; foonded IIU by 

Christian I. of Denmark. It Is well-built, and 
has promenades on tbe site of the old ramparlB. 

The Lambert u$-kirche contains tbe tombs of the 
Grand Dukes, who npreoent ona of tha most 
ancient families in Gennany, from which tha 
Danish and Busslan royal houses trace thair 

The Palace and Residenz-Scblush contain collec- 
tions of engravings and coins, and some modern 
paintings, with a library. There are also collec- 
tions of minerals and German anthjultles at the 

new Museum. 

Tha Augmteum, built ISfiH, a liandsomc edifice, 
contains a valuable collection of old matters. 
Admission, 11 to 2. 

A branch of 82 miles to Varel (Stat.), ou tha 
Jadt^ an inlet of tha North Sea, terminates at the 

naval po rt of Wllhelmshaven (Stat ),cstablished 
by Pruiisia since its purchase 1854. Population, 
15,000. Here are breakwaters for an Outer and 
Inner harbour, with workshops and iMucradtt, 

suitable for a great naval port. The inlet OktendS 

20 miles. Another lino of 38 miles turns south 
to QuakenbriiCk and Osnnbrilcll. (Boute 7.) 
The main lino goes past Ocholt to 

Leer (Stat.), un tlie Mtinster tine, as in Uuute 7. 

£MDEN or Embden (.Stat.), i" Hanover. 
POPULaTiox, 14,000. 

1x318.— Wcisses iiaus* Goldeue Sonne; Prins 
von I'reu.ssen; Belle Vue. 

liAiLWAY to Hanover; Steini. r to Norderney. 

A port near the mouth of ibe ir^ius, where it falls 
iiitotbeGttlfof Dotlart, In the Hanoverian Pro* 
vincc of East Friesland, or Aurich, on the North 
Sea. It was fonrnled tiy Dutch refugees in the 
16th century, and was a free city of the Empire 
down to 1774, when Frederick the Great acquired 
it for Prussia, with whom it remained Ull 1804. It 
is a Dutch-looking town of gabled houses, and 
streets intersected by canals. Under the rmn- 
parts are buried many of the Duke of York s army, 
who died here 179ft. Extensive dylies proCeet it 
from the sea. Tbe GroMe Xirdia eoQta^« % 
monmnent of Gdpo If., of Fflestand, 


Digitized by Google 

Houte 7.] 

HoMiia of Natnnl Hittory, with « food ooUoo- 
tion of amber. Another Museam bM a vory fair 
lot of pictures (Elemiib), and a library of works 

on the district. 

The old TounHall^ built U76, in the fieiiaissance 
atyle, liaa portrallaof the PnusUn kings, and a 

famons armoury, and s tower overlocdElng the 

town. Backhnyson, the marine painter, was a 


Jevor, aoeostlUe by sleaiatr from BnuMfli^int 
andHanibarg,datty.8midaya«zoepted. It la the 

enstcmmost of the islands which the sea has sepa- 
mtcd from the coast, and was many times lureer 
120 years ago. Thet»thera are Spiekeroog, Lan- 
geoog, and Baltmm. Living iw^ mn^ ^ tame 
as Nordemey. There are some lodgtag^hoBsea, a 
convorsation-hans, and abathing'-hoasewithwami 

native. The pastures around are very ricli. A ' baths, Ac. There is a stcam-l>oat dally to Karo« 

canal of two miles leads down to the harbour in 
the Bay of the Dollart, called Dtl^^ where arc ship- 
yards. Opposite the harbour are remalnsof a town 
on the Island of Nessor, a large tract overwhelmed 
by the sea (1277-87), when the Dollart was formed. 
The dykes are 34 feet high, and 100 miles Ion;,'. 

Rail to Anrldl and Norden, continued 16^ 
milw further to Wlttmond and JcTcr. 

AttrldL Popouinov, ft,40b. 

/aiM.— Belle Vne; Deutsches Haus. 
This small place is the principal town of East 
Iricslaud, and U In the Dutch style, with a good 

The old Castle, or Falace, coataiiis portraits of 
the former princes of East Friealand, who resided 


Norden (Stat.\ witli «.(iO0 inhabitants, where 
is a good trudu, and a large horse market. Hence 
by shm rail to jVMfeM, whence steamer, at 
blgh water, to the Island of 

V0irdenM7, middle one 4tf the chain of flat 
sandy banks which line the shore of East FTleslaud* 

Several Inti<? nnd Kcstaurants. 

This is a buthiiig-idacc in the JSorth Sea, con- 
taiulnir 3,000 Inhablunts; and is much frequented 
in the season, which lasts from Jnne to October. 
The bathhig arrangements are very good. It has 
hotels, and a subscription club, or UoDTersation 
liuuse. Kur-Tnxe, 1 person, 10 m, 

The amusements consist chiefly in shooting aea- 
blrds and rabbits, and excttrstflos by water to the 
island of Rorkum, on which is an old lighthouse, 
1&4 fci't, and n new one, nearly *iOf> feet high, 
almost the only objects uf attraction about here. 

SteamboaU go between Nordemey, Bremen, and 
Haittbarf every Ave days during the season to 

WanginMiri ^ Wanger Island, belonging to 
Oldtnbnrg, 4 miles ttm tlw QWinlandt end |3 from 

linensiel, in Ost-Frieslaud, whence diligence to 

J0TW nad mttanuid. 
HanoTsr to WndMi, Onuilirilek, and 

By rail 8 to 11 hours. Sutiona as follow :— 

Hanover, to miles. 

Seelzo 7 

Wuiiistorf 13 

Hat. 17J 

Stadthaugeu...M.... 26| 

Kirchhorsten 90 


Mlnden 4<)^ 

Porta 4 5 


UJhne 54| 

Kirchlenjrcrn Ttd^ 


iiru( hmllhlen 65 
Melle 70 
Wtssingen .««.^ 77 

Usnabriick 82j 

[Branch to Mli li- 
ster. 81 miles, 
nVi Jjcugerich. 
Weatheverrj, Ac] 


Velpc 9S 

Ibl)cnbUren......... 99 

Hiirstel ...w.^,., lOSi 
Rhelne ............... IIS 

[Braadk to Httn- 
8tor, Ac, and 
junction with 
line from Bot» 
Sal zbergen ,„.«,« I1T| 

Linfren «... l.Slf 

Meppen ............ 144.} 


LfSthen 167 
Asohendorf ......... 170 

Papon burg 

Ihrhove ........... 1791 

Leer ...»..*.«•.•.... 1 8 i f 

Neerraoor 190 

Oldersum 194^ 



HanoTerand Mlnden, toLohne, see Route 1. 

BiiiLde (Stat.) 


Abont six miles north of this place, at Lnbbecke, 

is the Fitstel Bath, an iron -.sulphur npring. on the 
western 'ircMvityof the Teutot)ur}rer W aid. 

Osnabruck (Stat.), or Osnaburg, in ilaauvcr. 

POPCLATioN, 39,932. 

/iNw.— Sehaumborg; Dlltting's Hotel. 

An old irregular built town lu the valley of the 
Haase, with a wall and five gates ; and the sent of 
a bishopric founded by Charlemagne, 785- the first 
bishop being Wldo of Friedand. It is now A 
Boman Catboltc see. The Pafacf irm ballt i«e(i. 

Digitized by Google 


at. Marjf'$ Churchy a fliie Uth century Gothic 
§tinietvrt« hm « good earred altar-pfoee. Bl, 
Clirtirtort liathOMOi duuehi otmall QoUile bnild- 

inff r>f the 14th ccnttirj', with some rtcllcntc cnrvlnp; 
St. John s, VMh century, has also fine carviii?. 
Tbe largo Cathedral, partly Romanesque, of the 
19th eantoiT, marlcod by thno unltke towers; In 
the tfoiit of it, in the Domfreibeit, Is Drake's 
bron ze st n t ti o of Miteer, the pntriot anther, a natiTe 
of Osnabriick. 

Tbe line Rathhau* contains the Freidenssaale, 
where the Feaoe of Westphalia was negotiated 
164^8, with portratta of emperors, ambassadors, 
bishops, ttc. It •wns then decided that thi- (lincese 
of Osnabriick should he governed alternately by a 
Catholic aud Protestant bishop, the Protestant to 
be a prtnoe of the BrunswIck-IittnebeTy family. 
The last titular bishop under this arrangement 
was the Di-kfof York, nominated by his father, 
George III., as King of Hanover; a title held by 
him till 1803, when tbe diooeee was seenlarised. 
Here are linen mannfactories and bleach yards for 
"Osnaburgs," Ac. 

Kcar the town is the old castle ttf Iburg, Where 
George II. of Englaud was born. 

[From. OsnabrOek a Uaa of 87 miles runs to 

Sbetne (Stat.), on the Ems, a uianhfaetnring 
town. The line flescpnds that river close to the 
borders of Holland, and through a flat uuinterest- 
iug tract called the Saterland Moor, to 

Heiipeil (StaD* population, 8,400; capital of 

til' I'liiohy of Areuherg-Meppen. 

Papenbtirg (Stat.), in the Hochmoor, a marshy 
district, near which tiie lino from Grouiugeu 

comes in, vid Weener. 

Loer (8tatk)« popuUtion, 10,000; nearahttsy 
town with a considerable trade. Steamers to 

Norderncy in 4 to 5i hours. 

Brnden, as in Home 6. 

Berlin to Lubeck. 
By rail to Blichcii, IH miles, as in Boute 2. 
Thence as follows: — 

English English 
miles. miles. 

BUchen *..«....... U9 Ratzeburg 196 

160 I Lflbeck...... ......... 170 

A more direct line to Sebweriu (Route 9), and 
thenoa by rail wUk KMiian and fltihitaiberg, is pro- 

WUbk (Btat.), near a small town in Lanen- * 

berg, on the Stocknitz, which connects LUbeck 
with the Elbe. Eulenspicgel, the fnmon? clown 
of the old German mysteries, lived and died hero 
in the fourteenth century. His groTo, with an ' 
inscription, and some other relics arn shown. 
Excursions to the pretty Schallsee. 

Ratzeburg (Stat.), nt a town mostly in the 
Duchy of Lauenburg, annexed to Prussia, 1866. 
POPUI.ATI0JI, 4,200. 

JJolMf.— Daniels; Rathskeller; StodtMambnrgr. 

This little city, once a bishop's sec, is n well- 
Iniilt place, on an island in the Ratzeburg Lake, 
an expansion of the Trave. It has a fine view of 
the lake, which Is traversed by a causeway on one 
side of the islandi and a bridge 1,100 feet long, on 
tbe other side. The diocese was secularised in lf4B. 

The brick Cathedral Is a f^ne old Romanesque 
bnilding of the twelfth century, with later Gothic 
additions, aud belongs, with the Dombof adj<^n- 
Ingt to the noighhonrlng Onind Dndiy of Meek> 

L1FBB0K (Stat.) 

A free city and Hause Town, the head of a 

territory of ITO -iituire miles, inehuliiiK Trave- 
miindc and Bertrilui t ; _'<'vi rneil hy n Senate of 
fourteen meml>ers, eight of whom are of the 
lltenuy dase. 

POFULATIOR, 63,690. 

HoTKLS. Stadt Hamburg: Stadt London. 
Cab8.— For 1 or 2 persons, 6u pf . the course ; each 
person additional, 15 pf. Luggage, 30 pf. 
RiaiDBBT EHOtriatt YlCS-COKMlL. 

Po8V AUD TBMQitAFB OwncM^^OpfoaUm the 


Tramways traverse the town. 

Stbajibrs.-— To Travemiinde, St. Petersburg*, 
Copenhagen,- Stockholm, and Stralsund. (Sea 
Bradthaw's Continental Guide.) 

A spcclftl kind of cake, called Marzipan {tb% old- 
English '■ Murchpaue '), is made here. 

Tills tine old specimen of a mediceval town 
stands on on eminence hetwton the Trava and 
WackenitS) and was fo9n4«d lliO by the CouPtl< 


Digitized by Google 

HoDie 8.] 



of UulstelQ, after the acstruction of an Old 
Ltlbeck of the eighth centnr}-, on the SchwartMii. 
Alter iMfof enlargvd by H«iuy IIm Uon, U be- 
cftme the head of the great Haiiseatic League o 
eighty-iUr iii. ail ! p-^rts, which lasted dovm to 
1699, Hnd was regulated by the " LUbiscbe Becht," of 
Code established here by the deputies. It has MYttnl 
elMa, toMd stratts, and laig« old-f MUoiied brick 
and stone houses with gable fronts built by its 
subHfr^Tuml burghers in more prosperous dnj-?. 
The high ramparts have been dismantled since 
Bllldier took refuge here after the battle of Jena, 
and are laid ont with walks end gnideos. The 
Holsten and Burg Q«teB deserve notice. Upon 
lilUdior's defciitnnd surrender at Lntkan, LUbeck 
was pillaged by the French. It cuntains six fine 
old chnrehoi. It ie » free Clty-Republle and « 
laambar of the Qemuui Emiilre. 

The OufMtat was begun 1170 by the bishops 
of Oldenburg, and finished 1341. It is of brick, 
with towers :W0 fcot high; and contains some 
good pam lings, a nnely carved door and screen ; 
monuments and tombs of bishops sod dtissns, 
Inetnding an sfflgy of Bishop Boddwlt, and a fine 
brass of the fourteenth century : a cnrlous trip- 
tych altar-piece of the Crucifixioii, by H. Memiing 
(1491); a stone pulpit, and a brasn font (1446). 

Thn MOirimUrehe (Our Lady's) is* toe Gothlo 
sdifleo of btidt, MO foot kng, with two wooden 
spires 406 feet high. It has three aisles, the 
m!ddl»» one Wing 45 feet w-ili and 145 hiph, 
Aiuon}? the objects of notice arc some good 
wood carving; stained glass whidows by Livi ; a 
high altar by ATelltaio or QitUUnnss ancient and 
modem paintings by Pemglno, Vandyck, Ovcr- 
beck, and Tischheln. one b«^'!n? ti Dancp of Death 
of the fifteenth century ; h1»<> sour- brasses, three 
organs, and a evfions old doek (1405), iu which 
ten the flgnres of the seven Electors ud the 
Emperor. Can be seen every day from M to 1, 
under tbe guidance of the KUtter. 

The Gothic Rathhaut is another brick building, 
datincf from 1412, with old bronse work and wood 
osrrlng, and ths snclcnt iff the Buua^ in 
whteh the deputies of the Ilanscatfc T-eaR-nc met, 
now divid«"1 into offices. Fce,60pf. Below is the 
Jtathtkeiler, now used as a restaurant and oyster 
room. ItlssstdtobsthelsfiisittnOmiinr. 

Some good carvings are tu be seen at the bouse 
9i the Merchants' Company, in Brcite-strasse ; at 
the SchUfer GeasHscluift, or Sailors* Company 

(1535), whieh contains models of ships; the 
Hospital of the Holy Ghost (HeilijrengcM^t) of (he 
thii tot nth century for ag^ poor has a fine Gothic 

The Town Llbrsry end Knsenm of Antiquities 

are in the remains of the old Minorite Convent 
of .^t. Catherine. Other collection^ are at Nos, ;>.", 
I 16, and 11, Breite-strussc. The Uulatcuthur (1477) 
was restored iu 1871. 

Sir G. KneUer and thebrothers Ostade were bom 
here, and their houses are still shown. Another 
artist, Overbeek, a modern painter, was alv) a 
native. A stone in the Markct-pluce shows where 
Admiral Meyer was beheaded for cowiidioe. 

AnofldhousolntbeSchrangea wastfaeseatof Count 
Von Mdltko's family. He was born at PareMwt, 
his father being a general in the Dani««h service. 

There is a good trade carried on, chiefij- in wiue 
and timber. 

In law ths Blsok Death plagns esnied off 70,000 
or 80,000 persons, oae-^lf of its then population. 

Excursions may be made to Waldhusen (a h^rgo 
Hunengrabhere), Sohwartau, Laehswehr, and 

A line, sfdBntUiandAMboMrfffbringsLttbeek 
into direct communication with Kiel (50 miles), 
Xen^^tadt. &c. Entln was the blrtbHUaoe of C. M. 

vo)i Wel)cr. 

The harbour and \)urt of LUbock arc at 

TraveiIiU.&€le, reached by steamer in If hours, 
or rail in 1 hour. 

PoPULATioir, 3,000. 

i7oM».— Hotel Knrhaus; de Busslc. 

Kestaurant In the Strand Pavilion. 

A small town and batfainr'placc on tbo Kaltic 
Sea, at the mouth o the Trave or Gulf of LUbeck, 
12 miles below LUbeck; much frequented in the 

Bxonrslons may be made to Hafkrug, 8ehar> 
beuti, and Neustadt, and to the lightbouse. 

From Neu«itndt, on the Gulf, tliere is a railway 
to Kiel, Ac, vtd Eutin, as above mentioned. 

Steamboats to Copenhagen, Gotbeuberg. Stock- 
holm. Big*. Heltingfort, and St. Pt^yippn..': 

Mf!g\i\ze<i by Google 



[Sec 1. 

liOXJTE e- 
Berlin to Hagenow, Schwertn, Wlsmar, 
Klelnen, BiitssoWi and SioaioQls. (Fried- 
rleb Vitm EbenbAlm). 

By Eambniv Baltway to Hagwunr, as In lUmte 4. 

TiMnee Ibo stations are aa follow:— 

English ] EngUab 
llagciiow to miles, i mllCB. 

Schwerin 16 ! Butzow Junction... 60J 

KLelnen Janctioa ... 26 IBranch to Oiistrow, 

Neu Brandeubwtf, 
[Branch to WitODMr, Ac.] 

38 miles.] Scliwaan 60 

Blankanbeiv ...•«•»• 88 Koatock 70 

BCHWBBIir (Btat.), in H««kl«nbttf9- 


POPULATIOK, 34,000. 

Hotels.— Dc Russle, and others. 
flTBAiiBBS on tha LiUie. 

This Is the capital of the Grand Ducliy. pic- 
turesquely seated nt the junction of the Schwf rin, . 
Burgr, Ziegel, and Ostorf er Lafcies, the first of which . 
is nearly 14 mllas hmflT. 

It is divided Into Old Town of the eleventh 
century, and New Town ; of which the Neustadt 
and the Vorntiult an ! T'nul-stadt suburbs are 
best built, with good stiuighi streets. It contains 
a handsome new church and a new theatre. 

The CMIeM (Dom) of the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries, restored in 18C9, is a tine 
Gothic church, 30.', fiet long, by 135 fc^st broad. 
The chapel of the 'Holy Blood" contains glass 
windows from paintings by CorneUns, and tombs 
of the ducal family, including P. Vischcr's bronze 
monumejit of Ducliess Helena (1524), and some 
fnie Flemish brasses (1473). The altar-piece is by 

The Uncal Ca^U (Sohtoes) la bnilt on an island, 
or peninsula, between Schwerin and Burg Lakes, 
lieb)": n larpe moflern pile, flnished 1868, on the 
site of the tirst castic. It is fortified and approached 
by a drawbridge. The gardens are open to the 
finblie. Near It Is Baueh's bronze of the Grand 
J)uko HnnI Frederick (1849). with the War Monu- 
ment, Hall-riMjin. iind Kidintr-huusc. The Duke's 
Pictures are at the Museum in the Altu Garten. ' 
Tbey include a MnrillOi many Vandykes, and 
other paintings by Dow, Potter, Teniers, On dry, 
Dcnner. it^ <4 the Dutch and Frenoti schools. 

To be seen Tuesdays, Thursdays, and tiatnrdays, 
11 to 2; and Sundays, 12 to 4 o*eloek. 

The Mnseam also contains Wendlsh antlqiiitles, 
and a specially good oolleetlon of rslica Inm tlie 
dolmens of Mecklcnburp. 

There are a large Arsenal (1844) and Barracli: 
a good Bathhans, or Town-hall; handsomn 
GoTemment Bnlldlngs, erected IttS-SB; and an 

Anatomical Museum, at the Veterinary School. 

A yearly ff ^tival takes place on the Scbelf- 
werder, au island between the lakts of Schwerin 
and Zlegel. 

Trips may be made to Zlppendofff , to Friedrichs- 

thai and Its himtin^r c.T^tlc and park; and Osdorf. 
Bail to Lndwigslust (page 31) and Parching, the 
birth-place (tf Count Von Moltke, whose statue is 

Xlelnen (8taA.>->A JmcCion to Wlsmar (see 

pape 45). 

Biitzow (Stat.)- -Junetlou for Giistrow (see 
page 45). 

B08T0GK (Btet), in Meckienbiug-Bchwerin. 
Poi'ULATiOV, 44,430. 

Hotels.— Do Russie; Stadt Hamburg. 
Railway.— To ^chwerin, Stettin, &c. 
STEAXEit8.~-To Wamemlinde, Mhritz, Ac. 
DiLramcB.— To Elbnits. 

This, the largest t \mi in the Grand Duchy, Is 
also a port on the lliver Wamow, nine miles from 
the Baltic bea. The river forms a harbonr half-a- 
mile wide, and shlpobuUdlng Is carried on, with a 
good trade to fweign parts. It waa fonnerly an 
important Hanse Town, on the site of a Wendish 
settlement, which was taken liy the King's of 
Denmark, lis^l, and aiwcxcd to the duchy, 1323. 
It stands on an eminence OTor a fertile plain, and 
contains many K<ihU' -ended houses with some new 
streets In the iliddlc and New Town. The ram- 
parts are planted with streets, and fonn a plciisant 
walk. In Blilcber Plats stands Schadow's bronze 
of iWhiAer, bom here 1743. It bears these Ihios 

from Goethe :— 

•* Im Hai-ien nod KrieK, 
Irn Sturz uiid Hleg, 
B«woa*t luiU gri>s8, 
Pn riaa er uuk voui Fchidc Ion." 

His house is 22, Bluchcr bt. iiratius died here, 
I64ft, on Us way home from Sweden. The Ducal 
Palace is a large pile overlooking the town. 

The Mtirmiirchc (St. Mary s), ol the thirtcentli 

Digitized by Google 

.Route ItAKD-BOOlC TO gekm; 

century, i*! "00 feat long-, by 240 feet !iruad, ' 
nearly lOO feel hlRh. It c<nit.iin» a ^'uud altar- 
piece, by Rbode; a curious asirunomieal clock; a 
bronse font, and othiar nllca. A tlab marks the 
temporary resting-place of Grotius. St. Peler's 
ChurrJi. in Altstadt, is of the thirteenth century, 
and has a tall spire, about 480 feet high. The Rath- 
haus is a building witk tvrm turret*, In the 

The Univtrritp, the only one in tbeOnmd Duchy* 
was founded 1419. It numbers above twenty pro- 
fessors, and 120 students. Kepler, the Astronomer, 
was professor here under the patronage of Wallen- 
tMin. The new bnUding (1870) is a haadtome 
edifice in the lUu^Mance stylo, adorned with 
statues, and has a tlbrrvry cftntaininir 150,000 
Yolumes, including many rare books and Oriental 
and Spanlth MSB. 

A monument of tha ISIO-Tl war, tha town 
musenm, the wharves, and the very fine {gardens, 
on the site ot the old walls, are well worth a visit. 
There is a guud ex|H>rt trade in grain, Iterrings, 
and coal. 

Excur!^' M1S to BellOTuo, Carlshof, UolzwUrter- 
hofe ; and tu Warnemibide, the port of Rostock 
at the mouth of the Womow ; a village with 2,000 
inhabitants, now much frequented as a bathing 
plaea on the Battle. Rail from Sostock to Wlsmar, 
S6 miles. 

Doberan rstat.) 

Population, 3,860. 

/ro/e/«.— Logirbaus ; Lindenhof. 
' A flrasll town and batUng^plaee dose to the 
Baltle, the arrangements of which are g-ood, and 
the climate pleasant in the season, yiz., July and 
August. Here arc iron and sulphur baths. 

Railway (3^ miles) to HeiligendamMy a wall or 
hank, 00 tiie sea shore, of loose stones ; where 
lodgings are to be had, as well as in the town. 

The Oofhjr Church, of the tenth century, has 
some good pointings, and graves of the old dukes. 
' ' There Is also a Dacal Palace In a fine park, and 
a sqnare eeUed the eamp, lined wltli good boildbigfl. 

In thf- Dcig-hbourhood arc the .Tnngfcrnhorp', a 
be :tu 1 1 . u 1 9 < ot with A pavllioD, and the park at the 

Wlsmar (8tat.)» in Mecklenburg-Schwerin. 
POPQtATlOir, lff,81«. 

Hotel. Stadt lUmburj?, 

A port In the Duchy, on a bay of the Baltic Sea, 
called Walpech Bay, with a good, secnie harbour. 
It was a Hanse Tbwn, and eontalns several old 
brick gable houses of the fourteenth centnrj*. 
From 1^^4« to 1^*0S It helonfred to Sweden. It was 
then pawned to Mecklenburg for KM) years. 

The Umienkirche is a large brtek Gothle bntldbig, 
with a bronaa font. The Fttrstenhof, now 
Rathhaus; the Altc Schulc (1330) and the Thof^ 
mann*8che Haus are interesting. 

Ill the neighbourhood is Schwansee, with a fine 
park ; and the Island of FseT, Jotaied to the main- 
land by a long bridge. At Neu-Bmetow^ the famona 
Dr. Schliemann, the scholar and linguist, was bom, 

1822, a poor aian .s ton. 

About 12 miles from Wismar is the bathing-place 
of JMecnAa0im. Steamboats to Cq^hagen. 

Railway through Blankenberg to XtoOW* 

junctf n rf lin«-' fr an HUstrow to Plau. 

Oiistrow (Stat.), in MccUenburg-Schwerin. 

Population, 14,66». 

JSTofefs.— Oe Russie ; Erbgrossheraog. 

Capital of ft district, on the Ncbcl ; for many 
centuries the seat of the Grand Duke, whose 
ancient Palace i» here. It la, like the Cathedral 
(Flemish earrings and paintings), of the sixteenth 
eentnry. Considerable wool trade, 
j From Gil trow, a line is open toMaIchin,StavcUo 
I h.'ifren Neu Brandenburg (Route Bt rlin, 
and Stettin. At MaldUn (Stat.), between two 
lakes, a branoh goes off to 

Warm (Btat.). PopULanoir, e,400. 

Hotei$.-~T)VL Kord ; Stadt ITambnrg. 

The MUritzer See, about 50 square miles in 
extent, is the largest lake in this part of the 
eountry. This line Is continued to Neu^Streliiz 
(page 4C). 

Halchin (Stat.) 

PorULATIOS, 6,000. 

Hotel.— Dq Russie. 

Fine Gothic chnreh of the fourteenth century. 
The whole of this district is very pretty, and is 

known >\» xho >fcrkl<'nt>nrfr Switzerland. 

Stavenhagen (Stat.), or .Stciiha(?en,the birth- 
place of F. Renter, author of "Ut de Franzosentid " 
(Year of other works in Piatt Deutscb, 

the common language of this part of Germany, 

Digitized by Copgle 


Any Engliahman with a fair knowledge of Ger- 
man can easily acquire this tongue, as it often 
comes much nearer to vernacular English than 
the lloch Deutsch. 

Bonn to OranlM^g, atmltti. Hw- 
Braadenbarg, and StralsiuUL 

II V raU as follows: — 

moinnncnt to the popnlftt and lamented Qneen 


Oesundbrunnen 1| 

Hcrmsdorf 8 

Birkcnwcrder 13J 

Orauienburg 19 

Ltlwenberg ......*•.... '29 

QrauM 86^ 
Dumenwalde ......... 42 

Icnburg............... r>0 

Straliftx.................. 601 


Nea-Strclitx 68 

Blankensee 72 

Stargard 7^ 

Ncn-Brandenberg ... S'' 

Treptow-».T 94 i 

Gttlta .......»..»„«....100 

Sternfbld 104| 

Dcrarain. 112 

Grimmen ...............12(> 

Stralsuttd .............,.140| 

Oranlenburg (Stat.), formerly called BUtoow. 

/»».— Schwarzer Adler. 

This little town obtained its present name from 
the Prinoeas of Nasaau-Oraaltti (Orange-Naaaaa), 
the wife of the Great Elector, who bnllt a caatle 

here, now turned into a factory. 

Grausee (Stat), a small town, with a monument 
to Quceu Louisa of Prussia. Near it (10 lu.) is 
Wuhu^erg^ among pine-woodt noted aa the abode 
of Frederick the Great, when Crown Prince. 

Neu-StrelitZ (Stat.), in Mecklenburg-StrcUtz; 
which includes the Principality of fiatzoburg. 

PopuLAnoM, MIO. 

/HA.— Stadt Hamburg. 

The capital of the Oiand Duchy, on the Zirker 
Lake, about 1 mile from Old .Sdelitz; tmilt since 
1708, in the shape of a star, with 8 points striking 
out of the market-plaeo. It c<mtaina the Ducal 
Ctislk, (erected after the flre, which burnt the first 
entitle at Old or Alt Ptrclifr), standiug^ in n 
guidun and park. It has a menagerie and a statue 
of Queen Lonisa of Fmaaia by Bauch, resting on a 

There U also a Ducal College, with a Theatre, 
and Lihrary of 70.000 volumes, and a collection of 
medulH and antiquities, including several images 
fonnd at Prillwlts, near Hoben Zieritx, bt this 

Alt Strelitz has 4.000 inhabitants, with an 
arsenal, a lunatic asylum, and hor^e inarlvet. At 
Hohm Zieriu, pleasantly situated on Lake Tollen, 
ta the dttcal Lustaebloaa and park; and i&otlier 

Loui-a ' f Prussia, who died here, 19th .Tuly, 1810. 

Stargard (Stat.), a small town with 8,000 
inhabitants, and an old fort. 

Nra-Bruidenlliixff (Stat.), in MeeUenbnry- 


PorULATtOH. 8,300. 

Zfote^.— Fiirstenhof ; Goldene Rugel. 
Ran to Boetoefc, Sehwerln, Gdakrov, Paaewallt, 
Farehlm, LadwigaliiBt, At. 

The larp-ost town in the Grand Dnchr, In the 
pleasant valley nf T^ake Tolicns or Tollenser^iee. It 
is nearly circular in shape and contains four old 
Gothic tower gates; through one of which Tniy 
entered after a three days' siefrc, in the Thlrt^ 
Years' War. It cnutninH a Diii r>T r'a^-tle :inil 'ro\TTi 
Hall, and has an annual wool market and races, 
which are well attended. 

The old reatored Itolenklrdie, in the OoHiic 
style, containii an altar- piece and fresco, by Eggers. 

There ia a Gymnasium, or Ccdlege, and a Real 
School for practical teaching. On a hill over the 
Tollenaee ia the Mkwdtre; or dueal oountry aeal, 
having Ihb fineat views in Mecktenbnrg. From 
here it is 55 mil'^s to Strahvnil, the intermediate 
stations and country l>ein;r devoid of any special 
interest. Sec next pn;re for Stialsund. 

I^OXJTE 11- 

Berlln to Angermiinde, BtUren, Pntbtis, 
and StralSUnd (Berlln-Stettlner-Eiseabatan). 
By rail to Btralaand. Stetkma aa fellow 

Berlin to miles. 
Eberswalde.. 28 

Chorin 85 

An^''erniiitide 44| 

{Branch to Stettta, 
Route 12-1 

Grelifenberg 49 

Wilniersdorf 51 ,J 

Seehuusen 60 

Pren/Jau ............... 67 

Ncchlin 74 

Pasewalk 81^ 

[Branches to Stettin 
and Neubrundcii- i 


Jatznick w| 


Ducherow 100 

{Brmth to 

Swinemttnde S3] 

An clam 


[Branch to 

Wolgast lOQ 

Gretfswald JSH 

Milt 7. m- 18»| 

Stralbujid 449 

liM.i-^L;-.] j 

Eberswalde (Stftt.), formerly NwlMI' 


POMTLATIOV, 16,060. 

Aii,wBolal de Pnme. 

Digitized by Google 

MouU ii.J 


A ptottMAt Uul« tbwa on the FiiiMr canal, which 

joins the Oder "with the Havel. Here are brata 
works, knife factory, paper mills, and royal copper 
millj Forester's Academy; with a mineral spring 
Uk« tluU of Fnton wald«. 

Along the road to Angermiinde i« • fine rtltiMd 
Church of a snppressed Cistercian c<mvcnt. 

From here a hue turns off to Frankfort-on-the- 
Odcr, past Freicnwaldc, Wriczen (braneta to 
K9iug«bcrg), and Seelow. FnlffLWalito (where 

• branch comes in from AngermSi»4c) lt> A bathtog 
plncc on n branch of the Oder. 

Inn. — Post. 

• There are seven eteel Spruigs reoommended for 

• ijont, and excellent water for drinking*. 

Ijodgingrs, at the priv.ife honses in the town, at 

•the nnii at a Coif! Wntcr c^tahlisbment. 

Angermuude (Junction Stat.)— An ancient 
town, where the line to Stcttiu tumS off. 
[A branch rail f ollowt the post road of U niitee to 
Sdnrodt (8tat .), on the Oder. 

• PoprtATiox, 6,800, 
Jnn. — Deutsches Hans. 

A well-built town, formerly the residence of the 
Kar^ves of Bruidenber|^4cfawedt, whose PeOaet 
of Monplaisir remains, with the family tombs In 
the French church. 

Its neighbourhood is well planted with rows of 
acacias, limes, Ac. which the town owee to one of 
its Kargraves, who was acenstomed to bestow 100 
BtHi>cs on the unlQcfcy mayor for every dead tree 

notiiH'd by liini ] 

Following the lino wc come to 
Pasewalk (ata**)t »t the junction of the 
- mmnch to Btettin and the Nen Brandenburg Ihie. 

DiUdliniW (Btet.)> the junction for Swine- 
miliide, the port of Stettin, 28 miles to the right 

• (Route 12.) 

Oretfswald (Stat.), population, 2i,300. 
steamers to ftllgen. 


POFOLATIOV, 27,822. 

rx»8.— Golden or Lowe, in the Market Place; 
Hotel Gcihel; du N'oril. 

8tbax£R to Maimu, in Sweden; daily in 
is to, hours. Thence to Copenhagen, 
la i| hour. Every hour to Altcfuhr in RUgou, j 

An old Hanse town and fort onithi Baltte,on 

the Strela-Snnd, or strait of Oeilen, which divides 
the mainland from the picturesque Isle of Hiigen 
opposite, here about S milea wldai 

m the Thirty Years' War, it was heaieged (lt98) 
without success, by Wallenstc in, who lost 12^000 
men before the place, though he had sworn to 
capture it, "even if it were fastened by chains 
to heaven.'* At the conclusion of the war in 1648 
It became the cartel of Swedish Pomerania, and. 
after having been taken by the Prnssinns in 1678, 
and again in 1715, It was finaUy in 1816 annexed 
to Prussia. 

The marshy Island on which It stands is joined 
by three bridges to the main. Another island, the 
Diinholin, is a fortilied spot at the end of the 
Frankcndamm, and forms a small harbour for 
guuboats. Its stivcU are made up of dai-k gloomy 
houses, In the old-^iasliioned style of Lttbeek. 

The best view oi the town is from the 
high tower of St, Mmif'* Church (Uarienkirche), 
of the 15th century, whi' h bn* two finely stained 
windows, the frif t of Frederick William IV. j with 
some good paintingH and a good organ. ThO 
aacriataa may be found in the atreet behlad thO 

St. ytrho!ax is of the I4th century, has some 
uUl toiubs and a font. Fine wood carving, brooz^« 
and brass candelabra, well worth inspectloii. 
The Sacristan llvee close by. 

The Gothic ItatMtaus was begun 1316, and 
finished in the 1M\ and 18th ccntnrics. It contains 
a public librarj', museum, and a tine collection of 
coins. Open daily, 11 to 1. 

St. Jo/M'i Oon0ma i» an extensive pile of the IStb 

At No. 67 in the Fahr-9tra'?se, a Rtone record^* 
tho death of Major Schill, who was taken her*, 8ist 
May, 1809, with other prisoners of war, and shot 
by Napoleon, at Brunswick. Kear the Fnwten- 
thor is an inscription recording that " Sveriges 
Konung Carl den XII." (Charles XII. of Sweden) 

slept at Strnlsund, 'i2nd Decemljcr, 1715, on Us 
way from Bender, while the three kings of 
Prussia, Denmark, and Pohmd were bepleghiig the 
town, previous to its capture. The town contains 

scv<-rnl hrniidy distilleries and oil-mill 
a g9od •hAt'P^ug tsada in mait. 

igitized by Google 



The hi^ L is deep enough for l«rg» vetMla, but 

tbc chAuriels fire shlftinp. 

DammgarteZL & little port on the Saaler- 
Bodden, on the frontier line of Mecklenburg. 

etiibeTl»tt«d fromStnklnind, Orelfswald, or Btettln. 
8nu3UM loftvo Stralrand daily for AlloflDir, on 

the Rerfren Railway. This line, aboxit 14 miles 
lon^, runs ncrosa the broader p'.rtion of the inland. 
Ttie stations are Altefahr, Rambiii, Somtens, 
TetclienlMfen, Bergem Pntbvs, and Lanterbaeh. 
From Stottin daily in throo hours to Swincmiinde, 
at the month of tlie Oder, whence 5t is fnnr liours 
to Lnutcrbach for Putbns, opposite. From lirelfs- 
wald daily, Huiiday excepted, to I.^uterbuch. 

Tbe UUmd ^ RUffen Is an oxtremdy Irregular 
Island, or knot of islands, off the Pomeranian 
shore of the Baltic, separated from the mainland 
by the Stniia 8und, at Stralsund, a channel about 
one and & half to two inllM broad. It is 
indented by many pletareeqoe bays, and oontalns 
much flnoly-wooded aconery, vltii a fertile soil, 
especially In the peninsulas of Jasmnnd and Wlt> 
tow. It is hilly iu tbe middle, the highest points 
are, however, on the north^st coast, where the 
KSnigsstnhl, near the Stnbbenlcanimer, rises to 
about 420 feet. Several tumuli, called Hllnen- 
grUber, are seen. Th»' nnst and north coasts are 
bounded by steep challc cliQ's. The Island was 
transfemd from Sweden to Pmaela, 181$. 

Jaemnnd is an island or peninsnla united to tbe 
main portion of Rilj,'cn by the Prora ridge on the 
south, towards Fnthus; -while on the ttorth-west, 
another ridge, caiicd the Trumpa, joins it to the 
Wlttow peninsula, whieh terminates in Areeaa, at 
the north extremity of Bttgen and of Gmnany. 
The Great and Little Jasmund Rodden lie inside. 

Population of the Island, 45,039. 


• IvKS.— FUrstonhof ; Bellevue. 

The seat of a castle belonging to the Frinee of 
Putbus, a descendant of the old princes of Btlgen. 
It stands among^ woods and fine points of riew, 
overlooking the Riigons :,er Bodden, and is in the 
Italian Style, containing a. gallery of paintings, «f 
^yj^Uea, by ThofwaMsen, Mc, « also of anttqultiet 
^^Hjjk Pompeii and Hcrculaneum, and a collection 
^uma, «ud batUe-ases found In Rfigeu. 

I Adjoining the palace is the KUrsaal, with a 
private theatre and chapel. In the e/ivlrons 
are the Friedrich-Wilbelmsbad, at the foot of the 
Goor ; and the sea-baths at Lauterbach. 

Putbus is a starting point for ezoorsions to the 
be<<t parts of the island of Rogen. 

The distanees arc as follow; — 

£nirlish English 
Putbus to miles. mllef* 


18 BeiqgentoStraUtuid, 
25 «<aAltenfShr 

Ferry, is 18 

Putbus to the Ferry II 

The JofftBHNU <a der €franitx, or JagdtekloUt 

7 English miles distant, is a bunting-seat belong- 

ing to Prince Putbus, built by Schinkel, and con- 
tainitivr Antique furniture, paintingrsby Kolbe and 
Eibel, and a statue of the Maid of Orleans. It has 
a line view of the leUmd from the tower. Jfnm 
Jagdhaus to the Stubbenkammer In Jasmund is 
about 14 English miles. The road proes along the 
narrow Schmalc Heide, or Prora — a low neck of 
sand, mixed with pebbles of flint, granite, and 
porphyry. It passes 
Sagard, a village on flie peninsula of Jasmnnd, 

with l,'-:00 ii'hf\l)itants, near the Jnsmtmd Bodden. 
At the inn is a f^'ood collection of Eiigen nnti(iul- 
ties. The Dttblierworth, or Iliinengrab, a tumulus 
about 80 feet high Is near it. The road entera 
Stubbenitz, or 

Stubnilz^ a fine old beech wood, v/here urns, Ac, 
have been frequently dug up, containing ashes 
and bones. Then comes the 

Bertha See, or Black Lake, a dark pool In the 
midst of tbe beech wood, surrounded by atona 
sepulchres, where the goddess Hcrtha was wor- 
shipped, and of which many legends ore told. 
Near It Is the 

BetthahmVt or Borgwall, about 80 ftet high, 
and onee crowned by a fort. A large granite 
stone, with a gnutter in the middle, Is stipposed to 
have been a sacridclng-atone, where human (^cr« 
ings were made. 

At QmetlUg^ is another atone of a similar kind. 

The Stnbt^enkamniir is a chaik ciiff at the 

north-east point of the peninsula of Jasmund, 400 
to 420 feet high, looking out on the Baltic. A zig- 
zag stairease, with 800 steps, cut in the rock, 
leads from the beach to the KOnlgastuhl (XIbT a 
teat) at tha top, where there la a Sue view at 

Digitized by Google 

Sottta 12.] 

snnrtse : from here can be Men th# 
of Moen, 30 to 40 miles distant. 

Inn; ciwded in summer, but now enlarged, so 
as to aeeommodfttftorer 100 persons. 

¥iMm fltabbmkumner to Arwm^ in WIfttoir* fB« 
re«d goes by another narrow cansenmy of land 
GiOled the "Schabe," between the Trompar Wick 
and Jasmond Bodden. Near the west corner of 
Jatmitiid Ifl Bobbin, wblch has a carious church, 
and collection of Btigen antiqnltlm at tbe param- 
age. It lies close to 

Spieker, n countiy-sent of Prince Pntbiis, built 
by General Wrangel In the I7tli century, and con- 
talntag soma tntMMttiir family portraitt. 

Attonklnflieil la a Tfllago wia earthen ram- 
parts and a Church of the 1 2th omtniy, in wbicb 

an ima?e of the four-headed jrod Swantewik may 
be seen. The poet. Kosep.irtcii, who was pastor 
bere, is buried in the churchyard. There is good 
barring fisb«r lt«mf Amn« the aeaaon a aeimon 
is preached on shore to the flsfaermen sitting in 
tbeir boNts. 

At the northern extremity of the island, by a 
nmte near the sea, stands 

Aiywki^ a promontDry In the chalk rock} rising 
200 feet high, with a lighthouse, visible tO English 
miles. This is the most northerly jxifnt of Gennany. 
It has a Tiew of the Danish island of Moen in the 
borlson,and the coast- of Jasmund on the east, and 
of Hiddensee, a IMg idand on the west of Bflgen. 
At the Burgring was a famou«t fortress of the 
Wends, with a heathcTi temple dedicated to 
Swaiitewit, which wus taken by Waldensar I., 
King of Xkmrnarfc) 1166, when Christianity was 

Fr'»in hcnre. back thronprh Wittow, wMch,lIke 
Jasmund, is fertile and pirturesque, to 
Bergen, the capital of Itiigen. 
PoFmuknoir, fl^TOO. 

Huu: doldner Adler^ Prina von Frenssen. 

It has a Town Hall and a Ufarienkirche, which, as 
It stands liijrh, can be seen orer almost the whole 
Island. To the north is Mount Rugard, 320 feet-, 
one of the higher points of litigen, with a ruined 
fort, which was the seat of its old princes till l8lg. 
nie prospect of the island and the ncifrbbouring 
shores of Pomerania is very fine. A good collec- 
tion of KUgen antiquities may l>e seen. From her* 


it ^mBsrte MM; 8 nlMl'ta OMMi; «» li 
miles to Strdeond, to-wUebdiVpneM nut tlvM 

a day. 

Oan. Formerly the capital. 
*Wl»Anoir, 1,70ft abW.— DttNoTd. 
Remarkable for the- vemahia of the-tenqiva^ef' 

Porr^vit Rfi-f>wlt, and Porenut, three "WmOMk 
idols, and for traces of the old castle of Carenza. 

Emtt Moritx Amdt^ author of "Was ist d«s 
Dentseheoyatexlandf '* (see Imnmcnoir, page 
zxix.), wae bom here ba 1769; there is «n obeMsk 
to his memory on Mount Rug-ard. 

Carriages are hronfrht nvpr hv tho ferry. 

A short cnt to the mainland caii be made tv 
CMflnrald CBtat.), over Olewttaer tvrrj ttf 
Stalilbrode, not far from Betobeig which ia dos^ 
to Miltzow Station, from whence it ia 10 mllerto 


Berlin to Stettin (for STrlnemunde audi 
PutbUB), Stargard, Koiberg, Ooslln, aaA 

B9'r«lltoAjigarmtinde,«ilnBotiieU; thineetlw 

stationR are as 

Angermtlnde to miles. 

Passow •••••*•• 55 

Casckow .,..,.•*.,.. 61 
Tantow .«.»•.«»..,. 09 
Stettin .............. 98 

[Bmiuh to Pase- 
walk, fbrPatbns 


Alt Damm 89 

Carolinenhorst ...... 96^ 

Stargard ]04| 

Trnmpko 114| 

Freienwalde I2l| 


Wangerin 199 

{Branch to Tempel- 
bnrg, 91 miles.} 

Labes 139^ 

Schirdbein ^b^ 

Belgard „....^ir9| 

[Branch to 
Ciirlin ...M. 44» 

Degow 15 

Colberg 22] 

Nassow 1 ^f' 

Cos! in ....M..M........1684. 

Thence to Dantaio, by rail, as follows:*^ 

Schubben Zanow 7 Lauen burg 1^ 

Carwits ............... 19| Neustadt 98 

Sdrtawe 25| Kielau (W. Pru8.)...109| 

Zitzcwitz Zuj>pot 119 

Stolp „ At^ Oiiva ......... .....ISJ 

Hebnm Damnita ... 99 ' Dantiio »........»...199| 

Another way to Dantzlo Is by rail, as in Route 11. 

For I^bcrswalde and other .stations to Anger- 
miinde station, sec Route 11. Thence, aa aboTC| to 
BTKITIM (ttat.), in Pomerania. 

POPITIiATIOir, 119,239. 

]$0TBI^. — T>u Nord; do Prusse; Deutsche* beua«. 
R»^PKKT K1IOI.I0H and Ankricaj< Covsuu. 

Digitized by Google 

50 liHAl>»liA\N -s 

Cabs, one perMm, 60 pf.; two i>erson», 80 pf.; 
three persons, 1 mark; four persoiT;, 1 mark 20 
pf. the course. Luggage 20 pf • each package. 

Post andTiLsciaAPM OmcB,Sa, GrttoeSohettie. 

The eapitat of the pforlnce of Pouerania, on the 
left bank of the Oiler, where It bejrius to widen 
into the .Stettiner-Haff, before falling into the 
Baltic. The principal part of the town Is planted 
on the Oder; the snburhs of Laatadio and Silbcr- 
wlcse arc on the right bank. The Oder is t rossca 
by four fine t.rfdjfes. One of the hridjres over the 
Rcgelitz is G3v foci long. The town was formerly 
strongly fortified. The Berlin and Kiinlgs Thor 
ore fine gates. Some uf the handsomest new 
bouses are at Neustadt, AvitJiin the old walU. The 
busiest portion is on the Bolhvcrk, near the port. 

The Custlc or ScMo$9—nxm the residence of the 
provindal anthorities— was the seat of the Dnkes 
of Pomerania. down to 1037, and was held by 
Sweden from 1(348 to 1720. It is an old building, 
begun 1503, and has a grand view, from the Jaco- 
bite Tower, OTer the town. Antiquarian Mnsemm, 
open Sunday, 11 to 1. Here the Empress Catherine 
of Rosaia was born, 1729, while her father was 
Governor : and another Empress (the wife of Paul) 
in 175i>. There is a singul iir clock in the south tower. 

The Ceutie Chwxh (Schlossklrehe) contains the 
tombs of the Dukes. The church of SS. Peter and 
Paul^ the oldest in Pomerauia, was founded 11S4, 
and restored 1817. 

Church of St. Jaeebi in the centre of the town, 
dating from the 18th eentnry, partly rebuilt, 1S77. 

The marble statne of Fred. If., by Schndow, is 
In the L'inrifiatis,nv House of the ProviMcial Estates, 
which cuntiiins a good library, and valuable M8S. 

A tHronse copy is in the KSnlgs-plats. 

The RathhanUt 1>QUt 1245, has a collection of 
Russian medals, presented by the Empress Cathe- 
rine. It faces the Exchange and Its largo hjill, in 
which the Casino Company give their balls. 

The Stadt Uueeam, in Blliabeth Street (Nen- 
stadt). Is op< ii Sunday and Wcdncsdnj^ 10 to 2. 
The New Rathhans is in the Victoria Platx, near 
the Post Office. 

Attbe Oymnasimn (or High Scbool)are a library, 
museum of natural bistory, and observatory ; and 
at the new Guard Room, a monnment of n ehlef 
President, by Sack. The Theatre, In Parade-pUtz, 


Is the handiomehl buiUliug iii the town. Before it 
Is the statue of Frederick WlUiam III., by Drake. 

Field Marshal Von Wrangelwai born hwB. ▲ 
great wool fair is held Jane 20th. 

Ship-building:, and the manufacture of machines 
and chemicals, with sugar-refining, are carried on. 
It Is the chief port for East Frossla and SlleaU, 
being the outlet for grain, spirits, and otter pro- 
duce. Large ships stay atSwlnemUnde (see below), 
near the mouth of the river; bat the channel 
above, through the Dammansch I.Ake, aud the 
Haff, as the embouchure is called, has been 
deepened to abooi Id f e^ 

By steamer, 10 pf. to Frauendorf, a village on the 
Oder TK ;!r the Klisenhohe, witli a fine view of 
Stettin aud the bunks of tlie Oder. A little farther 

is Gotxlow, surrounded by wooded hills. Steamer 

dail > (passing the above places) to 

Swinemiinde (Stat ) in 4 honr<i, or by branch 
rail 2'6 miles from Dueherow (p. 47). 
PopuLATioa, 9,000. 
/mw.— De Prusse ; Drel Kronen. 
A small wcll-bullt town on the Swine, the middle 
t/iie of the three montlis of the Oder; the other two 
being the Peenc aud Dicvenuw. It ia on the fsland 
of Vsedoiiiy where Gustama Adolphva landed, 1690, 
in the Thirty Years* War; and is tea. outpost of 
Stettin, with harbour, made by two mole», nearly 
amilelonfr. Large ships stop here, 'nun i^i a 
Bath-house and Ajsscmbly-room; and walks and 
drives can be had to the Uglithonae; to Herlngs- 
dorf (6 miles), another bathing-place ; to Coffwant, 
among well-wooded scenery; and to the Golm, the 
highest sput in the Island, whence there is a fine 
view. Steaai to Luuterbach, in seven hours, across 
the Orelfswalder Bodden or Bay. 

From Stettin the line to Dantzic CTOsaea an 
arm of the Oder, past the small fortified town of 
Altdamm (Stat.), on tlie Ue^lltz. Here a 

Une turns off to GoUnow ; Kaugard, which has 
cloth faetorlea, with salmon and lamprey fiaberlees 
and Qrelfenberg (49 mllcsX Treptow, and CoU 

beri,', see page 61. From Alt Damm, the main line 
proceeds through a fine wood aud past liadU 

Staxgaxd (8tot), in BastPoraennUi. 

P0PCl,ATJ05f, 33,709, 


Digitized by Google 



A walled town, formerly tbc capital of Lower 
Pomerania, in a fertile plain on the navigable river 
Ihna, whicU joius the Oder about 20 miles below. 

The Marimkiniiet of the 14tJi century, in the 
Qothle style, U a well-proportioned cbnrch, buUt 
by the Teutonic Knights, and having a good organ. 
The Chtirch of St. John, and the Town HaJl, are of 
the 16th century. 

Rail frmn Standard to CQatrUt (page 81). 

At Bidsftrd (BtaL), the branebe* to Wbeig 
(bcl nn 1 Nenstcttin fall in. 

[Colberg, r KollMUrg (Stat.), in Pomerania. 

POPtLATlOX, 17,000, 

/r«fel.—De Prnsse. 

A fortress and port, in a marshy spot,eIoietothe 
Baltic, at the Persante'"? mouih. It was n Hanse 
Town, and was taken by siege, 1630, by Uustavus 
Adolphus. It was re*fortified 1773; and is noted 
for the raoeeMfnl atand it made against the 
French, 1807, under Giieisenau, Schill, Ac. 

The Mariaikirclie (('atliolic Church) is of the 
fourteenth century, in the Uothic style, and has a 
enrlotts font, an idd dMmddier <rf wood, and 
painted roof. 

The Toon Halt was built 1850, from Schinkel's 
dosl^'ii. Bronze statue of Frederick William III. 

Kail to Aitdamm (page 60). 

Coltierg isnowmnoh reswted to for left-batblng, 
at Uthms and Strandstadt, its enbnrbs, where the 
harbour is formed by two bars or daruf. Two 
hotels here. On the other side of the harbour is 
Maikiihle. a pleasant frrove.] 

Cb8Un, or K ftl^*" C&tat.), in Pouicrunia. 
Porci^Tiov, 18,000. 
/ail,— DUrre's Hotel. 

A well-built walled town, frriin t'y a bishopric, 
on the Niesenbeckc, about b miles frum the Baltic. 
]t was rebuilt after the great fire of 1718, by 
Frederick William I., to whom there Is a statue in 
the Market Place ; and is supplied with water by 
springs from the Gollenberpr-- a liill only al»out 3?0 
feet high, but the highest in Pomerania. It has a 
good prospect. An iron cross was erected here to 
the Pomeranians who fell In the war of deliver- 
ance, 1813-15. 

The rivrr fnlls bito Jasmund Luke, near (his. 
and near the site of the ancient Jamsburg. Amber [ 
is found along the shores of the Baltic. I 

Hence by rail to Schlatce (branche'S \o Rilgtnttalde, 
and to Ncustcttin). Near here is Varzin, the scat 
of the famous Bismarck. 

Stolp (Stat.) isrotet.— Mnndt'fl. 

A small town, on the Stoipe, near the Baltic. 
The Duchess of Croy's tontb is in the Sch!os»- 
klrehe. Here arc amber works; and it carries on 
a little trade by sea, through its harbour, at Stolp- 
mUlulA, on the branch rail to MUHfttcike and 

Lauentourg (Stat.) 

Inn. — Hotel de I'russe. 

The last town on the Pomeranian border, having 
some official buildings, with a castle. 
Zoppot (Stat.), near a bathlng^aoe for the 

Ollva (Stat.), under the Karlshcrg (360 feet 
high), has an old Conventual Church, where peace 
between Poland and Sweden was signed, 1600. 

DAMTZIO or BAK2IG (Stat.) In Polish, OOeauk 

ForuLATiox, 1 20,459. 

; de Berlin; Englisches 
House of the English 

CoNOVL and Emolisb 

HoTEXs.--Du Nord ; 
Haus (tbc Old Cloth 
Traders)} Waltber*s. 

Bbsipbhy Exglish 

BANKKiiS. — Messrs. Gibson. 
Capes.— Leu tiioli^, and Denger, in Langemarkt. 
CoirvE7AxcB8.^CabB: Undelais; one or two 
persons, 75 pf.; three persons,! mark; fourpersons, 
I mark 25 pf.; baggage, station to hotel, M pf. per 

Railway. — To Dirscbuu, lierlin, Ac. Terminus 
at the Ost-Bahnhd. For Stettin, Bromberg, 
Warsaw, Posen, at the Hohen Thor. 
8«tAll«WI.— ToNeufahrwasser, Koniffsberg, Ac 
Formerly the chief seat of the Prussian navy, 
an old Hanse town and a fortress of the tirst rank, 
on the Welehsel, or Vistnia, at the lonetion of the 
Mottlau and Rudaunc, about 3 miles fnna the 
Baltie. Itn port is at Xeufahrwuter, on the 
shallow Bay or Gulf, which stretches 65 miles 
away towards the Frische Half and Ktlnigsberg. 
Under the name of QeiemU or CSsriwiallt existed 
ill the tenth centurj*. It afterwards became a free 
town and fort, protected by Toland and tbo Ten- 
tonic knights. 
Oil the second partition of Poland, jt to 

Digitized by Google 


Prussia, im. In tbo Great French War It sus- 
tained two memonble iieges: tbo first wa«« one of 
four weeks, in 1807, when it w.»s taken l>y tlic 
French, under Marshal Lefcbvre. who wa$ created 
Duke of Dautzic; at the sccund, of eight week*, 
in 1814, it WM retaken from Ociteral RapR hy the 
Russians and Frassians. 

Dantateis a picturesque old place, intersoctod by 
i«Yeral canals, and full of narrow, cror kcd streets, 
containin? in the principal thoroughfares many 
tall, handsome, and &oUd4oukiug bonses, btUlt by 
Hs prosperons merchants of the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries. Many of these may be seen, 
curiously adorned, in the Lang-ga$sc, which runs 
en^t and west through the town, from the Holies 
Thor, built 1688, to the Lange-markt, the OrUnes 
Tbor, and ts continned across the Bpeicher-Insel, 
under the name of Milch Kannen, to the Lang- 
partcn Thor. The Old Town, in the Altbtmlt 
nnd K. chtstadt, is divided from the Nlcderstadt 
and Lang-garteuby the Spelcher-Insel-Hiii island 
eOTcred by granaries and snrroundcd by the two 
arms of the Mottlau. Tfic com trade is an import- 
ant branch of business here. There are four 
principal gates and nineteen bastions, besides 
ramparts and slnlce-gates, dlTldtog the town from 
Its snbarbs; the whole beins protected by two 
Strong citadels on Ilagelsberfr and Bischofsberg. 
At the north-east sido of the town, is a puniping- 
statlon.thc sewage being utllisedfor Irrigating the 
sand-dunes at Henbnde, about 4 miles east-north- 
Oast. Near here ibo sea burst in, 1840; th'H has 
been obviated by a new chaniipl for the river. 

CnnirnF.s. There are oyer a sc.-re churches, 
chieliy Lutheran ; the best of which is the High 
Church of St. Mary, or the MarimMKht; a large 
and ourlous brick cross, built in the Gotluc style, 
1941^-1501, with three aisles. It is about 883 feet 
lon<r, by feet (through the transept, with a 
riwii m feet high, resting on twenty-eight slender 
pUlars, all of brick. It has ten small towers and 
A tall spire, 250 feet high. It ontaius fifty 
«bapels round the sides, adorned with carvings 
and other ornaments. Fine ."itaincd windows 
and a Gothic High-Altar ol early X«h century. 
A metal Font cast in the T^etherlands. 1564, 
and* atrved cru'Mfix mny Ixj uolired. The 
great curiosity here is the DanxJgor Blld, an 

[Sec. U 

I early painting in oil of \h»Liut Judgment, most 
y>rnhi\bly by Mcmling. It was pn'ntod in Holland 
f r the Medici, and on its way was seized by 
pirates, from whom It was retaken by aDantaic 
«hip and placed in this church. The Emperor 
Rudolph offered 40.000 dollars for It. The Fi-ench 
carried it ofT, 1807 : bnt it wa? brought back in 
1815. Tickets for the art treasures, 50 pf. Tickets 
for the tower, 26 pf., at So.4«,Helligegelst-BtrBsso. 

St Catherine's Church is noted for Hs chimes. 
The Trinity fhurch was built, 1514. 

In the l.rtnpc niarkt is the Jmkerltof (the old 
merchants were styled Junkers or squires), called 
also the ArtwhqT^ used as an ExOan^gi a good 
building of the flfteenth centur>', noticeable for 
its old paintings, arm*, and rnr\ings. There 
Is an old winr mom below. The Fountain in 
front is a bronze group of IseptuiW drawn by- 
sea-horses. Near this is— 

The Totcn Bangui old bulldhig of the fourteentli 
century, with oan ings and paintings, and a good 
clock tower (1556). 

The Grunes Thor, or gate, formerly theresldence 
of the Folish kings when they came to Dantaic, is* 
a handsome Gothic building, now used ns a 
museum of natural history. Here. n!-»o. are 
shipyards and dockyards for the navy; an 
Observatory, Theatre, and a Public Library of 
80,000 Tolumes. 

The fine old rest'^Ti .1 T'.'^.incisran Monastery 
contains the Tomi Mn^eum of antiquities, art- 
industry, collect Ions, and pictures. Free, Wcdnea* 
day and Sunday, 11 to 8; other days, li murk. 
Closed Saturday. 

A large timber and com trade is c^iried on, and 
amber isexportt i. There arc si vi nvl manufactories 
of oil and wciiijons, iron foundries, sugar houses, 
large brandy distilleries, factories ftw making 
" Dantzle spruce," and breweries. 

DantziC is the birth-place of Archenolz, author 
of England und ItaHen. or travels in England .nnd 
Italy, in 1785; and of Fahrenheit, the inventor of 
the Falirenheit thermometer. 

Martin Oplts, the poet, is buried in the Cathe- 
dral; be died Jmie, 1689, of the plague Tic was 
Olio of the rarlicst (Sermau poet!«, aud translated 
Barclay's "Argenls." 
The ramparts and the n^lghlwinphoo^ e^T the* 

Digitized by Google 

Rpute 13.] 



Bisehofabexg and the ITa^cDicrg afford pleaM»t 
promoiuides, with good view s. 

.EaCGltttloin.— Tip the Joburatobcng) wtth the 
JSjch-Kentiuil ; Jtr«i(faAn0atMP,the port of Dantile, 

by steamer or rail ; Weichsdinllnd^, at the month 

of the Vistula, by steamer. 

Excursion to Zoppot (stat.), a village and 
Uatblng-place, 8 miles from Detitslc, with good 
lodgings for visitors, and beths of aU kinds. 

At Oliva Convent, near this (p. /il), is a Church. 
Iniiit I 'Sl. with a park and collection of pictores. 
Good view from the K.arlsber;^. 

I^OXJXE 13- 

Beriin to Ciistrln, SchneidemlUil CHor 
BroBilm, Otlocvyn, and Wanav), Wtb- 
tium rfor Dantdc), Uarienburg, £1- 
MDg. KdnigBberg, and EydtktUmeii. 

(Kumgliche Ostbahu.) 


Berlin toNLUcnagcn 
Fredcrsdorf .».**.•• 
[Bmnch to B1iderft> 

Straussberg 174 

cheberg ......... 28f 

Trehaita ............ 34 

Ousow 40 

Golzow 47i 

Ciibtrln 52 

[Branch to Frank* 

Victz C5 

DSllen^-Kailun^.. 9^^ 

Warthe 8o 

Znntnch SP? 

Fricdeberg 98 

Driescn ..w>..*.m».#..108| 

[BrtmtJui to Posen 

and 'Stettin] 

Filehiie 124 

Schonlanke 145^ 

SchneidcmUhl IM 

[Rraneh to Nakel 
and Bromhcrff, 
m.; thonce to 
Thorn, :il ni ; ;uid 
Warsaw, 149 m.] 
BttmehM to Posen 
and Neustettin ] 

Krojanko 1G8 

Flatow 174 

Linde l.^fi 


Firchau 198 

Konitz 205 

Cz* rsk 224 

Uoch-Stttblaa ...241 

DirsclKUi ..366 

[Bmmh to 
Hohcn stein... 7 
Praust 14 

Dantssfo Wjmls.j 

Maricnhur;,' 277§ 

[Brumh to Deutsch 

AUMde ......2844 



GUidenhoden S03 

Schlobitten 310 

r.raunsbcrg 330 

Ilcili^ronbeil ..........287 

Lud wi j?sort;......M».iiSM 

K oil i^sixM'L''.. ..•««..*. 18684 

IBra/idas to 

Plllau 18 

Lyck 70 

Taplan 394^ 

Wehliiu.. 400i 

Norkitttn 415 

Insterburp 425 

IBranc/te.t to Tilsit, 
Memc'l, and Kor- 

Gumhinnen 441 

Trakchnen 449 

.•^talluiuinon 459 

Evdtkuhuen (on the 
RusRian fronti«r).»464 
English miles. 

The direct line trom Berlin to Ciistrln, whiah 

saves gruing round tu Krankf<irt-on-the-Oder,.iJa3ses 
Frederadorf (froni Avhii.h a uhort branch was 
opened to BftdATBdorf, 1878). 
CilBtrln (8tat.)i in Brandenheig. 

POPUU^TION, 17,000. 

Hotels.— Ih^U ) !5ji,rrenl)('rfr ; Krappp. 

Railwav.- T(i Frankfort-on-the Oder, Ehcrs- 
waldc, ttc. A line comes iu from Stettin, via 
K9ntgtberg4-d'Xt^ and proceeds via SMppen^ OrUn' 
berg, and Glojran (p. 68). 011 the Oder, to DrcsUu 
(Route 14). To StargarU, 61 miles. 

A stroncr fortress, in n niHr«hy spot, at the con- 
fluence of the Warthe with the Oder; which latter 
is orossed by a bridge joiuiug the new Town with 
the works on the left bank. There are nnmeroES 
smaller bridpc?. It was fortified by the Mar- 
grave*! of I!i ;m(l( iiln r;-', l-'ifiS; was taken by the 
Swedes, leai; and burnt to the ground by the 
Rttssians, 1788. It snrrendered to the French, 
1806, and was given np to Pmtsia in 1814. 

In theCasUe, nowa barrack, Frederick theGreat, 

when Cro-o-n Prince, was confinefl hy his father, 
Frederick William I., ami ci'iiipelled to witnehs, 
from one of the windows, the execution ol his 
friend Katte. To escape his father's tyranny he 
had intended to cscaie to England, with Katte, and 
another friend. Keith; but the secret came ont, 
and thi' stern kiiiL? (a hero of Carlyle's) was only 
prevented fromtakinghis son's life as a "deserter" 
by the intercession of the Emperor. 

Here are large com magazines; and the Fried- 
rich Garten, in tin sulmrb. "Within a few inilc« is 
Zorri'lorf. wlii re Frederick the Oreat defeated the 
Russians, August 25th, 1758, with immense loss on 
both sides. A monument marin the spot. 

Laadflberg iStat), on the Warthe. 

POPfnUATlOM, 28,081. 

Krone ; Pasedag's Hotel. 

A wcU-huilt town, under a hill, with large 
brandy distilleries, machinery and cloth-weaving 
works, and a considerable trade iu wool, spirits, 
com, and timber. 

8(dmeldemfLlil (Stat.), 14,000 inbabitantp. 

Inn. — Goldoner Liiwe. 

The direct line runs, via Konitz (junction of tl|.e 
Central Pomeranian llne>, tu Birscliau. as below. 
Here are also bnmob lines from iWangtuttlW 

Digitized by Google 

hi BttAMHAW's 

JastSOW) and Poicn (Hd BogftMU). The 
other lime from SdineldemllU to DIrseiiatt pMtes 

Kakel, whence a branch nau to OaMWII on 

the Mnc from Posen to Thorn. 
Bromberg, called Uydgoszoz*' by the Poles. 
P0FIIX.4T101I, 41,461. 
J7«lrf«.— Horits ; RIoi. 

Rail to Thorn, Ac. 

A wcll-huilt town on a hill, above the river 
Brahe, 5 miles from the Vistula, in a sandy dis- 
trict, tFKvened ty Ike Cenal nwde by IVederick 
the Greet, whieh Jolni the Vistula and Oder with 

the Brahe and Netzc. A statue to this kinj? was 
put up iu 1 801 . The town mainly owes its import- 
ance- to this Canal. 

From Bronibcrg a line ascends tiie Vistula to 
Warsaw, past Thorn (eee below), on the Russian- 
Pol ish frontier. The line from Inowraclaw 

(p. 62) to tl;!" pl ii '' f)f*Hsc8 down the Vistula to 

Terespol (Stat.j, Laskowltz(Stat.), ami Dirs- 

Cllftll. At Laakowitz, a branch crosseij the river 

to Qrandini and JMrnUfWO, Omnlbne from 
Terespol to Kollll or OnlSl (5 m.)i on the river ; 
an old seat of the Teutonic Knights, and of the 

tlioccse of Pelplin. 

[TliOm (Btat)i or T^riMia in Polish, in West 

POPULATIOV, 37,000. 
Hotel. — Sans Soucl. 

Rail to Bromber^. Posen (sec p. C,'2), Warsaw, Ac. 

An old Hanse Town and fortifuil port on the 
Weivhsel, or Vistula, founded about by 
Hermann Ballc, Grand Master of the Teutonic 
Knights, whose old Castle of Tnmo is about five 
miles distant. The rampart<? destroyed by Charles 
XII. were rebuilt 1809, by the I'russlans. It con- 
sists of an old and new town ; and has a Gothic 
cathedral, founded in 1198 ; and a Tbmi ffeOl of the 
fourteenth and sixteenth centuries (finished 1602), 
modelled after that at Auifstcrdain. and containing 
some paintings, inlaid doors, and marble tables. 
Princess Annaof Sweden Is Imried hi the Cathedral 
or llarlenkixthc. 

The Johaaaiskirehc (12th century) has Thor- 
waldsen's monument to ivoiH-niik or Copn-niciis, 
the astronomer, bom hero 1473, in a hou^ie still 
standing, died 1543, at Francnhnrg. There is a 

ihLVBtmktmt> fSec 1. 

bronce statue of him. Anotlier native is 8Qm- 

mering, the physiulogist. The SMtfe Thurm, or 
Lcanlnt: Tower. .V! feet hig^, has a Slant <tf 5 f«et 

out of the jwrjKJudicular. 

On the Kulmer- Tfior (Knlm Gate) is seen the figure 
of a rook holding a spoon. Tbere was a castle liere 
built 1260, but rased in 1490i, except two arehes, 

called the Danzke. The Long Bridge over the 
river stretches 2.470 foet across the Mazarkiimpc 
Island in the midst, and is only 18 feet high. Its 
two dlTislons are called German and Polish re- 
spectively. Here occurred the Tlmin Tragedy** 
in 1724, when a persecution got up by the Jesuits 
resulted in the execution of twelve of the leading 
citizens, including the Burgomaster Kiisncr. 

Capital Gingerbread (Pfeffeiknehcn) ia made 

From Thnrn the line proceeds rid Brleaeil, 
Jablonow U'ranch from Graudenz), DeutSCh 

£yiau, Osterode, AUensteixi (branch to 
KSnigsberg), WartonlmiVi KonelMll (branch 

to Kuni^'sber;:). GerdaUBIl, tO XUttflnUV 

(branch to Lyck), l»t» miles from Tliom.] 

The line from T<n>Tnhpr-r for Konigsberg descends 
the Vistula to I^askowltZ (Stat.), where a 
branch goes off to Grandenx, 10 miles distant. 

iOnmiUm (Stat), in West Frassla. 
PopvutnoM, SQ^MS. 

JSToftls.— Sehwaraer Adler; Qoldener L3we. 

A fortified town on the Vistula, over which is 
a bridge of boats, 2,700 ft t 'on?, with a Bail- 
way Viaduct 1,443 metres lonfr, on 12 piers; 
guarded by a Citadel on a steep height, which was 
sttccefsfully defended by General von Oonrblhro 
against the French, 1807. T I i monument Is liere. 
A branch rail comes in from JaUomOW, on th« 
Thorn Une. 

From Graudeax the tine from Thorn is con- 
tlnited to 
Marlenwerder, in West Pnissla. 


lfo/c/<.— Iletzner; Uintz; Hotel de Magdebourg. 

Diligence to GcerwiBsk, see BtaSAatH't CmU- 
nental Owtde. 

A well-built toTMi on tlie Liebe and Little Xop-at, 
near the Vistula, whicb is crossed by a floating 
l>ridge half a mile long. It belonged to the Teutonic 

Digitized by Google 

Route 13.] HASij-uooK to ger 

Knitrhts, the founders of tlie Pnissian monarchy, 
whose Castle, Cftllcd Danzigcr, now a prison, 
luui two Toirafs on meliea, bnlh ins. It adjoins 
the Otthedrilf which hao • tow«r, built 1S84, 

with a steeple 170 feet Mph. and c<tntalns tombs 
of Grand Masters and the cliapcl of the (iroben 
family. The Friedrichabad water ctiro is at 
BMidtken, 7 milM off. 
Henco tbroiii^ Btutam to Murlonbiitf (bdow).] 

Dlnellftn (Stat), on tho VUtola. 

Here the short brnnch of 22 miles turns off to 
Dantzlc. Rnihvuy Viaduct on tho river. C^i-f 
Koute 12.) The direct line from Scbneldeaiuhi, 
vtd KonitB, also Joins hera* 

MftTtenlwny (Btet), ^ Prussia. 
PomATioii, 9,M0. 

IMeJs.—Konig von Flrensscn ; Hoehmeister. 

An old fortified town, built 127R. Ity the Teutonic 
Knights, who were seated here till it was tiiken 
by the Poles, 1457. It stands on the Nogat, and 
contains soToral aneient-looking streets, tho houses 
In some being fronted by porticoes. 

The amie, bnllt ia09>140A. bjr the Knights, the 

finest mcdijevjil rdn-fcclcslasticnl edifice in 
Oenuany, ia the principal object of notice, ami bus 
lofty towers and battlements, all of bricli, in the 
Oothle style. The Unest part was earefnlly re> 
stored 1818. by Roderick William IV., and adorned 
•with stained windows, Ac. It consists of a Hoch- 
sdlloss, including the Cbapcl, a Mittelschloss or 
Palace, and a Yorburg, or suburb, crossed by the 
rril. Time required for « vidt from the station 
and hack, 1| hoar. 

The Ilochmclster's Remttr^ cf Cftapter-houte, 
which had been used as a granary before the 
restoration toolt place, is a handsome room, 40 
feet long by 88 feet, resting on a single pillar. In 
1410, when the town was besieged by the Poles, 
this room was esi>eclally aimed at by them, in 
h<ip< s of overturnin? it on the nran(Inm<;ter and 
hu Knights, who were known to be sitting in 
Modave. A. eannon ImU! is pointed ont in a 

The Ordentkirche (Chwdt of tbe Order), in the 
Castle, contains the prrnvo* of ficventcen Grand- 
masters, and is richly decorated. There is an 
Inlaid slatne of tbe Holy Virgin of great 


t bcanty; with vast cellars and dungeons. A fino 
I Town Hall was built by the Knights of the Order. 

! From hero a line runs mi RiesBXlburg to 
I DeotMSh ByUm (41 nUles) on tho line from Thorn 

to ^terburg (as above), near Ocsorich Lake; 

tlience to MontOWO, Soldau, r-.nd IllOWO, on 

tho Russian frontier. Warsaw is 70 miles 


ELBING (Stat.), in Western Prussia ; called 
Emag and J?AAv, In Polish. 

POPUIATION, 41,(78. 

HoTSLS.— KSnigllcher Hof $ de Berlin. 

Stbamkus.— To Plllau, Konigabwg; and Dantsie. 

See Brariihair' it Continnital (Jitide. 

An old Ilan^e port mid fortified town, founded 
by tbe Teutonic Kuij^iiCs, 121^9, and surrounded 
with ramparts, tt stands in a fertile part of the 
! river Klbing. five niiles from the FHsehe Half, a 
haven of the Gulf of l>atiz5r. Here are '=hlp-ynrds, 
iron-foundries, and engine-factories; with several 
chtircbcs, a s^-nagogue, Jtc; besides a House uf 
tndnstry, founded by Cowle, an Englishman. 

The MmHmkitxhe contains some sculptures. 

At tbe High School, or Gymnasium, Is a good 
library. There is also a collection of Elblug an- 
tiquities to be t^ecn. The Kraffuhl Canal unites 
the Klbing with the Nogat. Tbe shipping busincs<* 
is good; small vessels ciHue up to the town: the 
larger stop at Plllan. Sea-bathing Is obtained at 
Kahllierg. At Relmansfelde is a Water Cure. 

Rraunflberg (Stat.), in Eastern Prussia. 

POPUtATIOK, 11,500. 

/sn.— Rhelnlsche Hof. 

A walled town on the Passarge, ft mites from 

till' Ilaff. and the residence of thcBishop'* of F.mio- 
land. Tbe old l!astle is used for pnhlie oflices. 

Manufactures of woollens and yarn» are carried 
on. About 0 miles south-east Is 

7tmit«nlmrg. ( l>illgen<e thrice daily). 

iiMd— Znm Cepemieus. 

A smaD fishing town, on the Frisehes Haff, with 

1,800 inhabitants, the residence of the Cathedral 
Chapter of Kmuland, Here Disbop von Ifalhu 
was rotirdered, in his 80th year, in 1841, and is 
buried In tbe old brtek Cathedral of the 141]^ 

Digitized by Google 


[Sec 1. 

tnry, sitttated on ah eminence. It mntalns ' 
th» tomb of tlifiitftroiiioiuer, (kpa-mou*^ tha uuthur 
of Um GopwniMofiyttem. sli^ dtodA MHOm l|ere, 
IMS. His ObMTvatory i« «Iom bgr, and « inodel 
of the Wasserkimst or ivattnroriw constructed by 
Jilni is still preserved. It WM an aqaediiet, of 
whlcb a tower remaius. 

Th« rail !• carried nearthe Frlsehes Haft whidi, 
on its outer tide, adjoining the Gulf of Dauzig^, 
i<« l>onndc(1 by n Ion? tODgiM of land called Friaebe 
Kehnuifr. It passes 


POPVLAtlOM , 9,000. 

WoUttnlk (Stat.), 
Ludwlgsort (Stat.), and othpm. to 
jtONIOSBERG (Stat.) the PoUati Kr^wUmkcz, 
in East PruMia. 
Powiiaiiiiii, lti,«8. 

HoTKi.8. — Pmaae; EHnlgiiolMr Siof; 

Peutsche*! Hans. 

Dboschkies. -One per!K>n, 60 pf. the course; 
•two panona, 70 pf . ; three peraona, 60 pf. ; four, 
1 mailt* 

RsstDEVT EifOLisn Consul. — 

Railway -To Tilsit, Wilna, St. PetersbttTg, 
Dantzic, Warsaw, Berlin, Ac. 

Post OmcB, PiiBsefl«lii««traM». 

Stbamcrs.— a«e Bra^mft tknOinrntoi €Mtk. 

Thp firrond rnpital of Prnsaiu, an Important 
fortress, and seat of provincial government : 
founded, 1254, by Ottokar, iving of Bohemia, uu 
tlia 'Mom Jbj^iM, at the eonqQest of Samland, and 
afterwards enlarged by the Teutonic Knigbt8,^ho 
were neated here, 1457-1.^28. rn.m Ottokar it 
received ita name of Kduig»bc*rg, or King's Hill. 
Hera tlia Great Elector agreed by treaty with 
Chariot Gnttavnt of Swoden, 19S^ to take the 
duchy of Prussia, and the Elector, Frederick III., 
was crowned first Kinp of rru<^8ia, 1701, by the 
' name of Frederick I.; and to this cradle of his 
aneattort EVadericlc William III. retired aftw the 
baltta ef Jena, 18M. 

It stands in a flat spot, on the Pregel, alwut four 
.miles from the sea, at the Fiisches Hull, aiul 
mostly on the north bank of the river, which is 
erotted by tevim Bridget, five of wliieli eonneot 
tlie banka of the stream with the Kueiphof-gtn 
Itlaiid JB tfw middle,. tti^ iimctUw nf tbej^ 

nndoid Prei^l. The Cathedral, and some of the 
beat aixd oldest hotttes are lierer>4&r8t built on 
pllaa. Ottara mm tomd mmmA tkaSdyalMMe, 
in the diatriflta of Breiheiten, UihMdtt« 4Uld tlia 

Altstadt lU'hlnd the Palace are two pieces of 
water, called Sehlosn Teich und OIk,-!- Teich. One 
of tlie best tilreets is Konigsstrasse, running' 
tbnmgh the eattom snborte. Tho town la 
strengthened by forts and redoubts. 

The CatJudral iv. KTU'iphof, Is a Gothic pile, 
begun about 'lib f t-ut long and 90 feet wide, 
with A tower 172 feet high. It baa thxe^ aisles, 
M feet high, and eootaina acme mofivaienta of 
Grand Masters and Dukes of Prussia, behind a 
screen, among which is Albert I. (llfiS) and hU 
fuuiily. Here Kant, the metaphysician is buried 
(1804). The huge organ oontatna S^OOO pipes. 
There are aoane palntlnga hf L. Ckvnaeh. 

Tl»e <3ld Umm'sifu (or Collegium Albertlnum), 
founded 1M4. hy Duke Albert, the Library of 
which, Ho. (>«>, Konigs-fltrasse, contains 220,000 vols, 
and many evioat MSS.,indiidlng tome of Lnthei'a 
lettwa to hia wife, CaUierine Brora, and tlio 
original Safe Conduct for attending: the Diet of 
Worms. Connected with this institution are -a 
Zooh^ioal Sluseum, Stemwartstrasse; a Botanical 
flaidtn,odBtaining 6,000 specimens, 2, Bntteaheig; 
and an Ob aen atony, orar whioh Bossel, presMtd 
f i!1 1 (fi TT ;inH Kiint were professors here— there 
beiufc' alMJUi tif ty of those to 3§0 students. The Xric 
Umpo-niv, l>y Biiiler, 1862, is in Parade Platz. In 
the Senate Hal! la Behadow*a butt ef lUnt. 

The iVi/oM, or Behlou (Castle), originally bntlt 
by Ottokar, btit rebuilt ■I525-r>7. t\m^ for a tine 
the seat of the Teutonic Grand Kosters. It has a 
tower SSO feet high. O^er tho oliwreh ia tlw 
fanona JfojeMstortMl, S74 feet long by M feet 
broad, without pillars. In this Church Frederick I. 
and Wilhelm T. cruwned themselves. Statue of 
Frederick I. iit the entrance. On the waUs are 
taUeta toman of the luwrinea who fell la the War 
of LiberaUon. 

The Stadt Museum, in Konigsst^aia, contains 
about oOO good painting's, by modem Gennan 
masters, and many curiosities i open daily. 

Them la alto an BxAaage (B8na)t with a 
maguiHoent restaurant. The new ReglOIfma- 
QaU^^de^lBttM lain t^|||tte|tr«giiitoi. 

Digitized by Google 

fiAUie 14.1 



The TTieaire'iM ft bradfOOW buUdbiir. on tke 

Parade Platz. 

In front of it is Kiss's bronze equestrian 
^jrtAtve of SMwMc WUllttD ni. (18S1) with baa- 
reliefs, of the events of the War of Liberation— 
especially the erpntion of tlic faiin>H"* L:mdwchr, 
by which Pnissia has risen tu hor jiresent j^reatncss. 

Among the collections are the Wallenrodc 
Xdbnury: the Leng Collection of Kfttuml Htetory ; 
' sad tlie CoHeetion of PttnMaga twloiiglnff to tlie 

• Ktuist Akadcmie. Pnblle €hirdena surround the 
Schloss Teich. A favourite rpsort is the nnft n. a 
handsome promenade with pleasure gardens, &c. 

• Tnanrfty.ffoai tbo Soblow. Qmniarte* (6pel«ber) 
..and iiR»reboiiMtliMa« banks <^ the river. 

TU' r ii] Ml- stcnrahoat to Plllau (Stat.), at the 
j»ort of Kouig:sbergforlargevfsscls. Here stur^'onn 
catching, oaviare dre9»ing, and a trade iu umber arc 
maUA on. The aaMiar In thf a p«rt of amnXimd 
is OMt up b7 tbe aea after storms, and was 
formerly a royal monopoly: but is now farmed 
out by the Crown, ii^ ISll, Mr. Douglas had tbe 
Tight of collecting it for 10,000 tbalers a year. The 
•apply is pretty much the same every year. It is 
ehicfly used for mouth-pieces to pipes. 

Among the hathhif^-plares tm the Baltic shore, 
adjoining tliis, is Kram, a place much resorted tc ; 
also jy«idrttivtt, noted for its romaatie situation 
and tbe beauty of the aurrooudlng country. 

KiJnitfsbcrg is the birth-pluce of llippel, SchcfT- 
ner, Z. Werner, Herder, and Kmtf -the great 
transcendental writ4u-, culled Dct Zermalmeudc, 
or the Smasher, for his nnoeremenlotta erlttctsma. 
His most oelebmted woik is the ■* Krltlk (or 
In vest! [ration) of Pure Reason." Tic was the 
grandson of a Scotsman named Caut, who settled 
Itcrc. Some of his German sentences arc two 
pages long. He died at a good age in his native 
, town, which he scarcely ever left Opposite his 
house in Prinzessinstrosse stands a«^a/«<;of him, 
by nauoh. Jolianu Miillcr, the astronomer, sur- 
lUimod Regiomontanos, is ako claimed as a native 
by the inhjd>Itants. 

A Pillar nt Radan marlcsthe site of a battle field. 

fJaltgarhen, tuc hi^'hest hill in Samland, 14 milos 
from Kunigsberg, has an Iron Cross to the memory 
of those who fell In the War of Freedom^ 

BfIkh (orPnaslan Bylau), H<iH>6Bg on the 

■ Al'e, aiK^ Friedland, the scene of Napoleon s 
I terrible batileii with tlic Russians, 1^07, are 16 to 
24 miles distant. Eylau i a statieo on tbe branch 

to SonolMtt and igrdc (8taD» tot tRMUM- 

Saltzwedell and Gra)«wo. 

'Yh>' line from Kiiiiigfiberg to Memri paSSOS 

Insterburg fp'r^iiation, 22,237). 

Tilsit (Stat.), population 24,550, on the rivers 
Tllse and Memel, is oelebrated for the Treaty of 
July 9tb, 1807, and thence 55 miles to Mexnel 
f population, 19,61^1). tliomost northP7-ly town and 
port of Prussia. A direct line from Konlgsberg to 
Tilsit fVM open^ in Iflftft. 

IMtMUuieii (fltat.), <m the Rnsaian fitter, 

24 honrs from Hr I't 'f r><burg. Junction for 

Wirballen or WirztJOlol See BradkOmo't Con- 

tinental Ouide. 

Beriis. to f rauMort-ou-Uie-Oder, Giogau, 

(Niedenehlesiseh-Hiildiidie Blsenbahn.) 

By the Old line the stations are as follow :— 


Rorlin to 

Kopciiick 8 

Erkner 16 

FUrstenwaldc 29 

Frankfort - on • the 

Oder 50 

Fiirstonherg 65 

N c u ■■' i,' • . L' .••»*■«■«•«■.• 68 
On ben 80^ 

[Br<m^$\o Poson f 
and Cotthus.] I 

.Sommcrfold '.H>|i 

Sorau 114 , 

llan8dorf June 119 , 

[Brtm^ to I 

><ag!in 7 I 

Glogau 44i] 

Halbau ...............118} i 


Kohlftirt Junction. 
{BmitclKf. to Oor- 
litz for Dresden ; 


80 miles.] 

Sicgersdorf 147 

Rnn/Jnu 155 

Hainau ..•.»«« 171| 

Liegnit2 ............^.m 

[Branthetio Sch- 

weidnitK and 


Spittelndorf .* 101^ 

Multsch ..M...........197 

Keunarkt 90ft 

Mmltuu 208 

Lissa 215 

Breslau SSlf 

A neyr section from Sommcrfold. rm Sagan, 
Arnsdorf. and Lic^cnltz, makes the direct line to 
lircslau about 20 miles shorter. From l-rankfurt, 
via Keppen and Qlogan, it la 16 miles shorter still, 
bnt the quick tralna go by Sagan. 

Kopenlck (Stat.) The trial of Frederiek tbe 

nreat was lieiil at the chateau. 

Erkner (Stat.), near tbe Mliggelssee. 

Furstenwalde (8tat.)- A amaU town «& the 
Spno^ wtth « brtck ^vroh of tho Uth fifnlaiy, 

Digitized by Google 



[Sec. 1. 

tmd sercra! motuiments. In the vicinity «re 
quarries of granite, of which the coloKsai basin 
in ffont of the Mvaenin at B«rltn wm mada. 
ntAKKFORT (Stat), or Frankfortmnp 
the-Oder, iti PmisUa Bc»nd«iibttrg. 

HoTxu.— I>eutichw Haus; Ooldner Adler; 
Kalaer von BiiMluid. 
RAiLWAr.^To Beriln, BtedMi, FoMa, KSutgt- 

This town, once a fortress, i« bailt on the Oder, 
and eontlttaof UKddUnrnoa tbe west side. Joined 
to the new town on the other eide Ixf a wooden 

bridfTO. laden with stnnp^i to resist the force of the 
stream. It isretriilarly Iniilt, withbruad ImrHliomc 
iiitrec'tti, and is surrounded by gai'dens mid viuc- 

The town owp«« its pro«!pcrity chiefly to it"^ bohii^ 
on the road to Silosia, aiul to its river which is 
connected by canals with the Vistula and Elbe. 
Three annual fain (link eatabllthed lS88>are held, 
and it has a carrying: trade on the Oder. 

The Totrn Hall was built 1607. Near tlils is 

The Marien or Oberkirche (High Church), a 
commodious brick bnildlng of the 14th century, 
IwTlngr a higrh altar, of beantlf at carTOd wood- 
work, also a seven-branched candlestick 12 feet 
hif,'h, of the 14th century, and good stained win- 
dows. Among the paintings is Rhode's " Death of 
Dake Leopold of Bmnewick,** who wae drowned 
in the innndation of 37th Aiwtl, 176ft» endeaToaring 
to save a family from the fl<x>d9. His statue i.s at 
the east end of the bridge. He is also commemo- 
rated in a School for i^oldiers' Children. 

In the park is the Freemasons' pyramid memo- 
rial (1776) to the |»oet Ewald Yon Kleiet, who died 
of the wounds recelvtMl at tbo ])attlc of Kunei'sdorf, 
1759, when Frederick tbe Great was defeated by 
the Russians and Austrians near this town. 
A dlreet Itaie to Breslan wae opened 1874, going, 
by way of S«Iipai and Rothenburg, to Glogau. 
At Rothenburg are old houses and walls and St. 
James's larprc church. The quick Rf-rlin Hrt^slau 
trains do not take this route. A line is open to 
OotUnu, P«ie 9ftt (poDnlatioo, M,i09>, 45 miles; 
thence to RtMand. 

The old line ascends the Oder to 

Fttrstenberg (Stat.), a smull place on the 
Oder, in tbe Circle of Guben. Eight miles from 

liere tbe great MutlrUser Canal, joinjnpr the Oder 
with tbe Spree, and navigable for vessels of 760 
tone, mm off 
Navinlto (Btel.) Hereisaneldo(MBTeiit,iMw 

toned into an Orpin n School. 

GUBEH (fttal) 

Population, 29,420. 

A pleaaaatly-aettted town, under theKteiM Hills 

(which are planted with vineyards), at tbe junction 
of th»* river T.iibst with the Niosse. Here are<doth 
and stocking lactories and spinning milla. 

Bail to Cotthns, Letpsic, and HaUe. 

The line ereieea the Nieaie, and paaieaaome 
nnlmportant stations to Soin]]ierfi0iUUpO|nilatllHI 
11,100, occupied in cloth weaving. 

The shorter line to Breslan, alluded to on page 
57, and not naed by ezpreH tralai, tnnia off hwra 
to Afnadorf. The ncpreie tmlne ran from 
Sommerfeld, ti& Oassen, Sorau, Kohlfurt, Sttgen^ 
dorf Hnd Haynau, to Amsdorf and Liegnitz. 

Sorau (Stat.), near a Royal Castle. About 
20 miles from here, by road, is 

HuBkau (Stati), with a handsome eastle, and 
the Bngllsh park of the late Prince Plldder 

Mnskau, the well-known traveller, now occupied 
by Prince Frederick of the Netherlands. It is open 
to tbe public and contains two sulphur springs, 
OTor which a bath has been bnllt. Mnskan is now 
accessible by a branch rail from Wei88WaH6F 
(Stat.), on the line from Cottl)us to nr.rlitz. 

liuil fsom Sorau to Cottbus (3d niiies), and to 
Sagan (see l>elow). 

Hansdozf (Stat.), a branch railway leads past 
Bagan to Glogau, Lissa, and Posen. 
[Sagan (Stat.), in Lower Slleala. 

Porfi.ATTON. 13,(t00. 
/»».— Rittcr St. Georg. 

This is a strong fortress on the Bober, and tbe 
head of a principality, whldh the thnperor Frede- 
rick II. gave to Wailenstein. It has three gates, 
two squares and a fine Castle, now belonging: to 
the Prince of HobeuzoUeru-Hcchlngen. This was 
begnn under Wailenstein, l<HI7-t4. About 1789 a 
new wing was added by Blron, Duke of Conrland, 

' v.ho acquired it by purchase. It contains a 
library and coHcction of artistical objects. There 
I is u private theatre, tine orangery, and mausoleum 

Digitized by Google 

Route 14.] HAiiB-BOOK TO G£BMJ 

of the Duke de BIron. At the Jesuits' Collppe, 
and in tlie sessions room of the Law Courts, arc 
two noted original portndt* <»f WallonttelD. 

Paper, seaUng-wsz, and mim>n are made here. 

Keor one of tke gates is a tower, which was 
Kepler's oh^^ervatory in the time of WaUenat^i 
who was a believer in astrology. 

Ja the neighbourhood are two picturesque rocky 
baighta-^e Tenfclateln and Herrgotteteln. 

CDiOgav (Btat.), In Sileaia. 

POFOIATIOV, S0,48«. ! 

/7bf^?.— Dcutschcs TInus. ! 

A well-built, strongly-fortified town, on the left j 
bank of the Oder. The Citadel and Cathedral are 
on a fortUied island near the right bank, called the 
Doralnsel, and Joined to the town by a wooden 

The Cathedral was begun 1120 in the Gothic 
atylc, and has an altar-piece by Cranach. There | 
are also Gynmaslnms, or Hi^rh Schoola, artillery- j 

barrnclcs, su;:ar reriiiprif"', »tc. 

Andreas Grypliius, the poet, was bom here. 
Among the places of nmusouieut are — Fricdens- 
thal, Goldammer, Llndenmh, Itanaehwlts. and 
Dalkan, with It* {iretty garden on a hill. 

Lissa {Polish Leszna) a mnnnfacturing town of 
12,000 «onl<«, not to be confrnmdod with the Llasa 
named below. Posen, sec page 62,] 

From HanBdorf (Stat.), as above, the line runs 
to KoDlfttrt (Stat.), and thence to 81«ger8dotf j 
(Stat.), where a stately viaduct croaeei the Bobcr. j 
Here the Rie^^enp-eblrf^c hill* on the Morarian 
border show themselves. 

KohlfUrt {Buffet). Here there arc llnca to | 
Qarlita(17nillea), and to BOMlaii; the latter line i 
joining the Leipsig-Miigdeborg rail. 

The Hue now i>asses Bunzlau (Stat.), on the 
Bober; Haynau (Stat.), <"> the Delchsal; and \ 
LiegnltZ (Stat.), on the Kat^bach, for whlc)i see 
Rente 89. Then 
Xaltsdl (Stat.) From hero It 1« M miles to 

Neuiuarkt (Stat.) Paper is made here. 
Population, 4,400. 

Uasa (Stat) Near this the deciaive Battle 

of I^uthen was fought on the 6tb December, 
17i>?, in which Frederick the Great, with U^OOO 

^NV. — GUBEN, BRE8LAU. <»'.» 

men, gained a victory over 90,000 Austrian-?, under 
Prince Charles of Lorraine, after a fight of three 
hoars. A oolaBui narka the apot. erected IBM. 
The story of Fkederiek^s anrprislng the Anstrian 

officers after the battle, by quietly walklnpr In 
and enquiring if there was any room for him, is 

well told by Carlyle. 

BBEBLAU (Stat.), in Central Silesia. 
PopnuLTiov, 8115,174; of whom over one-third are 

CathoHcs, 26,000 Jews, ?,000 Military. 

Hotels.— Ck»ldene Gans; (ioldener Luwe; da 

Dros<dikies: 1 to 4 persons, 64>i 60, 60, 100 pf., 

Railways.— To rr:inkfort-on-tho-0<ler, Derlin, 
Dresden, Waidenberg, Stettin, Cracow, Prague, 
Vienna, &c. There arc four stations. 

This large and important city la the capital of 
Silesia, a province which was origlnall}- a Polish 
duchy, afterwards came to Austria, and was ae- 
quired by Prussia, at the treaty of June, 1742. 

It snstained a siege in the Seven Years* War, 
when it was saecessfuUy defended by Tanentitlen; 
and another, 1800-7, when the French took It and 
razed the walls, whose site is occupied by pretty 
gardens and walks. It stands at the confluence of 
the Oder and Ohlao, on a wide plain, about 450 
feet abore sea lerel, and in sight of the Trebnlts 
and Xobten bills; nnd contains five squares, 
twenty Catholic and ten Lutheran churches, .seven 
syn.ngogucs, twenty>flve short bridges over the 
moats; and Is dlTlded into the Old and New Town, 
with five svibxirbs (Vorstadtc). 

The Old Town, standing' chiefly on tlie islands 
or arms of the Oder, was rebuilt after the fire of 
1342 by the Emperor Charles IV., on a regular 
idan, with a large marketrplaee at the centre, 
from which several streets of good houses diverge; 
one of the best Is the Schweldnitzcr-strasse. 

The New Town is mostly of the present cejitury. 
The King's Bridge, of iron, was built 1833. 

The Grosse Ring, or Market Place, and Bllieher 
riatz. nrc near toju'ctbcr. One of the best points of 
view is the Llcbichshohe, on the f aschen Bastion, 
where a monument commemorates the royal visit 
in the Exhibition year of 1892. 

CB0BCBS8.>-The CufMh CntheM ^ at, JMn 
the i^ap/lf^ on the right bank of the Oder, Is 

Digitized by Google 



[Sec 1. 

.1 veiy old red brick churcli. built 1148-70, outl 
afterwards enlarged by the addition of seventeen 
chapels, deOtettlMl to tta biahap% in vhieta are 
lererftl good monmnente and |ttluting«, by Ij. 

Cranach, WlUmonn, Brand«l, and Sdunidt. WIU- 
mami is u SUesinn artist. 

The most remarkable chapels arc the Elector's 
Chapel, with BrackhoTs fine stataM <tf Moaes and 
Aaron; JMr CStopcl (1870), with snminm«iit of 
Bishop ProgcUa; DuJte Chrixtian's Chaprl (infTl); 
and the Chapel of St. John, with ( rniiarli's 
"Madonna among the Pines." A liiiu bronze 
-monument to BUhop JoAoaa «oa Btthw^ by 
Vtseber (1506). 

' The Episcopal Palaee li ctote to the chapel. 

The KrevuJHrdke was built by Henry IV , Duke 
of Breslan. who wns buried here. 129^. It is ( ros^- 
sliaped, and has a similar crj-p^ beneath it called 
St. Baitholomaus; also two towort, and a good 
splro. Before it Is the statue of Hepomnk, or Job n 
of Brcslau, by P. Vischer (149G). The Dicpen- 
brock window is a memorial to a late Bishop 

The iSandkiirhe, on tlie Saud-insel, was built in 
the aleies heing higher than tlie nave. It 
contains much marble and gilding, with some 
good painting'^, byWillmann and others, including 
one of our Lady of Cxeutochou, a great place for 

The JetuUeiMrcbe (Jesuit Chnrcb)^ a handsome 
building, with an altar painting by Krause, and 

froHCocs by Ruthmnicr. 

The Vinernzkirche (St. Viiiront do Paul), in 
Ritterplatz, is a handsome Gothic church, with u 
good monument of Duke Henry II., ttio founder ; 
and paintings by Willmann, Ac. It is faced by a 
statue of the Virgin. 

At tho AfalhiafUtvhe are paintings by Krause, 
and a statue to St. John Nepomuk. 

At the Dominican C/iurcJt of St. Adalbert is a 
Ane monument of St. Cseslaus. 

The JhrothtaUtirehe (St Dorothea), remarkable 
for its height, was founded 1850, by the Emperor 

Charlps IV. 

Of the Evangelical, or Protestnnt cluirt iip?;, the 
Mlisabetltkirche was built 1257. Its clock tower, 
added 1401, It 386 feet high. Here the first Pro. 

ttistaut bcnuun tn uh preached, 1£85. It cuntains a 
chancel of black uiarbLe, a monument of Rbftdlgcr, 
and paintings by Cranaeb. 
The jr«0«fW«MwWreA«, with two handeome 

towers, one of which was burnt, 1887, is of the 

intli oen1tin*.thp K0!itliportair2th century, and has 
a tine painted window presented by I'rederick 
William IV. 

A church dedicated to the Eleven Thonsmid 
Virgins (Blftausend-Jnagfrauan kirche), is re- 
markable for some old stone carringa. 

Town Hall, Universitt, Ac— The Town Hall 
(Rathlinus) is a larpe handsome restored building 
of the fourteenth century, in the Gothic style, 
standing iji the Grosse Ring; with a Uekvlaal 
column, the StaupsSule, in front of it. 

In the first storey is the Fttrstensaal, or Prince's 
Hall, where the Diets worn hrld. the arch of which 
is supported by a pillar in the centre. In the 
Justice Koom are some good paintings by WiU- 

Under the Town Hall is the Schweldnitzer 
Cellar, originally a lofty hall, long ago turned 

into a becr-house. 

Here stand an equestrian Statue (184S) of 
Frederick the Qreat, and another of Frederick 
William HI.; both by Kiss. 

Near the Town Hall is the Stadlhaus. under- 
neath which is a great "RiprTokal." On the first 
storey is the Town Library, with over 2(K),000 
vols, and 2,500 MSS.; open, 10 to 3, daily. 

In the Blttcher Ftata Is Banch's bronae Statue 
of BtSdier^ 10 feet high, on a granite base; erected 
in lionour of that cpncral and hi'? army, to 
commemorate his victory on the Katzbach, and 
inscribed With God's help, for King and 

A Statue of anotlier military hero. General 
! Tanontzicn, tin- defender of Brcslau in 1700, 
stands ta the Taucntzicn Platz. 

The Unitcrsity was originally founded at Frank- 
fort-on-the-Oder, 1709, by the Emperor Leoptfld 
II., and was trai ^f. ired In 1811 to its present seat, 
in a iniildinj^ which was onoe a palace, and from 
1738 a Jesuits' College. 

Here is a richly decorated room called the Anla 
Leopoldina (Imperial Chamber), with freteoes 

Digitized by Google 

Boiit« 15.] 


by C. Hauke, and statues of throe emperors. The 
wtabliahment comprises a ellnleal hospital, an 

obscrvatoiy, large nnatomical iniisetinif valaable 

zoolog'icnl colK'i tion, collect ion of nsiticnils, At., 
open 11 to 1, and n butaniciil garden behind the 
eafcb^dral. About 1,500 students attend here. 

TlM Royal and University Librat^y, iu the old 
AMMy of St. Mary, in Sandinsel, contains aborc 

380,000 vo!uniPs, and 2,000 MSS. Hero also is the 
Archi«olo^'ical Museum, open daily, 11 to 1. 

The iiilL'sian Art-Mmeitm is not far from the 
Schweidnitzer btadtgraben. It has a dome and a 
Greek portal, embeiUslwd wltli statues, and eon- 
tains a fine collection of engravings a^ art- 
industrial ol)ji'ufs, ;i library, n nnmber of pictures, 
and a collection of Silesiaii antiquities of con- 
siderable interest The Museum is opcu daily, 
lO to 1, except on Uondays. The Antiquities 
(entrance from Museum-strnssv) arc open 11 t(» 1 ; 
Wednesday, Saturday* and Sunday, fiOpf.; other 
days, 1 mark. 

The Synagogue, close by, is a good buildiug. 
In the BlUcher Plats stands the Old Bxduuiye, 
by Itanghaus, in which is a very handsome room, 

11 -v l for the Arts and Tradt s oxhiliitions. The 
wci-liiii;,' house is an olfj to\vcr. iniiU ir>71. 

The New Theatre is at i lie end of Schwcidnitzer- 
strasae, near the Royai Oocertunmt Ilouse^ formerly 
the palace of the Trince of Hctafeld, bnllt by 
Frederick the Qreat, after the Seven Years* war. 

Here also are the ProHncial ,'<ta('.x House 
(ftUndchnu';). near which is the New Exchange, 
the lioyal i^alace (or Schlossj, and the Amtsgericht, 
or Law CSourt. 

Breshm Is the native place of Wolf, the jimthe- 
raaticlan, and Grave. Here are many sugar, linen, 

silk, woollen, and cotton factories; liqueur ami 
gTonnd jrlass works; cannon ntid eniriiic foiuKiries 
for the lioyal Navy; wining otftce, <fcc., and maau- 
f aetoriss of glovesi plate, and Jewellery, Ac. 

Its snnval trade Is between five and six millions 

sterling. Its June and October troo/ fairs axe the 

largest in Prussia. A jTotxl sliiiipinpr buj^inc-ss is 
done with Hnmburfr, via the Oder and .Stettin. 

Among the places of amusement are the Zoo 

with a restaurant and other attractions ; the Zelt- 
garten; Uebieb's]nihe;theScble8Swerder-gartent 
besides Sdieltnlg with its fine Park; and the 


At Oswitz Is a pretty chapel by Langbaus, and 
the miraculous image of the Virgin, a favourite 
place of pilgrimage, conunanding a line view of 
Brcsiuu. At Kriblowits, Blttcher is buried. 
SilwUenort has ri rnstle and collection of art; and 
Llssa, ft fine park and rnstTr', rclfhrated for the un- 
expected visit which Frederick the Great paid to 
the Austrian oflloers there, after the Battle of 
LenthenT (See page 59.) 

A line from Breslau to OelB, Kempen, and 
Wilhelin-briirk (npenod 1872). is ]virt (if yr"- 
jcctod line to Warsiiw. Another linetoStrellleil, 
Mfl]l8tert>erg, and Oamenz nma to GlaU and 
Mittelwalde on the Austrian frontier. See Boute 
.17. A line from Ocl'^, OH ni!l( s long, opened 1878, 
passes Jarotscllin to Guesen, towards Thorn. 

From Braslan to Waideatnuv and 


Stations as uiulur (see llouta^): — 

Rcichoubacb ... 4S 


liresluu to 

Canth 18 

Mettkau !;> 

Konigszelt June. ... 30 
{Branch to 

Schweiduitz ... 36 

Frankenstein... 62) 

Frcihurg.. ,15 

A!twas-,ci- 431 

WaJdeuburg... 4<i^ 

BerUn to Posen 

(Obersohlesis<Ae Eisenbahnf or Upper 
Slleslan BaU). 

By rail to FrankfortH>n-the-Oder, as In Boute 

14. Thence the stations arc as under, the dis- 
tances being reckoned from Frankfort:-- 


niankensee 5f 

Rcppen 13J 

[BrancKUt Bres- 

Bottschow • 19 

Sternberg.... 24 

Neu Knnersdorf 30 

Tnpjior ,....„. M 

logical Garden (steamer from the SandbrUcke), ( Wutschdorfii,"."*'."," 88 


Schwlebus 46^ 

Stentsch 53* 

Bentschen 6l| 

Friedenhorst*. 70 

Opalenltsa 94 

[Branch to Oraets, 
6i miie^.J 
Posen (Central StR.)t08 

Digitized by Google 





"N'tinc of rhf stations are of ninch Intcrpst : near 
Blankensee, at Kunersdorf, Frederick the tircat 
vas defeated in 1759, by tlM BusilMt and Aostrlan 

P08BV (Stat.), or Potnan In Polish; thecaidtal 

of the Provlnco. 
PoruLATiON, 69,031, incladin^' 17.000 Jews. 

HoTKLs.- Dc Hoiii ; De Presdc ; de Viennc. 

Ukoschkiks from tlu' station to the town, one 
person, 70 pf,; two periions, 1 m. A hired ser- 
▼wtt or **fMtor*' may bo vmjiojtA in making 
ptireiwsas. • 

A strong] y fort i fled town on the Russian frontier, 
with a prarrison of over 7,000 uinn, in a sandy part ; 
of the Warthe, where the Cibyna joins it. It is well 
buiit, and has four gates; and Is OTcriooked by 
the Castle, or citadel, on a bill. It dates from tlie 
tenth century, and was a Hanse Town, and the 
seat of the Duki's of Poland. The provlnoc was 
aoqaircd by the Prussians at the second partition 
of 1798. Napoleon Lamiesed it to the Grand 
Dnehy of Warsaw. In 1815 It came deflnitlTely 
Into the possession of Prussia. 

The Cathedral In the Wullischel suburb (in 
Polish Chttaliszeito) is a plain, niodorn Gothic, 
rebuilt 17 7d, containing some monuments of pre- 
lates and others; and the Gotdm Chtgpetfti riebly 
adorned 1>uilillng in the Bysantine styles erected 
1842, by the Polish nobles, to the memory of t fi< 
two earliest Christian Kings of Poland, wliosc | 

bronze statues, by Ranch, are here. The** Arch- 
bishop's Palace adjoins the church. 

8t, WmiMiM is a fiaw Italhm pUe, 180 feet by 
109 feet, built by the Jesuits, 1661. Thefar College 
is the GoTornment House. 
SI. MaryU, the oldest ehureh In the town. 

The nathham is a Gothlr bnlldlnp of the sixteenth 
iM'iitiiry, withpiriiiiuMfs and u modem tower, from 

wliioli there is a mif prospect. 

In Willtelms-platz is the former palace of Count 
BacsynskI, a handsome hulldlnff, with a portico 
of 24 columns: presented by its owner to thecity« 

wWh ;i HKnin,- nf rJO.OOO volumes. The Chamber 
of Commerce is located in tl>e, same building. 

There arc also four Theatres; with a Museum of 
Natural History. 

A wool Fair Is held here in June, and it has a 
trade in com, cloth, linen, leather, and tobacco. 

PiACBS OF Amusemekt.- Zooloi^^-^ii al Gardens: 
Bartholdshof ; the Schilling; the Luisenhain; and 
the Fcldsdiloss. 

FromPOMii,the lines to nunmand Bromberg 
(see Route 18) pass PiUtowltl, OlI88«n (near the 

Wart O, and MogUllO, to (!i I vision at InOW- 
raclaW(on thcNetze). Gniewkowo, f r Thom, 
87 English miles. From Inowxaclaw tu BroiXL- 
IMVIP ia 28 Bnglish aolles, or 85 from Posen. The 
country Is uninteresting. Another line of ISt 

milo", opened 1R75, follows the 1>order. to Jarot" 

i sclilii. Ostrowo, XompeOf and csreuiberg. 

Digitized by Google 



Berlln to Frankfort-on-the-Maln, vU. Wit- 
tenberg, Lelpsic, HaUe, Weimar, Gotlxa, 
Cassei, and Gless^ 

By B«U, i» Halto (BerUn-Anhaltlwbe Elsen- 

Berlin to miles. 

Gro89-Beercn II4 

Ludwipsfeldc 16 

Trcbbiu 21 

Luckenwaldo ...... 30 


[Branch to Dres- 
deu, Chemnitz .J 
BloMsdorf. ........... 46) 

Zahna ............... &2 

Wittenberg.......... 59^ 

For Berlin, nee Route 1. 


{Branch toDeSMO, Ac] 


Griifcnhainchen ... 

Bitterfcld 81* 

[Branch to 
Delltstch ... 88i 
Lclpsle ...... lOlf] 

Brehna. 87 

Landsberg 91 

Helle... .......... 102 

Thence to 

JiiterbOg (Stat.) Population, 7,000. 

This Is a very old town, built originally by the 
WeodB, 2 miles from Deunetviti, where a monu- 
ment, mi tbe Kiedor Qoradorf « oomm«nontei 

Btilow'8 victory over tb'^ French, nnder Ney and 
Oudlnot, 6th Soptcmljtr, 1813. In the Nikoial- 
KircUc U Tctzel'si Indulgence>box. Diligence to 

A line h r> off from hero to Dresden. 

WITTENBERQ (Stat.), in rmssUin Saxony. 

Population, 14,000. 

lanis.— <}oIdeneWein-Ti»tibe; Adler, Befresh- 
ment Room at the station. 

Railway.— To Cothen, Ilalle, Berlin, T/cipslc, Ac. 

An old, decayed place on the EDio in the 
Frussian part of Saxony. A wooden briiigc, 1,000 
feet long, crosies the river. It was once a 
place of great strength, but suffered greatly in the 
siege of 1760, when itaurrendcrcd toilM I'rn '^•ms; 
and again in 1914, when the Prusiiians, under 
i aucnt^icn, took It by storm from the French. At 

the era of the Reformation, it was the Court of 
the Electors of Saxony, seated here down to 
1542. The Electoral (^astle Is now an Arsenal. 
The town is full of memorials of Luther, who 
was educated at the High School, and was ap- 
pointed Professor in 1508. Here he began the 
Reformation by nailing vp bta 26 Theses on the 
gates of the Castle or University Church (SehlOss> 
klrche), on the 31st October. l-'ilT. 

The Schloss A'trc/w— the same ij» "which Luther 
used to preach— having snffeted in the siege of 
1814, was restored in 1817 (in 1857, the old gates 
were repl«:ed by metal ones, on which tho fninons 
Theses are cnprraved), and further restortd 18X7. 
Above are statues of Frederick the Wise and John 
the Constant, and a pictoxe of Luther and Melaneh- 
thon at the foot of the Cross. Hoe are tombs of 
the above Electors, of Lnthor, and of Melanch- 
thon; with sttveu hronzo sculptures, by Peter 
Vlttcher, and portraits of Luther and Melanchthon, 
by Lucas Cranach the younger. 

The large TotmChurch (Stadtklrche) has a bronze 
font, by Vlschcr, paintings by the two Cranachs. of 
Christ on the Cross, the Conversion of 6t. Paul, 
and the Latt Siifip^, with portraits of Luther, 
Hehmchthon, and Bugenliagen (or Fomeranus), 
whose tomb is here. 

The Aufjustine Convent (Augusteum), where 
Luther once lived as a monk, is now tniMd into 
a College for Evangelical clergy, to make np 
for the removal of Its renowned University ("And 
what make you from Wittenberg, Horatio?"), 
founded by Frederick, the Good Elector, 150^, 
which was united to that of Halle^ In 1S17. In 
Lutha'B Cell are still preserved his writing table, 
arm chair, drinking cup, and bin ^\ife's cabinet. 
Peter thr- Great wrote his mune in chalk on the 
wall, a memorial now pUused nnder a glass CMC. 

Digitized by Gop^C 




[Sec. 2 

The R^rinatioathalle Is always open ^ 1 to 2 p«r- 
soas, 50 pf . 

At the fluM Eame (Bathliniis) are portratta }>j 
Lueu CfanAdi the elder, 1616. 

Luther's Statue, in lironzo, by Schadow, li in the 

market phice, y\i:h this rhyme: — 

" Ist's »ott«8 Werk. so wird's bentehn. 
lit*« JiMadwnwark, wtcd't viitaiiaha.* 


If this U God's wurk it will tU^y, 
If ouJy mikii's, 'twill iK-vs awiiy.'* 

The first stone uf the j^ranitu pedestal was laid 
at the TereeDteuary of the Reformation, by the 
ItiDg of Prussia, 1817. MdanaUh9n*» Soute i» 

shown in the Kollc^'Ieii-strn«?se. 

Luther's Oaky near the Klster Gate, is said lu 
stand un the spot where he burnt the Papal Bull, 
10th Dee., 1520. It Is ratted nnind. 

Woollen works, dye-houses, Ao. Sail to fWJtm- 
hero fc'' Dresden. Tireslau, Ac. 

For hrancb to H.'ssau, <fec., see Uoute 27. 

Bltterfeld ;.Stat.) Here Is the junction for 
l<0lpslc (Route S9). 

HALLE (Stat.), in Fnusiau Saxony . 
(Halle an der Stale). 

POPOLATION, 101,401. 

HoTBi.8.— Stadt Hambmrir; Contineiital; Elaen- 
Wliii; Stadt Zurich. 
Railwa v.— To Eisenach, Loipsic, Magdebut^tAc. 
TBAmrAVi.'— Tfaitmgh ttie town, to the Glebieb- 

cnstein, &c. 

An old town, in the form of an irregular sqnnre. 
on the river Saale, celebrated for ita University, 
Orphan Asylum, and Salt Works. The houses 
ftve iodillerently bnflt. Olancba and Nenmarkt 
are suburban parishes. Both the name of the 
town and river are derired from the salt mine"? 
iu the neighbourhood, like those of Hallein and 
SntebUTK* bi Austria. 

The OaMsdral, a 16th eotttuty building, eontalns 
ma altar.pleoe, r^preselitlDg a Duke of Saxony 
and family. 

The ifontslcirche, or Church of St Maurice, 
built in the 12th eentury. Is the oldest in the town, 
amd Is in the early Qoihie style, with a enrious 

carved altar-piece of Avood. 

Th» Moritzbiu'ff, of which only n -^vini^ remains, 
was the seet of- the Archbishop of Mngdelmrg. 

CtoiVh'y i#«lto' J9gmi^, ytm' a good View. 

The Marktkirche or Marienkird.r (liith century 
Gothic) has an excellent aitar-paiutiny by iiiibner, 
and a curious painting on a idTot^ by !». Granacb, 
of St. Mary Magdalen, St. Ursula, Ac, shown for 
50i)f. In this Church, built 1528-54. by Cardinal 
Albert, the "Messiah" of Handel was tirst per- 
formed, 1741. 

St. Ulrich*a was built 1889. 

The Bed IVNser, an (AA Isolated buttdlng, 278 feet 
high, stands In the market-place, near («> Ileidel's 
bronze statue of UatuUlj who was bom here 1685. 
It was erected 1859. 

The Bettdau^ or seat of the ProTincial Govern* 
: inont, has aMnaeum ef antiquities, with ooUeetions 
of Thuringian and Saxon antiquities. 

The Unim-xifi/ Tiears a high character Tt was 
fnunded 161)4, and united with that of Wittenberg 
1617. The new University Buildings wore huflt 1884, 
in the Parade-platB ; they eoutaln the Zoological 
Mtueum, and a Library of 50,000 boolc!. There are 
about 1,600 students, a larpc number of whom 
study agricolttire. Attached to it, are the Clinical 
UuiipiLui in the Dom-platz ; the Botanical Garden, 
and an Observatory. Hie Allgemebie LItteratnr 
Zoitung," a literary journal, of many years' date, 
is jiublished here. Tholnck nnd Gcsenius, the 
Hebrew scholars, were professors here; also F. A. 
Wolfl^ who here wrote his famous Prolegomena to 

The Frankcscfien Stiflungen^ or Waisenhatu, 
foxmded 1698, by the excellent A. H. Frnnke, who 
was Oriental professor here, is an extensive 
building, in which, not only arc huiidreds of 
orphan boys and girls educated, but it includes 
a Mission and Bible establishment, with two 
Gymna<5ia or superior Schools, viz.: the Royal 
Pedagogium or High School, and a Latin or Middle 
School ; besides a Burgher or Ijower School, a Real 
(or Practice) School, Ac. In the same building, 
are an apothecary's shop, a bookscUer^s shop, and 
printing pros^e*. from which many millions of 
Bibles and Testaments have been isHUcd. This was 
the origin of the Bible Institution by Baron 
Caustein, 1713— Che precursor of our Bible Societies 
at home. A bronze Statue of the fntindor. by 
: Rfluch. st.indH in the rourt of the orphan home, 
I which is now well endowed with money and lands. 
I The Library contains more' thata 30,000 vblnmet. 

Digitized by Google 


UAKD-BOOK to 0£RllAMr. — UAhLBf M£RgEBD&0. 

On the Parade-ptatz isthe Archaeological Musenm ; 
open Wednesday and Snturday, 11 to 12; outside 
the town is a monament to those who fell at the 
Btttle^f Lelprte. 

The &tlt Worit* are worked hy a elaia of bmb 
called Halloren, said to be descendants of an 
aborlirinal people, who, tint i I lately, still retained 
their distinct customs, appearancet &nd dress. 
Some think they are of Celtic, others of Franklab 
origin. Upwirde of 11,000 tons <d untwn yeaily 
nuuuif aetnred. Bntianoe It gumraUy alloircd. 

Large tngnr refinery. Carding thistles and 
carraways are prown in the neighbourhood, and 
the larks caught at the salt works are con- 
sidered gnalt deHcaeiee. In the nelghboarhood la 
Oiebiehenilei» Omtk, now a xnln ; tn whleh Beiehart 
the composer lived many years. The pretty 
Talleyof the Sooi-Bad Wittekind is much visited. 
Within a few miles are the little town of Wcttin, 
with the family castle of the old Saxon kings ; and 
Petersberg, MO feet high, with a fine prospect. 

For Route through the Harz District to Oassel, 
S(iO Rou^f '2'! A line from Halle to Connern and 
AflClieralelOen (among salt and alkali works), 35 
miles, forms part of the direct line from Lcipsic, 
«M 8dllk»aditl, to HanoTer. FromAscherslcben 
to Guslen and Cothen. 

Another,rj9 Etiglisli milc«l(.ng,runstn CottbUB 
(p. 58), past Eilenburg and Torgau, p. 101. At 
Cottbus, lines branch off to Berlin, Frankfort-on- 
Oderl Meissen <Bonte OS), OVrlits (Bovte 85), 
Chlben, and Sorau (Route 14). 

Prom Hallo nnd T.eipsic, towards Frankfort, the 
stations are as I'oUow : 

Halle, Gerstungen, and Bebra Une 
(Thilringlsche Bisenbahn or lliuringian Kail). 


Halle to 
Merseburg. 7| 


[ June, for Lelpslc.] 

Weissenfels 19^ 

[Branch to Zeitz.] 
Nauniburg *.....». 27} 

Kiisen «2 


[Branch to Jena, etc:] 

Stadtsulza 37} 

Apolda 44f 

Weimar ••••••••MM 




Viesclbach 62 

Erfurt M 

[Branch to Nord- 
Dieteiidorf 74 

[Brutuh to Aiastadt,] 

G<»lha 83i 

FrottBtedt 891 
Eiflenach 109 

[Branch to Mclning.] 
Ilerleshausen Ill 

> n gen „•.....• li6| 

634 1 Bebra.. 


WBmiHWgtO (Stat.), or Meersburg, in PrussHin 
Saxony, a part of the old Electorate. ■ ' 
POPULATIOK.— 18,000. Ink.— Sonne. 
An ancient walled town on the Tburingian Saaie, 
irregnlarly hoUt 'and Inohidlil^ the Oldbe m '4lUi 
town joined to its suburbs, of AltetrbUlt 
Nenmarkt, by a stone bridge. It was fontierly 
the scat of the Dukos of Saxe-Merseburg. In Its 
neighbourhood, the Emperor Henry 1, defisaMA 
the Hnns MO, near theKeosdihefy; and Hency I^. 
was defeated by his competitor, BtldO^h, 1000^ 
who was killed. 

The Cathedral is of the 18th and 15th centuries, 
and has four towers, a richly adorned portal, one 
of the largest organs In Qersoany (4,000 pipes), and 
an altar-piece by L. Cranach, in which Luthor^s 
portrait fignres. Here is a monumoin of the 
Emperor Uudolpb, with liis dried hand which waa 
oat off in the hattle; also Yiseher*s bronae «f 
Bishop Llndenati, and a monnment of Bishop TUO 
(1514), who pxccntod one of his servants, accused 
of stealing a ring, which was afterwards found 
inside a raven. A live raven used to be kept 
in a cage outside the church, to perpetuate the 
rsHMWhrance of this untoward event. 

The old Gothic Ducal Casth', now used for govem- 
ment purposes, which is in the Gothic style, is 
marked by three towers, and annexed to the 
Cathedral by a quadrangle with seven towers, the 
best of which is the WkU$ Taw$r, A monnment 
to Field-Marshal Kleist is in the Castle garden. 

There is al-^o a new Town Hall; a Cathednd 
school; and rft. Peter's convent, at Alfcnbnry 
also large beer breweries, tanneries, glue factories' 
and faetofies for medicine cheete. ' 

A Deaf and Dumb School at the old Bishop*! 
Palace. The Saalc has some romantic scenery, 
like the Rhine. At one spot is Schkopau Castle^ 
the seat of Count Trolha, rebuilt of ornamental 
stone in the Oerman Ifarmdssance style. 

Within a few mUes are rAmehsUkUMatht; Row 
bach, where Frederick the Great defeated tha 
Anstrians and Frcncii. 17.'>7; Littzen. the scene of 
Wallensteln's defeat by Gustavtis Adolphns. the 
**Uon of tlie Kortht** vrtio was killed 1832; and 
G>ro*t CUnthtn, where the llrst irrsat battle between 
the French and the allies took place, 181«, yii^ 
Marshal Bessihrss was killed near the 

Digitized by Google 

^ JlUADSlI \\v'j» 

WelBSeilfelS (Stat), in l»ru«!»inu Saxony. ; 
^iittctlon to Gera, Ac. Population, 23,894. 

/rof«/«. - Drei Sehwiine; Zum8cbttUoii$ QoldB«r ' 

An old walled towiv tinder a hill, on the Saale, 
which is navigable here, and crossed by a bridge 
320 feet long. The Amtshaus (Town Hall) con- 
tAlnt tliA room wliera th« body of Gattams Adol- 
pIliM was embalmed, after the battle of Lutzen, 
1632; marks of his blood being sprinkled on the 
wall. Part of his remains was buried in the 
cooTont Church, where some of the Weissenfels 
dokcf lie; while his heart ires sent to Stockholm. 

Tlie Amguitmihittff CiM<l» was formerly the red- 

dcnce of thr r!nk«js of WefsscnfoU-Qucrfurt. The 
Klcmmber^'. .1 i iM above it. commands a magnificent 
view. There is a seminary for teachers, and 
mamifaetttres of plate and porcelain. The poet 
Noralis lived and died here. It was also the native 
pbicc nf Sfunie At H houfe near the railway 
station Nit] leon rested after the battle of Lcipsic. 
Sehonbuii; and Goseck, two seats formerly in- 
habited by the Pf alsirraf , are in the neighbourhood. 

A rail Is open from Weissenfels to ^tts and 
Altenbnrsr (Bonte 94). 

Kaumburg (Stat.), iu Prussian Saxony. 

POPCLATIOS, 20,000. 

//o/<!/«. — Rlchter's; Sachslscher Hof (Saxon 
Arms); Grttner Schlld. 

A town on the Saale, above its junction with the 
Unstrut, where Oustavns Adolphus took leave of 
his family before tho battle of I.Htzcn. Red and 
white wines are produced on the burruuiiding hills, 
this being the most northerly plaee wlme the Vine 
is ealtlTated. Beer, brandy, and ylnegar figure 
among the staple articlcn of business. 

The Catht'iral is a very interesting bnildhipr. in 
the Ilotuanesquc and German styles, built 1(>28- 
1919, contataiing two choirs, an altar-piece by L. 
Orannch, painted windows, old tombs and statues, 
and an old crypt. 

St. Maurice's Church has a statue of Bbbop 

at. TK«a««r«, the Town Chnrch, eontabis a good 

org.m, and Cranach's Christ Blessingthe Cbildi-en. 
The Ohl Ca*'Je is now a goveniment building. 
.A Klnderfest, or Children's Day, is held on the 
98tb July, Ui rvoMinfiraace of the siege by the 

iLLtJsiJi.vTKu [Set. 

Hussites, 148?, imdtT IVocoplus, t\ ho had tdreat- 
I oned to destroy the town. The children were sent 
' to beg for mncy, dressed in shrouds, and carry-* 
ing green bonghs; and thus saved the town Ihnu 

Rail to the littip town of Freibiirnr, from here 
about five miles, on the Unstrut, with an interesting 
chnrch, and the ancient castle of Neuenburg. 

On the poet read to Eekartsbeign, four mllee 
from Kaumburg, is the well-known school otiybrta 
or Sehufpforla. fornjerly a convent, founded 1548, 
in which Klopstock, Lessing, Fichte, and many 
othen received their education, and from w hicu 
Klopstoi^ nm away. 
Sdsen (Stat.), among brine springs. 
Inns.— Witter; Kurzhals. 

New bath rooms have been bnllt here sincf 
1844. The waters are bathed iu, and drunk for 
scrofula, goat, Ac Among severel pletnresque 
spots whleh may be visited are the walks to the 

Saalhausem, on the height ; to the ruins of Hudels« 
burg and Saaleck, over the river; to the Knaben- 
bcrg at Schulpforta, with a charmhig view of the 
Saale and Unstrut. 
WftuKAB (Stat.) in Saxe^Welmar. 
PopvLATroN, 24. .^46. 

Hotels. — Russlschcr Hof ; Erbprinz ; Adier. 
OimxBnna at Station 85 pf . 

Dboschsiis : 1 person, 90 pf . ; 2 itersons, 1 mark; 
8 persons^ 1| mark. 

, Enollhb Chitrch Servicr at the BUrger Schnle. 
The chief town and seat of tbe Duchy Court, in 
the pleasant valley of the ilm, about 700 feet above 
the sealevel. It is an old-fashloaed irregular place, 
having two bridges across the river, a beautiful 
Grand Ducal Park, .and hills to the north and south; 
but is most remarkable in connection with the 
names of Goethe, Herder, Wieland, and Schiller, 
who resided here, under tbe friendly patronage of 
the Duchess Amdiaand Iter son dmrles Augustus. 
I Herder, as r urt olmplaln. from 1776 to 1803, lived 
close to the .Stadikirche. wiiere stands n statue of 
him by 8challer. Wieland wa« tutor to the young 
Prince, from 1776 to 1808; living near the theatre 
where his house is shown ; his monument by Qaa* 
scrt is in Goethe-plat z. Goethe, the Duke's Minister 
of State, lived here the best part of hi.s long life, 
from 1775 to his house in Qo«the*plat«4 

Digitized by Google 


opposite the Fountain, now a private residence, Is 
open to visitors on Wednesday, and contains the 
relics of art, &c., wtUch belonged to the poet. The 
J«int mwiiiiwiita of him tnd SehUler, l>y Bletadiel, 
•iMld ia the Th«atn-pUti ; hit Garden Home is 
In the park, near the pavilion nnitfiininf: Stein- 
b&oser's statue of him. ikJiiller, as Director of 
the Theatre, Ured 1801-5, iu a house (now the 
yniperty ofthe town) tn the Espbrnade or Sehfllei^s- 
straBge, one of the best streets. Donndorf's^Sto/ue 
of their friend, the Grnnd Duke Charles Artp-n-^tn'*, 

IB near the Fiirsteubaus. Kotzebue was born at 
Wdmar, 1761. 

The oldest buiUlfnc is the SchlofAi'rchr (St. 
James's), built IICS, which has the grave of h. 

The Stadtiirche of 8t Peter ind St. Fftnl eon- 
tains a statttp of th(^ '^ame painter; his altar-piece, 
the Crucifixion; portraits of him and Luther, and 
MeUnchthon; and the toiub«of the Grand Ducal 
femilf, Incliiding the Dnebesi Amelia (1807); the 
Elector John Frederick, and his wife ; and Duke 
Bernhard, the General of the Thirty Tears' War; 
also Herder's tomb, inscribed, ^'Licht, liebe, 
Leben" (Light, Love, Life). 

The Re$idenz Sehlou (Betldeiiee) of the Court, 
Includos ail old Iniilding, partly f nmt. 1774, leaving 
atower called the iiastille, cm tain in e thr archives, 
and the Bemhardziiumer, wliich has Duke Bcru- 
herd*e ennoor. The modem aeet wee rehidlt by 
Charles Attgnatne, 1790-180S; on a large scale. It 
contains rooms dedicated to Goethe, Schiller, and 
Wieland, and painted with frescoes iiiustrative of 
thdr works, by Neher, Prcller, and other artists. 
Satrenoe 1 1 merit to 1^ mark to the Castellan. 

The flrand Ducal Z>t'5rary, near the FUrstenhaus, 
is open daily. It contabis 170,000 volumes; 8,000 
USS., many of them rare; 8,000 maps; besides por- 
trette of former dukee, the Doeheie Amdia and her 
aon; busts of Herder (by Trippcl), of Schiller (by 
Danne*'k«r), Goethe (by DftvM i; Wieland, Ticck, 
Winckeltuanus, 4^:0., also a collection of antiquiUei*, 
such as Luther's monkish dress, and a suit be- 
ionftng to Chutavna Adolphvi. Open on week 
days, except In June; 1 to Ij m. The tower near 
the library has a rich coBection of engravings, a 
eollection of coina, and the Military Library. 
TheCiNir<nMlr»WMbiiUtl8t8. Hetr it lithe 
biMM GMCbvMiUer Homumat, 

erected In 1857, doilgned by lUetsehel. Hard by 

Is WIeland's hoiwe. 

The Mutewn of casts, mntal paintings, Ac, la 
neerthe atatlen. Fk«e,8iiiid«yaeiidWedMade7a. 

The new Rathhaus, In the VMrkefrfdaee^ la n 

modem Gothfr, 1 y TTr<;!^, 1841. The Hoiite of 
Cranach, the painter, is next door. 

/left** JiuHhOhm for destitute children was 
founded 1 829. It hat bnmohei In other towne. 

Near the Neuc Gottes Acker (God's Acre, or 
Cemetery) is the Fiirtten-Gruft (Princes' Vault) 
a small temple in which Charles Augiutus, who 
died 18M. liee near Qoethe (18«l) and SchlUer 
(1805). Here also lie hie wife, and Dnke Chailee 
Frederick and his T^-ifr 

The Castle Fart lies aloji- the river, and oon- 
talna many idiarming groups and sites made 
f amona by (Soethe, whoee garden end paviUon are 
here; also the Knights Templara* Honie, the Swiae 
house, and a Iloman villa. The finest part of the 
park is called the Star; an avenue of limes, two 
mllet in length, leads up to the Grand Ducal 
Villa of Belvedere, an elegant bttlldhig In the 
Italian style. Another road through the park 
takes you to Tiefurt, a hunting castle of the 
Qnnd Dnke, often visited by Goethe and ScliUler. 
Ettetaborg ia a annuner roeldenoe of the hereditary 
Grand Duke, with fine grounds. At the Osnunn- 
stedt, a pretty village on the Ilm, is the gnTOOf 
Hietaiui (died 1813), in the garden of his owneatate, 
boi^t with the profits of his works. 

Rail to Berka, a pleasant little watering niace. 
thence to BUltlnmham, a pleaeant eiunme^ 

B17DBT Ottal), in Pnuilan JSazony. 
PoPLLATioii, 7a,in, of whom one-flfth are 


HoTBi.— SUber's Hotel, near the railway station 

Bailwat.— To Lelpelo, Oassel, Ac. 

DiLiOBSCMi^-See Bradthatc*» (^tlnmtttl O^Ut 

An nid town, founded in the eighth century, once 
the capital of Thuringia; In the early part of the 
century, a Beoond<elaBt fortress, now only partially 
fortliled. It wna a imqienMUiHansetown, belonged 
to the Elector of Mayence down to 18M, and waa 
thentrnnRferredto Pru^-^i?!. About three centuriea 
ago the popuiatioa was about 60,000. It stands in 
a plain, en the Blver Gere, at the foot of two 

Digitized by Coogl^ 




by fortf. The rirer flows through the town in 
three bnuielies. 

^ IthM five open placet; ttie Urgrest 

of which Is Ihc Fritdrich-WIIhclms-platz, or the 
mftrket piftce, unilor Peter'' hurjj Hill, in which 
Stands an obelisk tu the I^lcctor, Frederick 
Cbftrles, put up 1717. Under the Cyrtaxborg are 
the Dxtfbraimeii mlaend spring*. The best of its 
streets nrc Anfrcr-':tra«««p nnd the KrHmcrhrlie-ke- 
strassc. In front of the old Town iiall, built 1259, 
in the Ush market, is a st&tue of Roland. 

Here ere nine Pxotestettt and atne Catholic 
CShimiies. Among the former, and most remark- 
able, arc the Prediger kirche, built 1288, which 
belonged to the Dominicans tiU 1522; the Bar- 
flUaer Klr^e; and the Angtutbie Cfamrdi, now 
aaaeKed to the IfaitUuelif t. 

The OMtolwl of BL Mary, 1)«lenglnir to the 

Catholics. Is ft flnc Gothic pile, begun In the 12th 
<ientary, on the site of a church, founded in the 
8th century by St. Boniface, on the Marienberg 
BUI, 60 feet above all around. It has a flne porch at 
tte mtA transept and a good central spire, ^t'con- 
tains t\ choir, added abont IJJSO; sonic fine altnrs 
and stained windows and paintings; a curious 
bronze chandelier; a coronation of the Virgin, 
enrVed by P. yiseher; the ancient tomb of Count 
von Glclchon with his two -wives: and a Holy 
Family, by Cranuch. The carved pnlpit is by 
Schinkcl. There are ten bells in its triple tower 
(265 feet high), one of which is the famous Maria 
Clara finsanna, a great bell, east In 1497, by 
Eckbart Kempcn, weighing IS) tons, 10 feet high, 
and 30 feet in circumference; its clapper is 6J feet 
long and weighs 11 cwt Near this is the St. 
Sever inkirchi>, with Its three spires, a Gothic 
bnlldlng of the 14th centuy, oontaining a line 
altar and carved stone font. 

The Sehottenkitx/te was once part of the Scots' 
i^onvent. It coptauiii the Library of 50,000 to 
00,000 TOlnmee (frpm Hondaya, Wedneadnya, and 
IVIdays) of the old University, which was sup- 
pressed ISIG, and which datetl from 1398. The 
prsnlhic Convent has a school for giria. 

The Govet^itfietU Home^ or BegiorungsgebHude, 
waa hoilt by a forner gOTemor, Beynebnivk. 
Hm* the eonferenoe of Erfurt, betw^n NapoIeDili 

ttttSwKitvi Bwrtoi tlM Klifp e( ittoDriad 

Bavaria, 4(c., took place 1808; when TabaacMM 
to act before a "pit-foir* of kings. 

Part of the aiident AngnstihOeoBiRBBt, in wUUft 
Mmrm Luther lived from 1505 to Itm, with Its «lt 

paintlncrs, nnd the cells of the monks, incladil|^ 
that of Luther, whose Rihle, and othc! relics. wefS 
shown, was unfortunately burnt down iHrJ. Fart 
is eceotiled as a Wldom* Bonae and alao 'iu mk 
Orphan A.syluin. called the Matt fa w e i if ^ fiiiinnllii 
in 1821, by ' " -rl Reinthulcr. 

The old Cunveut L<ibrary coutahis Hebrew and 
other Oriental M0S. of great antiquity: bMideS 
many of Lather*s antogn4)h letters. 

Here is a Theatre of some extent; and an Aeade- 
my, with a Botaniail Garden, <kc. Many pleasant 
walks outside the to'wn, emhraclns' flne views of 
the distant hills of Thuringia and the Uarz Mount- 
ains; Including the Beeiberg 3,060 feet high, in the 
former. The Stetger (vestanrant) la the faToutte 

Erfnrt h renowned for horticulture and fr|^ 
Ball to Sangerhausen and to JNordbausen. 
At Ilvengehoven, a fair milee to tt» nertti, If ft 
salt-mine, with a abaft f mfle deepu It mi^ be 

seen for a small fee of 1 to 2 marks. From Ki fiirt 
It is 17 miles to Gotha, past Neu-Dietendorf 
(rail to Plane and Rltscheuhaubeit), near which 
are the Dni CMcAoi^ see next{Hife. 

QOTKA (tCat.), in Baxe-Oobnis^letha. 
POMJLITIOV. 20,104. 

Hotels.— Deutscher Hof; Wfinseher*s. €h)od 

Restaurant at the station. The saug-ipos are 
noted. Omnibuses from station to hotel, SO pf^ 
with luggage, 40 pf. 

DsoscBxna, 50 pf. the course; luggage, 20 pf. 
per package. Two-horse vehldes, 2 marks thehmir. 

The chief town of the Duchy of Saxe-GotlUK 
which was joined to Saxe-Coburg in 1825. It is 
the winter residence of the court; a handsome and 
boay town on the Lelna Canal, at the north edge of 
theThttringerWald. It stands wider Friedenst^ 
Hill, and has pleasant walks, on the site of the old 
ramparts. Many cufTee houses, cluhs artists, and 
literary celebrities are to be found here. Bci^ 
hans^s maps and the AhmmadideGiaha^ or Govrt 
Calendar (first issued in 17(;3), with the MitftMO- 

wffoii ift4«ti|ir<afagiiwU6fii w«rta onpiM^ 

Digitized by Google 



pfliMM<d>jMtto th« DnicatPalMe, or 

SeMoss FHcdenftein. on a hill about 1,020 feet 
aboTotbe sea, a miniature Windsor Castle, sur- 
rounded by a terrace comniauding fine prospects, 
in eoiitaltts the Ducea LOrarp of 200,000 vols., and 
1,000 MSS.; anionff which are 500 Arabic MSS^ 
many Bernard's letters, nnd TTmm* VTTI.'s 

letters against Luther. Also, a rich ci»llu( liua of 
70^000 eolAe (specially rich In Greek), 10,000 of 
which am ancient, and many are gold with a 
nnmigmotie LIhrary of 6,000 volumes to illustrate 
it. At the new Mmmm, fi'ljofnin?, huilt 18S5-79. 
by Neumann, in the German Kenaissance style, 
areother ooUeetlone (open daily in enmrner, except 
ThprMlayaX which comprise a Picture Oaltery and 
Knnst Kammcr. or Art collection. The Picture 
Gallery consists of 700 to 800 paintintrs. i-1iicfly of 
the Genuan and Dutch .tchools, including some hy 
Van Dyck« Dow, Potter, Holbein, Renbrandt, 
Rubens, and L. Cranftch, who lived near the 
Market. Here also are n collect ion of 50.000 
fiUgravings; collections of pem^. Tr,osnic«, porrf>- 
bdn, oasts, specimens of natural history; with 
eabinett of Egyptian and other Antlqaitles (2.700), 
end Mixed Art (Chinese, Japenese, Ac, 2,900>. 

A small Island In the park is the burial ptace of 

several dukes, <lo\vn to Duke Krnest, in 1804. 
Other buildin^'-!« arc the Frieflrirlistlial. or Summer 
Palace, the Winter Palace; andthe Priiizen Palnce, 
Tebnilt since the fire of 1838. Also a Marstall, or 
stables ; the handsome Theatre^ by Ebci'hard ; the 
old Town Hall; and the Hoose of Asrambly. 

The Klostcrkirohe has an nltar-piece of the Cru- 
cifixion, by E. Jacobs. 1815; atid the Neiuuarkts- 
llirohe, a tomb of Ernest the Plena. The Gym- 
MaluA (High School), founded in 1524, in au old 
convoit, has a library of 5,000 Tolumea, and matbe- 
matical and chemical cabinets. There is a school- 
master's !?cminary, one of the oldest in Germnny, 
with a coenobiuni for unmoiried teachers. The 
new Cemetery contains a Crematorium. 

The founder of the line of Saxe.Ck»bnrg-Ootha 
M Ernest the Pious, in 1040. from whom the late 

Prfnco Contort, and the l.itc Kln^ of the Belgians 
descended ; and the heir presuniiuivo io \hi> n-lprn- 
Jng duke, is bis nephew. tb« I>wkp of J^diuburgh. 

Blumenbeeh. the physiologist, WIM hem h«t, 
1752. Another natlTC was AmoMl, fli« founder 
of the famous Ootha Innirance Oflee. 

In flic iiri^rhl'ourhood is the Obserratory, on the 
Little Seoberg. 1160 feet hif^'h, founded hy Dnkc 
Ernest II., and now under the care of Professor 
Hansen ; formerly of Baron Zaeh. Hero are else 
the Great Seeberg, 1,230 feet blfrh; the Drtl 
Gleichen (over 4,f>oo feet), three hills crowned by 
counties, all of which were struck by lightning In 
1350; Amoldl-Thurm, on the Oallbcrg, with a fine 
view of the Tbilxlllger Wald, or Thuring-lAu 
Forest, a mountain tract in the heart of Germany, 
and of the old kingdom of Tluirin'rin. between the 
Elbe and Danube ; bounded more particularly Ivy 
Eisenach, Gotha, and Erfurt, on the north, and 
Schmalkaldcn.Mciuingcn, nmenau,and Rudolstadt 
on the smith ; nnd hytlic rivers Werra ntid F^nnleon 
the west and east, rt'si>ectivoly. The li:n khunc df it 
is a chaiu of mountains, in continuatiuti of the 
Ftehtelgeblrire.paseinfirlf ttncheberg, Eisenach, and 
SnlziuiLTi n. ;il> ive the Werrathul (the opposite side 
of \\bieh is llie Ihi^vhiiL'e), townrds Lobenstein,' 
the Saalthal, and Mainthai; a chnin which in its 
whole length Is ninety miles long, and eight to 
twenty miles broad; the narrowest part being 
between Suhl and Ohrdruf, near the Schncckopf 
(3,216 feet high) and the Beerborg (3,000 feet). 

The p.irt most interesting to the traveller is the 
western division, lying below these i)caks and 
Eisenach, especially round the lusclbcrg, which 
Is 9,900 feet high. An old road runs along the 
top of the ridge, ca]li (\ IU'ii>istii<j, or TieninveL% 
ATliieh iva^ formerly live bound.iry of ThuriiiL;ia 
and Franconia. Granite and gneiss, schistus and 
lioriihjTy are the prevailing rocks, containing ii on, 
copper, marble, twtter*s clay, &c. It is thickly 
covered with timber, chiefly pines, some abovo 
200 feet high. There arc many wild wcll-w.nferetl 
valleys. The most couvetiient points of access 
are the stations on.the linee from Eiaenadk to 
Hdningen, and front Eisenach to Gotha and 

BaB to Ohrdruf and Gzatoiroda. 

At Fr6tt$Uidt, 6 miles on the way from Gotha tO 
Eisenach, a short rail goes off to Waltershiinsen, 
and Friedrifftroda, a fsTourite resort, - • ; 

Digitized by Googtt 



BZSBirAOH (Stat.), in 8«JM-VreliiiMr. 

IiTKS.-Rohilg's Hotel zum Grossherzog ron 8«ch- 
ften ; GoIdcnerLowe; Ualber Mond; ThUrlngerHof. 

Dkoscbkies.— From the Bt&tion to the town; 
40 ft, by d«7, 50 pf , ei nlgbt. Oaldce. Si meika per 
daj; tctmhoWiSOpt. (regular tariff)* Donkeys to 
the Wartbnrg, llroarkt there «nd bnck,3i m«rkB. 

An old well-built town ol Tburingia, at tbc juac- 
tion of the USrsel and Nesse, in n IjeentlCnl TeUey 
nodertbeWarttmrgentt ether Ibresth^ghti. Fine 
prospect froniHerr t. Eichcl's prardf^n (open Thurs- 
day afternoon* only). It bJis I '-e t,'ntc9: the 
Haapt and Mcolai cburchefl ; a miuing and forest 
Aendeny; end a huige end hendeome Fttntenhene, 
er palace, which was the seat of the Grand Duke 
of Saxe-Elsenach till the duchy came to the Saxe- 
Wcimar branch. The Duchess of Orleans resided 
in it before 18£7. Bishop Amsdorf, a Mend of 
Lnther*a, died at Biieneeh« lft». Bebastlan Bach, 
the musician, of whom there Is a statue, was bom 
here, 1688. Near the station is the Nlcolai Thnrm, 
a Romanesque relic marked by a siurc. 

From Eisenach to the Wartburg i» a short hour's 
walk, by a eteep eaoeni, passing the IHSdelsteln, 
Kurnmnded by a fine park ; nnd a natural p^roiip 
of rocks, called the Monk and Nan, A guide is not 
really ncre^sfiry 

The Wartburg is a genuine Romanesque pile, 
about 1,300 feet above the tea level, built about 
1055 (?), by Ladwlg the Jumper, Landgrave of 
Thuringia; and it was the «cnt of the T.nnri- 
graves down to 1406, when it fell to the Saxony 
branch. It was the "Patmos" of Luther, who 
after the IMet of Wonms, 1021, wa$ hid away here 
for ten months, by the contrivance of the Elector, 
Frederick the Wise, under the namp of "Jnnkcr 
Georg" (Squire George), ilcrc he translated the 
Bible; and they ehow his room, with his table, 
etool, books, letters, Cranaeh's portraits of his 
parents, and the Inkstand which It Is said ho threw 
at the devil, making a large splash on the wall. 
The small chapel in which he used to preach has a 
carved Entombment for the altar-piece. 

Other objeete are the Rltlersaal, or Barons* Hell; 
the Banqueting room with the MimiesKnjrors*. nr 

I the armour ef the PrtnecM Cumgunda, Henry II. 

I of France, Pope Julius, and the Con^ble of 
Bourbon. Some nf these suits of firmonr are vfiry 
good ; but nearly all arc apocryphal — so writes a 
competent authority, Mr. Planch^ aftera vfdl In 
18S0. The corridor, Ac. are decorated with modern 
frescoes, by Von Schwind, of events in the hlstoiy 
of the Castle and of the life of St. Elizabeth, wife 
of Louis the Landgrave, Ludwig the Clement, who 
died 1981. One person, I m^ 0, 1| m4 a company 
m pf. eeeh. 

In the neighbourhood are the Annatbal, a valley 
remarkable for its narrow defile called Dracben- 
schiucht } and the Hohe Sonne, a much frequented 
spot in the TUMnffer Watd (p. 69) ; the beet part of 

which may be visited from here (in a three or four 
days' trip) by LIcbenstein, the Insclberg, Reinhard?- 
brunnen, round to Gotha. Another trip may be 
made from the Inselborg to the Speesberg, Fal* 
kenstein, and Oberhof, thence to the Sdineekepf 
and the Beerberg. From Ilohe Sonne is about half 
an h ntr to Wilhelmsfhaf, a castle built by Duke 
Johanu Wtnielm, in a charming spot. 

GA8S£L (Stat.;, or KasMl, the Pmastan 
province of Heese-N assao. 
PoniLAnoH, 70,461. - 

Hotels,— DuNord; Royal; KynigvonPrenisen; 
Schirmer; Prlnz Friedrich Wilhelm; Dentscher 
Kaiser; RUter; Golze. 
At WUbelmahShe : Hotel Schombardt. 
E»glhk CAureft Service in St. Alban's Church. 
Droschky fares from the railway stntioTi to any 
part of the town, &0 pf.; carriage to Tensionsbaus, 
Wilhelmshiihe, and back, 8 marks; to the Palace 
0 marks; to the Hercules, 16 marks; trlnfcgeld, 
75 pf. to 1 mark. Sundays, extra. Btcam Tram 
from the KUnigs-platz to WilhelmshJihe, every 
twenty minutes, in twenty minutes. It can also 
be reached by rail in nine mlnntes. 

The former Capital of the Electorate of Hesse, 
which was incorporated with Prussia in 1866. ll 
stands on the Fulda, and consists for the most part 
of an Aldstadt, or old town, containing several tail, 
gloomy houses, separated from the Ober-lVenBtadt 
(Upper KewTown) by the Friedrichs-platz. These 
arc on the T\r«t side of the river, which is crossed 

Minstrels' Gallery; and the Armoury, miuainlng ' by two bridges, to the small suburb of Untcf 
suits of atmoar from the iSih century, including . »)istadt (Lower New Jewn) OH the east bpnh, 

Digitized by Google 

. Route 16.] 



The Upper Town, .n ft hill, la tbe best built 
qanrter. In the Lower Town was an old moated 
CMtellum, from which the nanie of the place is 
d«rhred, Utteriy wA MaiUle prlton. Attome dia" 
tonoe to the north am WUlMlindlliiW it* 
Gnrdciis,(8ee next pageX extending to the Carlsberg 
l,300fcet high, with the preat Hercules oit the top. 
Casscl stands in a healthy aud iuTiting spot, and 
Mffiiii iinnjr ■il»nt^|[w ■s ii jilaMiif iMiiiHf 

HIMipMtMHCt|9fcHmMC9lBtQMt HM ptiliclpil 

thorov^are, stretches patt Friodrichs-platz, 

Kvtnitrs-platz, Ac. aboiit one mile lonj?. Several 
new streets have been built towards the railway, 
nmnlng out of Friedrkh-Wilhelms-stratM^ Then 
an wvanl Gatai leading out to tha oonntiy, bj 
roads planted witli ' venues of trees. 

In 1592, William IV.. son of PhiHpthc Oenerou«, 
and head of the present line of Landgraves (styled 
Etoeton, tinea IW), fixed kU seat at Camel, when 
nanyFteailsh Protattante and Huguenot refugees 
were invited to settle here and prcntly increased its 
]>rosiwrity. Frederick J I., wlio succeeded 1760, 
beautllied the city with over tlircc millions sterling 
paid to hiin hy Qeorge III. for aelling HessUin 
mwcenarics fur the American War; about which 
time Hessian boots came into fashion in Kngland. 
In 1812 Cossel wasthe capital of the new kingdom 
of Westphalia, under Jerome Bonaparte. It is now 
absorbed In Proaiia— to the dtilght <tf every one 
out of the Court of the cx-Elector, who was an in- 
tractable despot. The PruHsiaiis occapicd it, 16th 
June, iu the eventful year Ibtiti. 

#W«ilrftfti-i»lliifir,OTerlooking the Fnlda, Is a targe 
•qnare, one of the largest hi Gonneny, 1,000 feet 
lonjr, 490 feet I roii ! planted with trees and adorned 
by Nahl's marble statue of the Landgrave Frederick 
II. in the middle. Here are the palaces, court 
and goTomment offices, Koman Catholic cbnrch. 
Museum, and theatre. 

The Church is a plain building, built 1774, by the 
I..andgrave, who turned Catholic, and in buried in 
it. It contains bas-reliefs, statuary, and paintings. 

The fonner Bteetor't Paiaee consists of two parts 
in different varieties of the Italian style, and 
partly rebuilt since a fire in IRll The rooms, in- 
rluding a ball-room 100 feet longr, and aiiother 60 
feet long, are handsomely decorated. 
The Htmmnt be twfen the Falaoe and (-hnrcht U 

the best building in the town ; having a portico 
supported by six Ionic columns, 36 feet high. The 
east wing contains the collection of ancient coins, 
gems, agates, preelona stones, and rare works of 
art, and mosaics, temrootta, Ivoiy, Ae. 

In the west wing is the collection of objects isf 
Natural Iliitory. Amonrr uotit-eable things are — a 
sitting Vemu, by-Jaeeatd ; a collection of l^Urem- 
berg "sssAshet, "wHb many chronometers, mirrors, 
an anoient braiae Vietory ; statues of lOnerra* 
Didlus Jnllanus, and Paris ; a bas-relief of the 
Triumph of Bacchus ; and 14 busts, by Canova, of 
Napoleon, his son, and other members of bis family. 
The Library contains 170,000 volumes, aud is open 
daUy, 10 to 1. 

In the Natural History Museum, close by, are 800 
specimens of European trees, made up like books ; 
the sides being made out of the wood, and the back 

of the bark; whilethe blossom, aoed,fruit,audleaves 
of the tree are either dried or eopiad in wax. 

The Unseiuna are open free, on Mondays and 

Thursdays, 10 to 1 in summer; on Tuesdays and 

Saturdays also, 3 to 5. 

The Stiindchaus, where the Estates meet, stands 
in the StSnde-platz. The Konigs-platz (King's 
S(ittare) is a circle. It contains the Post Office 
and the old Rothe Palais. The tnmi for WUhclms> 
liuhu starts here The Rathhaus Is in Mcss-i>'ats;, 
which has a bust of Burgomaster Schouihiir^'. 

Belle vue Schloss, with a fine prospect over the 
Fnlda, now the Academy of Arts, was Inhabited 
by King Jerome B<maporte. It stands In Ddlevoe^ 
!<trasse; at the end of which (faced by statues) la 
the new Picture Gallery (1877), contahihiir 1,400 
pauithigs, mostly of the Dutch school— as Ki in- 
brandt, F. Hals (sevenX P*ul Potter, Vundyck, 
Rubens, J. Stccn, Holbein, Tenters, Jordaens, Ac., 
though there are fine examples of Italian and early 
German. As a collection of portraits, this f,'allery 
is second to none in Germany, and should not be 
neglected by the visitor. Free, Monday and 
Thursday, 3 to 9; other daye, 10 to I. A good 

In the Opern-platz arc also the Tlieatie. built by 
Jerome Bonaparte; and a Slaiuc of dpohr. 

At the south side of the Frtedrlchs>plats Is the fine 
Anethor, with bronxe reliefs; where thtre Is an 

Digitized by Copgk 

. [Sec a. 

^xUBsive Ttow aoroM the rlrer, and not far thence, 

ia the (lircction of the AIt-9tadt, in the Jnstiz- 
P^ait, a large uew builUiiig. To the north of this 
jiti^lUr«Mll,witlial«U«tlorMahanM. Nest 
«omM thfl FaM* teUf«» iMiling to tbe Untere 

Neustadt. and not far off, in a northerly dlseotion, 
the Axsenal and Artillery Barracks. 

Tl^ Hariiiia, ur tiruKaekircbe, with a uave 
9^ tfae fowtMotb oontiuy, eonUlui *. lieh 
qafcbtomoDiiuiont oreotMl hjr WilbelttlV. to bis 
pareut<!, Philip the Generous (1567) and hi* wtfa; 
4|ud catacombs for otlier princes of the line. 

The JLutherisciie Urche, or Lutheran Church, 
tvo piUnthigs by Flidilmto. 

Th« Gemeterf at the Todtentbor oontalne the 
§E%ve of the historian Johan von MftUer, the his- 
torian <jf Swltzcrlaiiri. who dit-fl horc 1**^. when 
minister of iniitructiun to Jerome; also a monument 
of the Electress, sister of the King of PrussU. 

The pleoes ef MUueaMnt In the envlront ere 
▼arloiiH. The most frequented is the Aucpnrk. 
or Karlsaue. a Mall laid out by L« NGtrc, beyond 
the Friedricb Gate. It has an orangery, and a 
Ifannorbftd, or laise merble Beth, adonied with 
^tetoM and bea-relief s« by Mmmot. 

The Wilh ^lmah fihe — This is a miniature Ver- 
sailles, the great sight at Cassel. about four miles 
from the town ; Guides can be had, but not needed. 
It c<mtains the Elector'* Summer Paleoe; end U 
remarkahle for Its plwitetions ; ita lakes end 
fountains ; for its Hercules at the to]) of the 
Karlsbcrsr; and for some very t-ne prospects of 
the beautiful country around; but more especially 
ee heTtng been the residence assigned by King 
William to Napoleon III. from his surrender 
at Sedan (ihul St']>fotiibor, 1870) to iho coudu- i 
i^n of the Franco-German war. Here he was 
■Tisited by the Empress in^g. (80th October), and 
here he wrote two pamphlets on the caoaes which 
led to the cap! t n 1 at ■ on of Sedan, and on the mlUtary 
mganisation of theGcnnans. The fountains play 
In summer on tiunday and partially on Wednesday 
ftftavneons, from 3 p.m., for a limited tine ouly. 

The Palace at the foot of the hlU, in the old 
'Aomanesijiip ^<f'.-l<'. has a copper dome; 1 mark. 

Here arc portraits of all fho roijniing princes of 
the house of Hesse, from Henry I.; some valuable 1 
iiahitiiige hi the Court l|eom$ and the Bull Beoin, : 

which the cx-Fmpcror's nMlB» KtOg JwohM, 

u*ed as a private tlicutrc. 

Around I be Palace are the Conservatory, Mar- 
stall or stablee (near the Ion), the Thiecgarten, the 
great Founts the aqnedoct, the new waterfall, 

and temples of Apollo and Mercur>'. Under the 
south-west wing opens a deep valky. throtifrh 
whifih a brook rushes over the rock and falls into 
the Lake, the eoiifxons el whieh farm the moat 
beaHtfil part ef WHheimehWifi Acnea the Lake, 
near the Thicrgartcn, Is n Chinese viUajre, with a 
papoda and dairy. Fartlicr on is the former 
Pheasantry ; aud at the declivity of the hill is the 

lAMMtaw, an ertUteM rata, bnttt ITtt, bgr 
WUUnnaL, in imitation of % eestle of the middle 

ages, surrounded by a moat, Ac. Th'^ principal 
tower, Ilk) feet high, contains the dining room aud 
knights* hall, and haa a fine view frotn the battle- 
ment. Here are old drinking passes, porttaitaof 

the Tvulor-i and Stuarts, and the Great Cond^*8 
armour; witli a chapel, in which are some mona* 
mcnts and ;i tuuib of WiUuun I., tlie founder. 

A winding road ascends paist the Stelnhof Water- 
fall to the Octagon, en the top of the XarhAerg', a 
hill 1,860 feet high, with an excellent viewas far aa 

the Brockcn Monntain"*. The Octagon, or Rie?en- 
schloss. built by the Landgrave Charles, consists of 
192 pillars, 8up[>orting a platform of granite, uu 
which reBtaapyramld,96feethfgli,snnnonnted by a 
copper statue of the Famese Hercules. 81 feet high, 
on a pedc>tal of 11 feet. The hollow figure of the 
statue can ije visited. His club holds eif.'lit person-*. 
When the waters play on Sunday afternoons, 
a caseade descends from the Rlesenschloas down 
a staircase of 842 steps, past the grotto of 
rolyiilienius. whore the one-eyed monster pbiya 
on a shepherd's pli»e, by means of a concealed 
water organ. Lower down is the Riesenbasshi, 
In which a figure of the giant Enceladns, bnrled 
under a load of rocit, throws up a fountain 
feet high. The cascades are intercepted by 
reservoirs. Lower down they tumble over a preci- 
pice, near the DeftFi Bridge, or TenfeiebrttdEe, of 
light iron arehes ; then flow fey Flato^a <hotto aaill 
the Aqueduct ; and thence to the New Waterfall 
and the Great Fountain opjiosite the Palace as 
already mentioned . The Great Fountain throwsjuu 
a Jet 19 inches in diameter to a height of |90 |^ 

Digrtized by Google 


One of the heights in fbe oalghboitrhood of Cassel, 
▼iz^ the MHuner IfiNmAilii, !• %Wi f«ei above the 

Hofgeismavy six miles north of Cassel, on the rail 
towwrde Arntberg, \% a ivatering-placc, with salt 
water flprings, Dsefnl for weakness of dlgeatioii, 
Ae. Some pleasant eii^ciirsions ean be made fkom 


Rail to Waldkappel (pa*?c 74) 31 mDea. 

Prom Cassel to Frankfort (135 mileaX by 
the Ifain-Weser Bahn, the . Jmietton being at 

Guiitorsitniiscn, where are branches to Berlin, 

Dresden, ko.. 

From Gimterslia'asen the rail leads past 
Wal>eni (Stat), near an Electoral Palaes, also 
BOtfeeB and Tt«7Sa» both scenes of battle In 

1640. A line, lO.J miles, leads from Wabem to 
Wildungen, or Nieder-Wlldunpren. a mnch fre- 
quented mineral spring. There arc scvcrnl hotels, 
1^ best being tbe Earoptttscher Hof. Kumerona 
lodglDg houses. Knrtax, 1 2 marks for one person ; 
where more than one in family. '» m irks for cucli 
additional. There is a Kurbaus, und all arrange- 
ments for Tisitors' comfort and eujoynicnt. 
Gxenrskma to the old castle of Waldeck, and the 
Aucnbcrg, both with fine prospects. The waters 
contain Iron, and arc tonic and sedativp, and 
bcnelicial in the diseases of the bowels and bladder. 
There are five springs, the most important being the 
(jteorge Tlctor Qnelle. Over half a million bottles 
are annually o xpor;cd. Diligcnci t * I rmikcnbttg', 
and to Arolsen (p^"*' "**) pi^'^t Sachsenhanson. 

HAEBUBG (Stat.), in Uesse-Nassau, now 
annexed to Prussia. 
TOPOtATtOir, lft,0OO. 

Inns. — Pfeiffer; Ritter. 

Diligence daily to Mflnohhausen and Frankeo- 


The capital of Upper Hesse, In a pleasant spot, 
on a hill side, over the Lahn, which divides it 

from Wcidenhausen, on the other side. 

It is overlooked by the Old Castle, in fine 
infeservatlon, which crowns the top of tbe hill. 
The old Town Hall was bnilt 1£13. 

The tTttifeer^, founded by FUIip tiie 0enc«ms, 
1527, and rchnilt in tht'^ moilorn Gothic style (on ' 
the site of the Dominican Convent) nearthc churcli. 
hHi a librarir' uf l{>0,000 vols., cabinets of minerals. 

r.— MASBUBO, OIB88BN. 78 

a lecture theatre, laboratory, observatory, hos- 
pital, and botanical pardcn. It is well endowed. 
W. Tyndflll tlic translator of the Bible, and 
Patrick iiamilton, were students here. Among its 

curiosities is a steam engine, used bjr Fapin at 
the constmctimi of the water-works at Wllhelms- 


The Elizabeth Kircftc (rc^storcd 1860) is a fine 
Gothic edifice, 215 feet by 60 feet, with two tall 
spires, builtl3ft5-88,by Conradof ThurIngIa,Grand- 
master of the Teutonic Ki iL-l ts, to accomplish a 
vow of St. Elizabeth, -svifc of Louis the (Element, 
and daughter of Andrew, King of Hungary. She 
was canonised in 1885; and the Shrine containing 
her sarcophagus Is adorned '.with jewels ; it 
suffered much during the French occupation. It 
was a great attraction to pilL'rims before tho 
Reformation, and a source of wealth to the Com- 
mandeiy of the Knights. Here are their stalls, 
with monuments of Landgraves, good paintings 
of the old Gorman srhnt)!. stained windoAvs liy 
Albert Diirer, in the !:>epulchre ChajK'l; with 
carvings in relief, and other objects of notice. 

Hie old medlsBval Cattfe (Sehloss) of tbe Land- 
graves, on the Schlossberg, contains the Hessian 
Archives; the Rittersaal, in which the religious 
conference took place between Luther and Zwinglc, 
1529, before the Landgrave Philip ; and the Cha- 
pel, with some valuable paintings and a pulpit, 
showing n craclE^said to have been done by Luther 
whoii preaching. 

OIESSEN fStat.), in Hesse-Darmstadt. Junc- 
tion for tbe Cologne and Coblentz lines. 

Population, 20,611. 

HoTBU.— Ktthne ; Einliom. 

An old t »\vn, in a fine spot, at the junction of 
the Lahn and Wlescck. ViO feet above the level of 
the sea, with some pretty waUu on. the site of tbe 
former walla. It was oeciq>ied by the Prussians, 
Itth June, 1M4. 

The Unirerxity was founded 1607, and is a hand- 
some building, containing a library of 100,000 
vols., and several rare MSS., museums of natural 
history, an observatory, gallery of antiriulties ; and 
a Chemical lAboratocy, founded by the kOa Banm 
Licbisr, to whom there 1"? a statne. There are 
also a hiprh school aud riding: school in con< 
ncctlon wjih it; besides »n arsenal in the town. 

Digrtized by Google 



[See. 2, 

and new barracks in the old castle, which has 
a fine view. The DUiisberg, i,dOO feet high, offers 
• magnttooit vtow. Near tUt are mint of 
Oleiberg, Fetzberg, Ac 

Butlbach fStat.), and Ha saline springs. 

At Nauhelm (Stat ) are Inriro lalt works, and 
^MMuaiansal apcte^s, rich in salt and gas, good 

Branch rail to IT mnu j aife 7i). 

Frledberg <8tat.j-Herc are two f'rothic 
churches, and an ohi castle, now a senviuary 

Gross Karben (Stat.) for the Tauaus waters. 

BOClraalWlm (Btek), in a tnburb of Frank- 
fort, nnd a favourite resort of ita citfaMO*. Htre 
are large railway-wajron works. 

Formeriy the capital of the CotifedemtloB, and 
KtlU a free city, or Stadt-Repablik. 

Hotels.— Fran kfurtor-Hof. First class. 

Hotel Continental. First class hotel. Splendid 
position. Electric light. Lift. 

Hotd do Bnsffe. Very w«|] titoated at the 
lUllwaj Station. Electric light. Lift 

Swan, situated in the Thcaterplatz. 

Union Hotel, well-known and excellent family 

Grand Hotel National. 

Pension Niederhcitmann, S8, Kcttenhofwcg. 

For further pnrtieulars of Frankfort, 8«e Awtf- 
thaic's Hand-B'j vk Iw Bflgium and the Rhine, 

Blaaauwh to Frankfort, vUk Fulda and 

(Bebra Hanaaer Elaenbahn.) 
Uy rail as follows: 

Eisenach to mites. 

Gerstuugon 15^ 

Ucbra 29 

{Branch to Q&ttin* 

Bcbra to 

Hersfeld 9 

Neiikircben .„«,.... 17 

T3urghauon...«....M. 2*i 

HUnfeld So 

Fnlda «■«■•«••*.•*'••.•• 36 
r AtuMft to Olesten, 
67 miles.] 

>«euhof.M.. 44 

Flieden t——wmmm» 47 

£lni «Mt«»M«*«tr»t>**>** 6^ 


Schliichtem ,„,.,... 68| 

Stcinnu 624 

Snimiln8ter....»,M.» 66| 
Wilchterabaeh 71 

Golnhaufjcn 80| 

llimneh to Giessen, 
44 miles.] 

Meerhuiz 3aj 

Langensclbuld 84 

Nlederrodcnhftch ... 87 

Hanau ai^ 

[Branch to Fried- 

Mainkur.......,,^.., M 

Frankfort «.,.» 10}^ 

Berlin to BUlMfflfli ffh , tee ftoute 16. 
Thence to 

telnE (BtotJ, In the Folda Tallejr. Here a 

branch of 00 miles is open along the R. Werra- 
to Gfjttingen. via Hohenelclie, Klederlia 
(branch to Eflchweg'e) and JBichenberg. E« 
wege (population, 9,oaox on the Werra, haa en 
Caatio and Chnreh, near the Bddmetein 

iU WliiiiikBiii,aBuicr the Meissner (2,465 fee 

there is a i{n«> T^ast^^aMBcappol lo*^ Malsfa 
to nroysa, and a junction of M mWt^- is made ■ 
Waldkappel witli Cassel, tia Walburg, HUil 

BotlMihanaon, Ae. 

FULDA (8tal>, in neiflO-Neeiaat now part ol 


Population, l.'l,0(iO. 

Hotels.— KurfUrst; Wolff. , 

Thia ie the Mat of a Roman Catholle hiaho|irlc» 
founded bjr Btnroi, a disciple of St. Boniface, 744. 
The possessions were sectilnrispd 1808, and made 
a Grand Duchy, which lasted till 1815. It stands 
on the Fulda, about 800 feet above the sea. 

The CtUhedrai was rebuilt 1700^12, on the site ^ 
the first church. It Is a handsome stone bnildingr, 
315 feet ionj:, with two towers 180 feet high, aud 
a dome iu the centre with sixteen Ionic pill*''*' 
The tomb of St. Boniface (a Devonshire man, who 
was mardered by the heathen E^Isians, 755) is in 
ft crypt below; and his statue stands In the 
square ?icar the Electoral Palace, formerly the 
residence of the Prince Bishops. His (jrospe! is 
in the Cathedral Ubrary. 

MUkatfftKirche is a foimd dinrdi, with a tower, 
over a crypt (822), resting on a column in the 
centre. University, dating from 784. 

In the neighbourhood arc the Franciscan Cen- 
vent on the Frouenberg; the KalTari«>Mrt 
dose to Bonifaee*a Well ; and the Adolfsefi, o*" 
Faisana-ie, a pleasure castle of the Elector, wUb 
paintings, old china. Ac, in a fine park. 

Excnrrtons to the JihSngebirgt, by rail tttn^ 
Falda to Gersfeld, and to Hilders and TMIB* 
Oersfeld, with Count FtohbeiK*s Una chateau* la 

thf^ bc;*t stnrtinEf point. 

ScMucbtom (Stat.), on River Ktozig. 
Am. " Golde&e Sonne. 

Vear It are the mins of Heekelbniff C$m^ 
where Ulrieh Ygn HUtten was borii. 

Digitized by Google 


liOXJTE 18- 
to CoWenta— f ^'fl ^ ^" uische-Eitenbabn) 
By r*U AS follows; — 

CMBlUkUBen (Stat.) 

/m».— HeMiflcher HoL 
*i A wnall town on the Klnzig (populutiou. 4,400), 
•nee a frw Hwiae city, and the mttwioe of 
rnderlek BMtWNMaa, off wluwe JW«i ooly the 
iraat hell end «l»»pel rwneto. prwemtJom 
W\ an Island in the rlvpr 

Thn Cathedrftl, built r260, has Gothic screens 
tod stalls, and old stainiMi glass, OW BMneoMq** 
Town Hall. On the bridge te • i««»ftal ««>» 

HANAU (Stat.), In Heaae-Neawtt. v 

Population, 26,027. 

IMHS.— Adler; Korlaberg. 

Eleetrle Rail to Saduenhausen. 

A liasdionie town, built in the form of « square 
lu a fertile plnln, at the junction of the Main 
iDd the Kinzij?. It consists of an Old Town, con- 
Mning a ane castle and a theatre; and a Mew 
Cwm wheretheTewnHalland Market-place are, 
hththehertatreeti. Thi. part wns built about 
kOO, by the refugee Walloons and Flemings, 

V,1 lowed in 16H5 by the HuguenoU. "n"™*- 

Actures of silk and wooUen good*, eetabUihed hy 

Ittm, ttill doeriah. , _ , 

Tb!i Caetle hat a eablnet of natural bUtory, and 

lllbrnry. . 
There arc fine Lutheran and Catholic Chnrcnea, 
me of which Is marked by a leaning tower. It 
tes the birthplace of the oelebratcd Wilhclm and 
r*cob Grimm, on w!iosc hoow lo the ParaUeplatz 
here is a memorial tablet. 
A botUe was fought here SOih and Sltt Oetober, 
j818, between the retreating French nnder Napo 
eAn, and the Bavarians and Anstrians under 
Icnera! Wrcde, to whom there is an inscription on 
he brides. The French, though rictors, lost 25.000. 
At PhiUpptruhe la an Electoral Caette in the 
tallan etyle, with orange gaidene. 

From HnrMin to Frankf<.rt by rail, WUhelms- 
4.1 ^nd MalxUcur (lO miles); or rid Offenbach IS 

(Btat) a watering -place, 
rtth weak steel springs. Offenbacli fStat.), on ^ 
he Main, hotwccn Hf^Tiau and Frankfort, has a , 
. . ^>pnlation of 35, IM. Faper and ornamental goods | 
in boijK, wood, leether, *e,i %f miidi. 

DleU 51 

Baldninstein ...••>«• 4e 
Lanrenbnrg .•«••••• ^ 

Em? *l 

Nieder-Lahnstein, 70 
CoWenta T9f 


Wetzlar .,»«"»» '4 

Brannfels M 

T.^il nbcrg — 

Weilburg 22 

Aumenau ...««•••••••• 

Rnnkel '^i 

LImburc: ^l 

{Branch to Frank- 

OlMMB* Route 16. Then to 
Wetslar (Stat.), in Rhenish PmasU. 


/niw.— Herzugllcbes Hani; Bnitet. 
An ancient fwe town, walled In, and coutalnlntf 
some old-fashioned houses. It stands on a slope, 

in a beautiful part of the Lahn, where joined by 
the Dill mid Wetzbach, and was tho seat of the 
Imperial Court of Appeal. It has a Stone bridge 
and four churches. 

The CQ/Oudrai off St. Maiy la a fine larpo Gothic 
building of the ISth century, with an 11th century 
porch and pable apse, it conUins twenty-eight 
altars, a good rood-screen, and a double nave used 
by Protestants and Catliolles. The facts which 
formed the groundwork of Goethe's "Sorrows of 
Werther " really occurred here. The man s real 
name was Jerusalem. Uis grave is in the church- 
yard, outside the Walhaeh gate. Near It, is 
Charlotte's Fountain and the house of her father, 
Amtmann BulT. Branch rati to LoU«r, towards 

At Garbenheim, in the neighbourhood (celled 
Walhebn In the romance), Is a monument erected 
to Goethe, 184». 

Altenberg (an flil abbey, with a fine Gothic 
church), past the monument erected to Archduke 
Charles in 1848. 

BravnMs (Stei.) Residence of the Prince of 
WeUtonrs (Stat), in Jiassan. 


//o/«/«.— Schwan; Traube. 
A small town. Ui a beautiful spot, on a hill, 
nnder which the watew of the Lehn are carried by 

Digitized by Google 



a tunnel. Tlie CnM}t^ wfis the residence of the 
Dokes of Kaasaa-VVeilburg, mmy of yfhom are 
bortod In the Church. It was hero that the 
aennwiit Qreen, and bis pArty« descended In tlie 
Nassau" balloon, 1884t. (ftao Hatton Tumor** 
"Astra Castra ") 

Limblirg (Stat.), on the Lahn, here crossed by 
a bridge, built ISLB* [From hvn a branch rail ol 
43 miles ntns off, south, to Camberg, Idstein, 

Eppsteln, and HScliat, not far from Franltfort. 
At 9 miles from T imtmr;.', i^ti t!ns line, lies the 

Yillage of Nleder Sellers (Statj, lumous for its 
well-known mfoaral woirars, from wbicb mlUions of 
bottles are exported to all parts of tbe wecld.) 

PoPTOtATios, 7,0(K). /hn.— Nassauer Hof. 
A very old town, and seat of a bishopric, founded 
909, by the Emperor Conrad I., when the first 
CM AedM was bnDt, now replaced by em In tbe 
Bomanesqne and Qothle styles of the thirteenth 
centnry, dedicated t o St. (ieorpe, and commanding 
ft splendid view of the picture-*qHC vnlley nf the 
Lahn. It has seven towers, nnd contains tnonu- 
uaents of tho founder and of the princes of Nassau. 
Bntraace, 00 pf . Bell to tbe rl^ht of tbe portaL 

In this lovely valley of the Lahn is Oranicnstcin 
Castle, bnllt in IfiTfi with a fine view of the Lahn. 
It is one mile from Dictz. 

Branch lines from Umburg to Altenldrohen 
via Uadamar and via Sleimhn. Line from Slenabn 
to Engers on the Cologne and Nicderlahnstein rail. 

T' awards Ems (Stat.), see Dradsha^r's TTand 
book of Belgium and the Rhine, are the following :— 
Bitti or 016% and its old castle and bridge, with 
marble polishing works. Flaehlngen, with an alkap 
line sprlnpr, rich in salt, u^ed as a tunic. Schaum- 
burg Castle, belonging to the Archduke Stephen of 
Austria; Baldulnstelll (Stat.)» near a CasUc; 
and Oellnan, with mineral springs like the selters 
or seltzer waters. Thousands of bottles are ex- 
ported from here and Fachingcn. At Rolzappel 
arc mines of lend, eopper, nnd silver. 

Nassau (Stat), population, 1,600. BoteU: 
Krone; Nassanberhof . A small town on the rigb t 
bank of the Lahn^ the original scat of tho Ducal 
family of this name, tho cadet branch of whicli 
now occupies tbe throne of Holland. Their old 
oaatla, wftb a modem monument to Baron Stein, 
Is worth seeing. Tklnkgeld, 80 to 7« pf , 

Within a short distance from Limbofgiaalta 

Montabaiir. /^ir? — Wclsscs Ross. 
An ancient town, with a church and a castle, in 
Which are some remarkable old paintings. 

CotlleillS.— See JSrwtOau^t Band-iook 9f 
yiumandthe RMite. 

Giessen to Peutss. 
By caU (Ci^ Mlndeucr Eisenbshn) aa loUows : — 




Elirin^^shaosen •*«..* 14 
ilerbom 22 

DUlenburg... '.'4 

Haiger. 29 

Burbach 40 



Betzdoif 51i 

[Branch to Hagen, 
as below.) 

Wissen 58j^ 


Bchladcm 66| 

i:itorf .........„„.„„ 76 

llennef 84 

Siegburg 87^ 

[Branch to Obereaa-> 


[Branch to Frankfort.] 


Wahn 94| 

Deut2 1024 

Cologne — 

Fi uni Betzducf (as 
above) to 

Klrchen 2 

Niedcrschelden 7i 

isie^en 1} 

Ilaurdt — 

Crcuzthal Ig 

Alteuhundem 34 

Grevenbrllck 38 

Fliinontrop .., — 

[Branchto Oiptj iiM.} 

Altena Gl| 

Lethmathe 66 

[Uranch to Tserlohn, 
3^ miles.J 

Limburg .*.00 

Hapren 80 

Giessen (Stat.), on the Lahn (Sec Koute IC). 

WetZlar (Stat.), in llesse-Damistadt, on the 
Lahn (see page 75). Cruss Frussum territury to 
Sinn (Stat.) and HMoni (Stat), on the RiT^ 
Dill, in the Duchy iA Kassau. 

Herdorf (Stat), on Prussian ground, in tho 
valley of the Heller. At Betzdorf (Stat.) a 
branch turns o£F to Siegen. The line crosses the 
Sleg and Agger, by means of abont lorty bridgaa 
and thirteen tnnnelB, between this and Odofne, 

Heimef (Stat.) Branches to WaMbfOl and 
IJon''l ail'! Oberca886l, oppo«!ite Bonn. 

Siegburg (Stat.) Population, 6,800. 
/nn.— Stem. 

A small town, with a reformatory piaoeft III 

the old Convent, which stands on a hill. Braibch 
to Der^chlag. The line traverses the sandy platn 

t>f I ho Wnhn to 

Beutz cstat.) 9tH} CQio^ne (Stfvt-) 


Digitized by Google 

Boute 80.] 



BtmOY9X to Fyrmont, Detmold, BtuAsrbam, 
&oeBt» and Cologne. 
Mil, opemd mt, it iindert— 


Pynnont..............* 46 

Stelnhelm SfTi 

Bergbeim *•• 6^ 

Altenbeken »,»,..«,. 70 
[Brandt toDrlbmg.] 
Padcrborn 80 J 


WeeUen..............* 8 

Beonjgsen 181 

Springe 20| 


IBranch to OejB- 

At Berghcim diligences start fur Detmold, 
about 12 miles. 
From Paderborn, by to Cologne. 
llaiDiiln (8tatk)» in HanoTOr. 
Powuxioir, 14^000. 

/m».~Tiiiemann; Sonne^ Stadt Bremen. 

A pleasant place in a fine spot, at the junction 
o/ the Uamel and the Weser, over which is a sus- 
pension bridge, 816 feet long. Cathedral of 
fourteenth oentttiyt Battenf tUigerbaw and Hoch- 
zeitshaus, in Benaissanco stylo. Handsome 
Markt-Kirche. A sluice or harbour was made 
1731, by George II., who buUt Fort George. 
Among Bnnnilng*s Poems is tbe legend of the 
Mat* 0/ SmmOmt or Hamelln, which oavsed the 
battle of Hcdcmlndcn in 1250; also the Pied Pipi'r 
of Ilitiimlin. The story lias been variously 
explained; most likely it is a confused tradition 
<jt the "Children's Cmstide.** 

{Prom here a rail of 82 BngUsh miles Is opened 
to Oeynhatiseii (page 26) and Ltniiiei in the 

direction of Osnabriick, passing: 
Rinteln (Stat.), in Uease<CasseL 

PorULATIOK, 3,600. 

/IMS.— Stadt Brsmra; Batbskeller. 

A pleasant little wan4Ki|]ttown, in the provtnee 

of Schauinburg, on the Weser, over which is a 
bridge. The Exter joins the Weser here. It has 
a high school, which down to 1809 was n 
nnlTOrslty. Tbe Paschenburg (1,150 feet), with 
an tan on the top, 8 milet distant, is a faTonrite 

From Binteln a dUigenoe runs daUy, 171 ariles, 


LemgO, in Lippe-Detmold. 
Poroft*9io», 7,808. 

I tMiBk OA Ua BsMb aoBiiiniBC a 

Gothic liathhaus; the Aiinnenhof, belonging to 
the Prince; the Lippehuf Palace, a straggling 
massive bnllding; and the <dd Bomanesqnc Chnrch 
of St. Nicholas, altered to Gothic style In the 
mth century ; and a 14th oentuy imnnery, now 

a ladifs' sclii)ol. 

Tobacco pipes, and especially meerschaum pipe 
bowls, are mannfactnied here; and bere the 
copper for the Hemtann statne, at Detmold, was 
founded. Diligence to Detmold.] 

PYRMONT (Stat.), in the Principality of Wal- 
deck. The station is at Liigde, thence tramway 
to the town. 
PopvLAnov, 1,700. 

Hotels.— Gxand Hotel des Bains, excellent first* 
class Hotel, recommended— See Advt, Scholing 
Villa; Lippischer llof; Krone; Waldeck; Villa 
Scbttcklng. Many Lodging houses. 

Xn^Uh Churdi SerHee in the season. 

Kurtax, 10 marks ; a family, 15 marks. 

A watering-place, amonp hills and M onds. In the 
romantic scenery of the Enimer, noted for its 
Spring$^ which hare lieen In nso for some centttrtes. 
TlMre are about twelve in all, mostly cha^beata, 
and imprecated with carbmiic acid gas, with 
which they are so hijjrhly charged that they mtist 
not be taken M-ithout proper advice. The four 
prttieipal ones are tlie Stahl and Sail Bnuaens^ 
the Brodel Brunnen, used for bathing, and thie 
Holy spring, or Trinkquelle. This last is clear as 
crystal, very refreshing, very stimulating, and 
never freezes. About 350,000 bottles are exported. 

Tbe Qrossc Alice promenade is a fine avenue of 
trees, mostly limes, about one-flfth of a.mlle1ong, 

on which there is a Cursaal containing 140 'mfbnlk ; 

with a tennis crmrt, theatre, ball-rooms; near it IS 
the Park and Castle garden. 

The Palace, or Schloss, is the residence of the 
Prince of Waldeclc, brother of the Duchess of 
of Albany. 

Exemnkm to the Onigsbeig ^ the ii^arUf 

monument of Frederick II.; and to Friedensthal(or 
valley of peace), formerly a Quaker colonj-. 

Bergheim (Stat.) From here, diligence to 
DetnMOd, passing Horzi (6 mUes) half way. 
Hear hem, on th« load to Piderbonv aiis & 

Digitized by Google 

7d bltADSHAW^A 

of snlid-^tone, In * vt-ry jtlctnrc'qnc sltufition, 
excavated into chaoibers, herruitagcH, ^tc , supposed 
to have beea used by the old tiermans at their 
moonlfffht mtMagt, At the ratrmee to one of 
tbo gnttoes are Byzantino Oftrrinffi of Chriitlui 
•ftbjeet* of the 12th century. 

Two and a half miles from Horn, and 9 miles 
from Hcr>.'heim la Meinborg, in Lippe-Delmold, 
a small watering-place, with t»ix sulphur, saline, 
and carbonlo acid Hbieial 8pffnf% luefnl in goot 
and iheumatlam. Good bathiiig amngementi. 

DfilMOIDt the capital ni Uppe-Detiaold. 
FoputiAvroir, 1O,O00l 

IxH8."Stadt Ftankflirt; Ltppeidier Hof . 

Rail to Herford (17i mtt«»X on the line Irom 
tiaoover to Cologne (see page ?6). 

It consists of an Old nr.d a New Town, rtmon<T fine 
walks and wcK>ds, ou the Werra. Freiligrath, the 
poet (died 1876), was bora htn* Hie Reiidesu- 
JSeMou <16th oentnry) ahoold be Tialted. 

The Piinoe*a PnOaee la a large pUe, with adonjon 

and four wings, and including a marstall or stud 
of 60 or 80 horses, of the Seuner breed, a hardy 
and spirited race, allowed to run wild in the sum- 
ner on the Bonner Heatli, to the aonth^west of 
the Tentobnrg Wald. They make the best 
sRddle-horses in German}-. All the forests around 
Ate well stocked with game. Excursions to the 
Qrotenburg^ 1,200 feet high, 2 miles south-west, the 
hli^Mit point of the Tentobnrg Wald, near whieh 
the Bomans, under Yama, were defeated by Her> 
manu, or Arniinlus, the German leader, in the 
yf-ar A.i> 9 On the top is tlie great co])per StfttUB 
Ot Hermaim. by Von Bandel, a Bavarian sculp- 
tor, unooveredby the Emperor, 1W0^ abontiOycara 
after the sculptor had published bis design (be died 
1876). Honnann stands with uplifted sword and 
winged helmet; bi« left band rests on a shield; 
nndar hia feet la * Itonmi eagle; the whole is 
avpported by a round temple, M feet high and 66 
feet diameter, with inscriptions and dates of battles 
down to 1871 Heig})t of the figure, 66 feet; to 
point of aword, Hii luet (the tword Is 2i feet long). 
The autne la atimigthened by imi alanchlons and 
aMhors below. Some of ^ ttonet Were taken 
iMnaHiiiiiwlngfOratoneOlntohwdby. Ber^ 

mann, who was born )6 fl.C, becafrtp a Roman 
soldier, and connnand^'d a legion before he fought 
Varus; he was murdered a.m. 2i. The word Teuto- 
bnzfr meana the fortof Tantu or TntocOb) 

Aliginlwtoll Cltat) Here the line from Pyr- 
moat falla into the main line from Berlin to 

Co!of»-ne, passing Drlburg nTul a^fler Alton- 

bekcn), Paderbom, Llppstadt, Soest, Unna, Ac, 
described below. 

ODKUnuf (Stat.) 

PoFOLAttoir, 9;S6f . 

/mu.-^ Kuthe; Dentaehea Sana. Dr. BrIIck 

practices here 

Kurtax, 12 marks; leu for familiea. 

Onmthna to Bad Dribnrg, M pf . 

A small town, near whldi, in a Ane apot, an nine 
Springs, like those of Pyrmont, frequented from 
May to October. The chalybeate spring Is one of the 
strongest known; it can betaken hMtedby steam. 
There are also sulphur »nd baths, for dHaasai of 
the bones, Ao.; the Henlcrbmnnen, good for 
bladder complaints; and a whey cure.] 

Paderborn (Stat ), in Westphallan Pmstia. 

Population, 18,000. 

Imts. — Lbflfelman's; Bentlor. 

An old Uanse Town, near the ii^ggeiiills, formerly 
known for Its University (abolished 1819), and aa 
a bishop's see and Inverlalolty, ftninded by Cbarlo* 
magne, wh o re s ided here f or a t ime. The bishopric 
was annexed to Prussia, 1802. The town has five 
gates in the old wails, and many narrow streets ; 
and Its name, meaning the ** source of the Padei^*' 
Is derived from the many (some say, 206) qwlnga 
at the head of that riTsr, which rise near the 

The OaMedhii; one of theoldflat German ohnidiea, 
waa fomided 77T, and r»>b«m In 1161-A In 

the Byzantine-Gothic style. It is dedicated to St. 
LihfOrius, whose relics were broup'ht from France, 
8&6, and are contained in a silver gilt shrme. 
There am in the ehnreh, sevend monnments of 
its bishops, for many centuries baek. A portion 
was burnt. 1815. The gold images of the Apostles, 
and the saint's silver coffin were carried off by the 
Dol Uertzog, Duke Christian of Brunswick, 1620. 
The coAn was eolned into dollars^ bearing the 
tegnid **Th« flriisd of CM and eaemyof priest*.'* 

Digitized by Google 

Houte 22.] 

ttAXD-BOOK to GlittMAHr.— i>£TMOLD, ^ADBaBOBITi 79 

Branch line to HanMb, Mttnttet, IthcllM, MA 

The crypts under the Evangelical Chcirch nre \ 
worth seeing. Tho Rdthhaiis waa built 1C15. i 
Near Paderborn station is the Intelbad mineral 
spring, wUh ft cnrbaoi. I>Ulgeiic« to Horn. On 
the roAd to Honi, at 

LiPPSPBixQE, is the Arminlus Qinelle, a topid 
bitter spring, like the Carlsbad. 

Llppstadt (Stat.) 

Poi'LLATiON, 11,000. /To^.— KSppelman's. 

This town stands on the Lippe, which is hero 
uaTlgaUo, and belongs partly to the Westphalian 
proTince of Prnssla, and partly to the small prln- 
clpftlity of Lippc-Detmold. It is well-bnilt in a 
fertile and open country, and has St. Mary's old 
Church, of the twelfth centuiry, partly in tne 
Bmnanesqae style, with three towers; the fine 
etantA work of the choir-stalls deserves inspection. 
Reformed Church, in jin old convent. Several 
brandy distilleries here. Jn the neighbourhood are 
the salt pits and baths of Westerhotten. 

Short lines from Uppstadt to Blwda* on the line 
from Hamm to Herford, and to Warstein. 

Soeit^ or I68t (Stat.), in Prussia. 

Population, l-'i.OOO. HoM. — Overw»«tr 

A curious old walled town, formerly ii member 
of the Uanseatic League. When besieged in the 
fifteenth century by the Arohblshop of Cologne, 
the inhabitants c<»npelled him to miie the siege 
and retreat, the women hclpinpr with pots of 
boiling pitch. Here are some old churches, for 
both Protestants and Catholics, some half In ruins. 

The CoMedntfiOrislnaUy founded WIS, Is in the 
Byzantine style (ISth century), with a tower 860 
feet high. 

The Wiaett Church, in the Gothic style of the 
fonrteanth and fifteenth centuries, has stained 
windows and earred wood altar-pieoes. One 
window represents the Last Supper, with a West- 
phalian hem iu plsce of the lamb. It was restored 

St. Peter's (PetriUrebe) Is another in the 
Romanesque style. Sir Peter Leiy was a natlTO 

of this town. 

The salt-works and Baths of Sossondorf and 
Kunigsbom are within a mile. 

Tlio onrbona are very f^nltfnl, and living here 
ttveiychMp. Than Uafoodtttdehiconi. 

Emden (pare 42). 

Unna (Stat.) 

Population, 7,690. /m.— DontseheKaiacr. 
A little salt^maUng town in Wca^^halia, on the 

Kottrif ck. fr vn. which is ft line to the salt-worb. 

Dortmund.— For which, and for the remainder 
of the line from I'nna to Coloj^no, see Route 1. 

3ROTJTB 231- 
Caasel to Warburg (for Arolsen). 

Rail from Casscl to Wnrhnrp, 32J miles, see 
Route 28. From Warburg, rail, 1& miles, to 

AndMn, the capital of Waldeck. 

PoPin.ATioir, 8,475. /mi.— Znm Biftner. 
A small town in a well wooded part of the Aar, 
among- fine avenues of oaks, and the residence of 
the Prince of Waldeck. His handiome palace 
or castle contains some excellent paintings, 
including West's » Death of Cleneral Wolfe;*' a 
scries of rare Greek coins; a library of about 
30,000 vol times, and a collection of 700 bronzes 
from Pompeii and Herculaueum, made by a 
former prinee. The Stadt Kirche oontains threo 
statnos (Glaube, Liebe, Hofluung) by Amidk, who, 
with Kautbach, the painter, was born here. The 
f iniily of Waideclt is one of the most ancient in 
Germany. The third daughter of the reiguing 
prince married the Duke of Albany, 1868. 

Diligence to Marsberg, on the line between 
Schcrte atid Cassel, and to WIMlUgill (page 7S) 
in t>| hours. 

BanoTer to SUdesiielni, Qtfltliisiii, and 


By Rail, Haniiovcrsche-Eisenbalin, as follows:-- 


Hantelu..... 'M 

Aifeid.......,......^.. 31 


Hanover to . 
^Villfel *.•*•...**•*..« 4J 

Rethen 7 

Sarstedi 11^ 

Nofdatemmen M.... 16 

[Branch to 
Hlldeshelm ... 7 
Alfrennissen . .15 

Lehrte 23 

Hanover ..»..381 

£tM.M...............«M 90i 

Freden 37 

Kreicnsen 4S 

Salzderheldem 4S 

Northeim «,.•.,..... fiS 

NUrten ....,...„ 61 

Q8ttlngen..» 68 

Dransfeld m.. 78 

MHnden „, 87 

[Br. to Norhausen.] 
Oa9a0l«*M*.«M.«*>Mm> 104 

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(See ^ 

HanOV«r» m in Route 1. 
There la also a dlr«el line to Hilde6belin» throngli 
BMnten, in bftlf en hoar. 

HnraaQBIK (•tet.X in Henorer. 

z'VFDLAttQlIti Uiin* 

HMALB^Hotel d'Angleterfe; Wiener Rol. 

This ancient episcopal town was foiuided by 
Lndwig tbe rious, 822, and annexed to Prussia, 
1803. It stands on the rivur Innenste, and con- 
.teins Bererel yvkj floe Bonumeeqne Cbvrehes and 
carvod buildings; eapecially the Knockenhauer- 
Amfhaus, wliicli is ;i c irved half timber pile (1529) 
restored, with five ur six storeys in the high gable 
roof, probably tbe finest in Germany. 

The Cathedral is a Romanesque and Gotliie 
church of the 11th century, "with bronze doors as 
old as the church (lOSo), covered with Ims-reliefs. 
ten altars, and several glass and other paintings. 
It contains a yeU<vtr alatrnterPUlar, 1G| feet high, 
trlth a Virgin on tiie top, enroneoosly styled an 
Irmins&nle. The font and screen deserve notice. 
The treasury contains valuable antiquities. 

An enormous Rote-treCt 35 feet high, said to 
hftTefaeen planted by the foonder, and tiierefore 
1,000 yean €M, grows ontslde the ehnreh. 

Tn the Dom-platz is Risiiop Bernward's bronze 
Pillar of the eleventh century, 13 feet hii^h, with 
28 subjects from the life of our Saviour winding i 
ronnd the shaft. 

'8t, fMMtariP* beautiful Romanesque Church, of 
the 12th century, lately restored, and St. Mkhaefs, 
uf the 12th and l^th centories, have some good 
reliefs and carvings. 

The Rathhaui oontalns portraits ct the Bishops. 
Several uld carved houses are in the Langenhagen. 

Tlie ^tdtllischc Muxnim contains a fine collection 
of natural history and ethnography. 

In the neighbourhood are Sdder Castle, belong- 
ing to Count Stolherg; Demebnrg, to Count 
Mlinster; Wohldcnberg Castle, a ruin ; andBoden- 
burg, belonging to Baron von Steinberg. 

Direct line to BnmiWlCk (page 31X opened in 


Nortkeim (Stat.), whence ezonrsions to the 
Hars may be made by rail to Hieraberg. 

r o 1 : r. A.TIOR1 0^00^> 
/Af».— Sonne. 

Au old manufacturing town, oh the fihome, 
at the foot of the WInterberg (1,060 feet\ irlth » 
large Church, btlUt U10{ and a tobacoo factory. 

^nrtOMBK (itftt), in Haiioir«r. 

FoPDLATKoir, 90,690. 

HoTKLS.— Krone; Oebhard. 

D1UQKHCX8.— Tb Addebseo, Uf milee; and to 
Bremke, 10 miles, in If hour« 

A well-known university town (formerly a 
Hanse town) in the valley of the Leine, about 
470 feet above the sea, under tbe Hainberg hill. 
The old ramports serve for a promenade. St. 
Jolm^a has turo splret) 900 feet hi|^. St. Janm* 
spire is 800 feet. 

The Vwhenltp was founded by George ttJ% 

minister. Baron Miinchanscn, In 1734, as the 
" Georgia Augusta," the king being its Rector 
Magnificus. There arc about 1,000 students and 70 
professors. The number of students fonMy 
reached up to 1,400. The country of each ta 
denoted by the colour he wears. Its Aula, where 
the meetings take place, was built in 1S37, by 
William IV., of England, and faces his statue in 
Wilhelms-plaia. The Librarf eooalala of 400,000 
volumes, and fi,000 M8S., besides eugnnings and 
maps, contained in the old church of St. Klchdia* 
Their number waa trebled while Heyne wao 
librarian. Other professors were Blnmeabadi, 
the brothers Grimm, and Swald. Thelfuseon 
occupies fourteen rooma, ineluding eolleeCions at 
zoology (rich In skulls), ethnography, minerals, 
coins, and some good pictures. A Spruch Col- 
legium, or Judicial Society of great repute is 
conneeted with the UniTmlty. 

Tht (Mscvwafsnr, near the town, Is a new building 
in the Doric style, with an excellent collection of 

instruments. Gaus!;, the mathematician and 
astronomer, died hero, 1855. 

There is also a laboratory, veterinary school, 
botanical garden, and an anatomical theatre, near 
the station; with a moiinment to SUrger, author of 

Leonora,** at the AlMethor. He died here, IfH, 
The 2bim MaU Is an old castellated building. 

Here tbe ** GHMttngeche Gelehrte Anzeiger,** » 
literaiyjmrtewtwvfint published in 1340. 

Digitized by Google 

Route 24.1 


Th« mMt prosperous trsdss are booksellers and 

tobacconists. The Guttingen Mettwilnto, or 
^usages, arc celebrated. 

In the neighbourhood are the Vull&sgartcn, with 
ftflnoTlew; tbe mint of Hanstein; the Pletse; 
Martaspring; BreaftkarThal, and Beinhausar Rocks. 

Miinden (Stat), or Hanorerian Mttnden. 

ropui.ATioN, G^aao. 

/««.— Lioldener Liiwe. Bullet. 

At the Jnnetion of tbe Werra and Fatda« which 
united form tbe Weeer, In a deep romantic 

St. Blnaien's Kircfie, a fine building of the four- 
teenth century, with the tomb of Duke Ericli II., 
of Bninawiek Lflnebarg, by whom the Castle was 
built 1566. Fine view from the Andreasberg. 

Steamers in sunnner to Hameln (page 77), along 
the charming valley uf the Weser, past Huxter uiid 
llolzmindcD (page 82) and Bodentcerder^ the former 
rasidenoe of the famous Baron Mttnehanaen. 

OmmL— See Boate 16. 

Blsaaadi to OmMI «nd Wtetniif . 

By Hessisehe Nordbahn, the stations are as 


English ! English 
Eisonachto miles. < Cassil to miles. 
Qerstnnfen***......... IH j MoncheboC ..«.»..... 8 

Bebra 29 Orobensteln 14 

[AranrA to Fulda,Ac.] HofgetsnUtf..»........ 17^1 

Kotenburg 32* " " 

Altmorscben ......... 40| 

Melsungen *.....*«.... 47| 

Guekshagen K 

Gnntershauscn 56J 

[Br. to Marburg, Ac] 

Wilhelmshlfhe 68 

Cassel 66 

HUmme ............... 21 

Trendelberg. 2} 

Ht'Inuiishausen SJ 

Carlshafon 11] 

Liebcnan .............. 28 

Warburg 32 J 

At present, this line offers a direct route between 

Cantmt Germany and the Bhfaie. 

BelnnL*'See Route 17. 

WilHelmSlifillO (Stat), fully deaeribed on 

pR?c 7!. 

Cassel (Stat.)- Sec Route 16. 

Qlltiklll«g«ll (8tat)i on tbe Fulda, old Bene- 
dleilne Abbey. 

Bttxnme (Stat.), the junction for 

Carlshafen (Stat.) 

Population, 1,600. 

Am.— Schwan. 

A small port, finely situated at the junction of 
the Dlemel and the Weser, and founded by tlii> 
Landgrave Charles (Karl), about 170U, who settled 
the Huguenot refugees hero. 

From Carlshafen, the steamer runs down the 
Weser, in six or seven hours, touching nt the fol- 
lowing places, and at Hiixter, &c. (see Route 24). 

MenMIe, on the left, a village^ with a small 
castle, on the site of one in which Charlemagne 
held his court in 797. On the left Dlatilenau 
C<Mtle\ and beyond this Godelheini, near which 
Charlemagne defeated tbe Saxons, 775. On the 
right, Fikntmkergt with an old castle of the Dnke 
uf Brunswlfik. 

Warbnrgr (^tat ), population, 4,6(»0; an old 
Haniio town on the Diemel. Buius of Desenburg 
on an eminence. Diligence to Aroisen, Route 31. 

Here Is the Jnnetion of the line from Schwrte^ 
opened 1873, past Schcrfode. Drilon, Eversberg, 
Meschode, AniMbcrg, and Fruudcnbcrg (where a 
branch to Minden runs oiX). 

BrUfm (Stat.) One of tbe oldest towns in 

Germany. 4,} miles from tho station. Large 
Romanesque ciiurch, with massive tower. 

Amsberg (Stat.), population, 6.130. Former 
capital of the old Duchy of Westphalia. Diligence 

to Soest. 

Schwertc is a station on the Hue through 
Elberfeld to Cologne. 

liOXJTE S4- 
Bnmawiok to Wolfenbiittel, Kreiensen, 
Holmindiiiit iiid PadwiNiinL 

By rail; stations as follow— 

English I English 


Wolfcnbilttel June. 7 ! Holzminden 78 

Bursbum June 13 

Salzgitter — 

Ringelhehn ............ 26 

Seesen 40 

Oandcrsheim — 

Kreiensen 00 

[AyuicAm to Hano- 
Vorwohle 64| 

Thence, by Westpha- 
lischc Eisenbahn, 

Hoxter...„ 44 

Godelhehn g 

Rrakel , 17 

Driburg 241 

Alteubeken 30f 

U^RcA to Warburg] 
Paderbom , 41 1 

Bnmswlok and WoUlniMtt^ see Route 1. 

BSrsSUm (Stat ) Here the junction with 
the Harzbur;,' line takes place ; and tho main line, 
vtd Jerxhcim and Magdeburg, <fcc., falls in; thus 
opening up an unbroken straight llMfrom Dttssel- 
dorf to Bttlln, and saving the round by Hi*norer. 

Digitized by Google 


Lutter (Statj, on the Barcinbers. 

Here tbe Danes, under Ciirlstiaii IV^ were 
defeetea by Tilly, In ibc Thirty Ycfti?' Wnr. 

Soesen (Stat.), where there is a junction 
(or Nordhauscn, via Herzberg tttouto 26). 

PorutATiON, 2,000. 

/iiiiw— Kronprins. 

AsiMll anelent town on the SehUdav, with an 

oifl ( 'n-^tle .md '^ulphur hath?. 

Krelensen (Slat.), on the river Leine. Here 
lines from H.nnover and Cossel fall In. 

Hol2mlxiden (Stat. ), on the Weser* Steamers 
up to CSarlsbef en and down to Mfnden.- 

AinantOwnCpopnlation, 7,800) in the deep valley 
eftbcWcscr, holon/rlnpto the Duchy of Brunswick. 
It hns ir(m and stcol works, a modem engineering 
school, and an wxcellent high school. 

The steamer down the W^er passes the follow- 

fnif plaoes:<— 

Ontheleft— Po^/eCa»//'',nn old sent of the Counts 

6t Eberstcin, destroyed in tbe Thirty Years' War. 

On the right— /><>/'««?, a picturesque group of 
loekt, In a heantif al spot, In the valley of the 
Weser, opposite the Stelnmuhle. 

On the li^ft -Kemnade, formerly a nunnery of 
the eleventh century, with some ancient tombs In 
the church. 

On the lef t— J7e)kta», a castle built hi IMO, be- 
longing to the Counts •voo. Schulenhurg. The 
ancestor of the iiros'ent owner was the defender of 
Corfu, in nid, against the Turks. 

The ruil froiuHolzmindeiiascendstheriTsrto 

Bdxter (Stat.) 


/iin^.—Dtadt Bremen; Sehwietei Berliner Hof. 

This is a small Prns^ town on the riirht bank 
of the Wefer, hni was formerly a Uanse town and 
free city, belonging to tbe old Abbey of Corvcy. 
It bss Romanesqne and Oothle chnrehes, and 
some fine Benaiasance timber buildings 

One mile nwny is Correp Ahhfiy. n Benedictine 
house, founded in SIC, removed here, 823, by 
Ludwig the Pious, and belonging to tbo Duke of 
Railbol', of the Hue of Hobenlobe Schiningsfarst. 
From here ChttttlanKy wa.i preached to all parts 
ftf Koiihem 'Enropp. by Anscharia^ or Ansgnr, 
disd 866. The first fire books of Tacltus's 

I Annate wan found In the convent Ubrarf in 
' It was dissolTed In 1608. 

Altenbeken (Stat.); branch by Warbnrtf 

(page 81) to Casw-l. 

Hence the railroad pa.<i8cs on to 

PadflClNim (Stat), Route so, on the tine titt 
Soest, Ae^to 


:rotjte SB, 

Magdeljurg and Bnmswldc to tlie Han 
MouatalnB. ' 
The most convenient lines are the followinsr. 
See also Route S9. 


1. — Magdeburg to 

Blumeuber^ 13 

Oseheraieben 24J 

[Branch to BSfSBum.] 

Grottorf 28| 

Kisnhagen 30 

2ii-~BrunswIck and Harsburg. 


Brunswick to 
Wolfenbiittoi June. 6f 
Bbrssnm June....... 16 

iBranch to Deutz] 
Schladen 17^ 


Halberstadt 87 

[^rancA to Aschats- 

Wegelebcn 41^ 

?;nedlinbuTg 4S 
hale.................. M| 


^nenenburg ............ 98 

[Branfhe* to Halber- 

stadt and Goslar. 
Harzburg 27% 

S.— CStben to Halberstadt, and CSthen fo 
Stassfurt. For OOthen, see psge M. 


Cothon to 
Bemburg ............ 12| 

GUsten 20 

(Stassfurt ... 413 

j\ ^Ifir-^N ''li.Ml 

07 1 


Frose 40J 

[Bfanrh to Ballen.stedt.] 

Oaterslebcn 44i 

Wegeleben 5l|- 

Halberstadt ■'^RJ 

This old mhdng ffieiriet is a mountslnons region, 
derlTlng its name from the ancient Mereifnia Silva^ 
or Hcrcynlan FoMat, which formerly covered it. It 
lies between Ooslar and "Weniitremde i*>n the north, 
and Nordbausen and Sangerhauscii on tbe &outb; 
the length fii tbe direction of north-west and 
aottth-eaat being abont d."* miles, while tbe breadth 
1«? nhnnt 20 miles. The Upper Ilnrz, to the north- 
west, contains the Brocki^. .1.740 feet above sea. 
the highe!?t point m north Germany; and the 
Lower l&rx, to the south-east, contains the 
Victor$ B8I1A or Orot$e Ramhcrg. 2,160 feet high: 
the two ocenpyinp nbout 800 square miles, of 
which two-thirds belong to Pntstia (including a 

Digitized by Google 

Route ^5.] eand-book to gebmant. — harz district, halbbrstadt. 

third which waa formerJy Haiiovoriflii) ; whil& 
tfie remnindBr is diridod between Brunswick and 

Alonff the borders uf Iho distrirt mo the follow- 
ing phices, beginnintr nt the iiortli, viz.:— Gosbir, 
Mcustadt-Harzbiirg (a .Htwtiuu), Ilsciiburg, Wer- 
nliircrode(Stftt.), Blftnkettbarg(8tat.)t QuedUnburg 
(Stat.), Ballenstedt (SUt.)« Aschonleben (Stat.)i 
Mnnsfcltl, HnTT^'orhansen (Stnt). Nordhausen 
(Stnt.), i*'iclisM, Herzberg, Osterode (Stat), 
See&cn, rouiul lo Goslar agaiu. A Hue from 
Uaonbiirg throngb the Broeken to Bacbea 
nearly divides the Upper and Lower llurz; 
the rivers of which run into the Woscr nnd Kibe 
respectively. In the Upper Harz, near the 
Broeken, are the KSnigsberg and Bt^hberg^ each 
8,430 feet high; the Warmbeig>, 8,080 feet hJgh; 
and Aehtd'tmniishdhe, 2,880 feet high. In this half 
also are the ininfnir towns of Chm^thal, ZcUerfold, 
Andreasburg, Altenau, Cirund, Wildeumnn, and 
Li^iitenthal, producing lead, allver, copper, iron, Ac 
In the Lower Han an the Rosstrappe and the 
Valloy of tho Bode, Alexisbad, and the town? of 
llcrz^^crode, Stolberg, Ufeld, llaselfdd, and Elb- 
ingorude. iron is the chief product. About half 
of the total population of 100,000 Is engaged in 
mining. The highest hills arc chiefly granite, 
steep and rufrwd, and rf>vcrcd with snow fr nu 
October to May. The lower hlils are more level, 
and clothed with abundance of pine and other 
timber. Generally speaking; the roads are bad, 
fit only for lit;ht vehldes and horses. July to 
Octolicr i?* the best season for excursions. About 
September the clear aii- aCfurdn a chance of the 
good mountain prospects. Guides are not nece8« 
•ary. They receiTc about 8 to 4 marks a day. 
Betum fee, abont \!i pf. per mflc. Carrlnj-es co>,t 
II to 12 marks. Living at inns from G murks a 
day; tho accommodation being middling. The 
chief points of interest may be visited in three or 
four days. See H. Blackeukn's *^ Sketch itf Life 
in the Harz Mountains'^ 

Railway Access.- l^t: From the oast- Magde- 
burg tu Oschcrsiebcn, Halbcrstadt, Qucdlinburg, 
and Thale, near the Bode Valley. 

Snd: From the math— Brunswick to Wolfen- 
Mittel, Xeustadt-Hnrzburj?. in the Upper Harz. 
3rd: From the south ou the side of Thurlngia — i 


Ciithen to Beruburg, Sangerhauseu, and JS'ord" 
hausen. In the Lower Bmz. 
4th : The western route f rmn Gl^tttngen is rid 

Lauterbcrg and Osterwle, or from the Nordhehn 
and Seesrn "Stations on the Hanover :ui<! Cassci 
line. C'oaclmsi run from >'ordhcim to Usterode, 
twice a day (5»i hours); to Clausthal (4^ hours); 
Seeaen to Goslar (3} hours). 

Dlatanoaai— From the three starting points as 


Ist: Thale to llasselfeldo ...»»,..*,..... 18 

Nordhnusen , 17J 


9ud: HarzbuigtoBrauttlage..........«. 15 

Zorge \ 10 J 

Nordbauson ij 


X.n — Braunlage is about 4^ miles from tho 
Broeken ; 22 from Clausthal j 10| from Klbln- 
gerode. English 


8rd: Jfordhausen to Ilnr^^-erode, near 

Alexisbad and ihu Uamberg.... ^| 

Nordhaoaen to f^edllnburg...... 87 

Kordhauscn to Thale, through 
Bode Valley 88} 

Nordbausen to iiarzbur;:. past 
Braiwlagu 37 1 

Nofdhausen to Osterode............ 82f 

HALBER8TADT (Stat), in Prussian Sax> 
ony ; a good starting point for the Han mountains 

Population, 36,601 . 

T>rN-s. - TIf/te! T'oynl, best; Prinz KjiL'on. 
li.viLWAY.— To Qucdlinburg, Ballcnstedt, Ac, 
and to Blankenburg (page 85) and Elbingerodc. 

This old town stands in a line spot on the IIolz- 
emme, and contains several exceedingly good 

.specimens uf ancient timber bou.scs. A diocese 
was founded h( re, 804, in the territory of the 
Cherusci, which was secoiarised and given to 
Prussia, 1848. 

Having been burnt ll78f by Histtry the Lton, U 
was rebuilt 1203. In common with other places, 
it auffered in the Thirty and Seven Years* Wars. 

Digitized by Google 


It becanip pari of \Vir"^rphnli!i, under Jiapoleon, 
and was storuaeU by tlie Duke of Brunswick, 1809. 

Tha CWJtoMof St. Stephen, In the Domptotx, 
1« • fine Godilehnilding, of the thirteenth century, 
ivith nn onrliir w(»«t front. It is 412 feet lonp, 72 
feet broad, and 91 feet high; and conUins thirty- 
two altars, with many paintings, antiquities, and 
ehnreh oratmente. A1110119 theee is ui altar-ploee» 
hy J.B«phoii,1508; a finely carved screen ; a Qncen 
of Heaven, of the old Cologne School ; a Gospel 
of CtWMrlenoagne's time; the tomb of the Margrave 
Frederiek (1558); Crypt of lOtb centnry ; 75 pf. 

A High Sehofd wd Seminary belong to the 
Cathedral, together with a Library of 10,000 vol?., 
utirl several auto^'raphs of Luther. The Leggen- 
stein, in the Domplatz, is said to have been a 
jMftthen aUur. 

The LUVivtimHrtke (Oar Deer Lady*s Chnrch), 
opposite the Cathedra!, fs hi the !U zantine style, 
of the eleventh century, commeuced 1005. It was 
restored 1860, and contains some bronze monu- 
ments, tMfl-nllefa, «nd old mnrel painting*. 

8t, Martini Kirche has two dissimilar towers, 
and f^ood stained windows, in which are portraits 
of Luther and Melanchthon. The Synagogue is 
a handsome building. The Theatre was a convent. 

The Bafhdcellerattd the Scbuhhof areflne apeei- 
mens of old architecture. The former Is in the 
Jlolzmarlct, and the latter in the Fi.schrnarkt. 

The old Episcopal Tolace, 16th centnry, close to 
-the BathslMner, Is noir the Cnatem House. 

The Town Hall Is a Gothic building ( Hth cen- 
tury, restored in the 15th), having a Roiandaeinle 
(1433) in front of it. 

On the Breitenwcge is a house with the portrait 
of Tetsel. 

In the environs are several points of interest — 
as the 8i>iegel8chcnbertr. Iniilt by the, 
Henry Julius of Brunswick, in 1594. It commands 
A fine view of the town. In one of the cellars is a 
wine barrel, 16 feet high and 50 feet long. 

The Koppeleberg, at Laogenstoin, is 1,400 feet 

Strdbeok (5 miles east) is a village of chess 
players, of whom an aeeowit l« givea hi Lewis's 
iperli on ^ irah|aet Thegr have a diess hoard 

given them by the Elector of Brsndenbtirg, 1651. 
An old custom existed not long ago by which 


the inhabitants were exempted from taxation, on 
eoiiditioii that they were not heaten at chess. 
The beech woods on the Huysberg (4 mUes to 

the north) extend over a chain of hills, round an 
olfl Roiieflictinc Abbey, with a cruciform church 
in the Norman style. It has three good paintings 
by Strathman, and an <»ld library of USS^ Ac. 
Rail, 4 miles, to Wegeleben, thence 7 miles to 
Quedllnburg (Stat), in Fmssian Saxooy. 

Foi*Ui..\TioN, 20,7G5. 

Inns. — Schwarzer Bar; Kronprlnz. 

An old Imperial dty, on the Bode, eonsiating of 
an Old and Hew Town, containing many good 
houses, nii'l flnrrounded by ancient walls and 
towers. The Emperor Henry I., or Henry the 
Fowler, fisther of Otbo th« Great, dM hare afltr 
fonndingan iltftsy, tM, the Abbess of which, thongh 
a Protestant after the Rcformfltlon. bnd n •^cntwffh 
the Bishops in the Diet. This abbey was srcul pr- 
ised in 1803, and granted to the King of Prussia, 
its herediUry BaOiir. The last Princess-Abbess 
was Sophia, slater of Charles XIII. of Sweden. 
One of its Princesses was the Countess of Koni^s- 
niark, mistress of King Augustus of Saxony, and 
mother of Marshal 8axe. The remains U th« 
Abbey stand 00 a roek in the Westendorf snbnrb. 

The atUoUktrehe, of the 10th and 12th centuries, 
was built by Henry I., in the Basilicn style; the 
crypt was the original church, and Is of very preat 
interest. Has someancient ornamental work on the 
ontsMo. It contains the remains of Henry I. and 
his wife, Matilda, with thebr grandchild, the fint 


At the foot of the castle hill Is the house In whii;h 
Klopttock, author of **Messtah," waa hetn, 17S4. 
The Brllhl garden has a monument areeled at hta 

centenary, 1824. Anoth«r native was Carl Bitter, 

the geographer. 

In the Rathfiaux is a wooden cage in which the 
tyrannical Count Kegenstein was imprisoned. 

Hear the town are the mine of the convent of 
St. Wipertus, now an inn. At Altenburg, near 
the Brllhl, Is a stonn wntch-tower, with a splendid 
view; one of several towers surrounding the town, 
mostly of the time of the Emperor Henry III. 

Bail to Oomfode (page 70) BallmMt 

(page 91) and FroliBe, thence to AsdMrslebcn. 
Bail continued to ThllO, see next pafs. 

Digitized by Google 




TEALB (Stat.), in Prutsia. 

HoTKLs, Zchnpfiind ; Waldkater; HnbertusbAd. 

A growing viUoge at the begluning of the valley of 
the fiode, with ft ehnreh bnlU 1788. Vmv St is 
KalilMibMV, wtlh altnft view. Ttelnn at Hnbertiu 
Brunnen, where there are warm springs, fa con- 
venient for visitlnpr the Bodefhaf, or the 

Vallefofthe BodCy the wild scenery of which, is 
bast enjoyed on foot; but Uxt tboae who are 
Inellned, horsaa and vehldaa may be had at the 
hotelii. The chief attractions are the colossal 
RMttrappf and the Hexentamplatz, two mountains 
rising 600 to 700 feet on cither side of the defile 
of the Bode, or 1,800 feet to 1,600 feet above sea 
lavel, in the wildest part of the Harz region. 

The ahortcst way to the Rosstrappe Is hy the 
SleehMttte^ over tiie Bode, then to the right, and, 
near a second bridge, take a steep path up to 
Oasthans xnr Boaatrappa. 

Xoittn^ppe, or footstep of the Horse,'* Is so 
called from a mark found on the top of the granite 
olifT, shaped like a horse's hoof ; the legend being, 
that a lady, pursued by a monster, leaped on horsc- 
\Mik acfoas the gulf fram one oHlf to the other. 
Close by the Gasthaus is the BUlowshuhle, a 
pyramid of rock COfcethigh. TheHexcntanzplatz 
(Witches' dancing ground) is 200 feet higher than 
the Bosstrappe. The road to Uds ts part the 
Aetianbrancrel at Thale, along a path by the edge 
of a wood, which leads to a bridge over the 
Stelnach. The path to the Tanzplatz turns off to 
the right just before reaching this bridge. Or, 
from the Bleehhfltto, past th« Waldkater restau- 
rant, down the Bodethal to the Jtingf embrflcke, 
whence a "ioap path turns off to the left hy the 
ffirtchgrunJ and Laviires llohe to the Hexentanz- 
platz, which overlooks the Rosstrappe on one side, 
and has the distant Broeken on the other. 

Fkom this point it is about 6 mil r s to Blankan* 
burs'; lf?nvln^ to the right the Teuft l?mnncr, or 
Devil's Wall, a range of grotesque sandstoue cliffs; 
the summit of which, Qrossvater, eonunanda an 
aztenslva vtear. 

BlftBkMllliurK (8tat.\ !n Brunswick, in the 
Lower Hartx, now pluoi d in railway communica- 
tion with Ualberstadt (page by a branch 
opened 1878. 
FOPVUTioir, 8,0001 

J7o/e/«.— Welsser Adler; Krone. 

A small plns'C, OT^f of the oldest !n the Hartt, 
760 feet above sea, with an old Rathhaus (collection 
of antiquities), and the DuccU Castle o/ Louitenberg^ 
on the Blankanatein, a limestone todk, 1,040 feet 
high. The Castle contains 270 rooms and a 
collection of paintings ; among which are several 
by Crauach and Kosel, with carious old drinkutg 
vessels, Ac. A Una view from the windows aa 
far as Magdeburg. Trinkgeld, 1 mark. 

On the Rejrotistcin (Wirthshaus), near at hand, 
are remains of a Castle and several caves. 

At Micbaelstein is an old convent. Bich iron 
mines areatHllttenrode,andBttbetond, on theBode^ 
w;tli Tu trblo mills, &c. The railway is continued 
to ELbiiigerodo find Fanne (page 86). A > hort 
Hue will unite iilaiikenburg with Wcrnigerode. 

Wemlgerode (Stat), in Prussian Saxony ; 
now aeeeoslblo by a abort rail of 8 English 
miles from MwMbUT (oa the VIsDaabnig 
and Halle lint), atnca oontinued to Ilsanbuigh 

(page 87). 


/aiM.— WeisserHirsch; Daittaehas Bans. 

Capital of the county of Stolbatg- Wemlgerode, 
on the Zillip-crhach and Holzemme. It is a pictur- 
esque old town, with a Gothic Rathham of the 
foortaei^ eaatury, and the family tombs of tlie 
Counts, In the Sylvester Chuwh. 

The Castle, in the Thiergarten Parit, Is 400 feet 
above the town and 8'^0 feet above sea Icve!. Tt 
contains the family portraits from 1^38; the Library 
of 78,000 volumes, Including 3,000 bibles and 2,000 
hymn books ; wUb eablnats of shells and minerals, 
from the Harz district. The Library and Palm- 
house are in the Lustgarten. There are splendid 
views from the terrace of the whole of the north 
side of the Han and the Broeken, which la oom- 
prised in the property of the Count. 

Near thi-^ is the Harbiirtr, nt the ftiot of which is 
a coffee house with a iiiie view. OHk t points are 
Krumhaarbank, Zwolf Morgen, liuciieaberg, the 
Hohnsteln, the Stdneme Bonne, Jte. 

Excursions may be made to Hasserode, to Fried- 
richsthal, to the ruins of Himmelpforte and the falls 
of the Holzemme. For the Broeken, a four-horse 
eacriage may be hired for iOto 40 marks. A fu- 
nicular railway Is being made. 

Digitized by CoogI& 



The principul Car*-* arc those of Uauraaiinsbuhle 

Itoad to the BrwkeH—lu visiUugthe Bro«kAiifroiii 
Werni«fcrodc liy cai ri.i.'e or horseback. \<h\ mny jro 
~l«t, by AUenrodc, and Driibeck Convent; then 
past the old castle of Iltenburg, to Dten-Tbal; 
about 15 English ndles. 

2nd, Past Darlinjrerodc, Oehrcnf««ldc, and Ples- 
sonbur;,' to the hitrh-road In Ilsen Thnl ; 15 miles. 
Or rail to Ilsenburg, thence up the valley. 

3rd, By omnibus to Hasserode (1 how), the Drel 
Anncn Hohno and Jftcobsbruck ; about V2 niiloit. 

Or 4th, the shortost way, byElbingerodet Blend, 
and Schlorke. 

The 1st and 4th routes arc most recommended. 

The followlngr rmtteM to the Brodten can only bo 
nia<lc on foot, sometimes foUorring the cattiago- 
road. A ffuide, thoujrh nnt npcoswiry, Is useful 

1st, by Altenrode, Driibeck, and Ilsenburg-, past 
the Ii>custein by the uew footpath, to the waterfalls 
of the nse; 15 to 18 miles. 

Jnd. By Hasserode, to the Steineme Renne, 
through the Dumkuhlenthnl. to tVio ITf'dle, a wild 
part of the valley; then past the Hohne-Kllppen 
by the Mdkenbavs and the RenneckenbeTg to the 
hlgli-road, which leads from Xlsenlmrir to the 
lirorkcn : altoprethor 12 to IS miles. 

3rd, Hy Ilasscrod. . thron}?h Sandthal, down to the 
Wolfswejr, and tlie Ncuatiidter Uau,the Mulken- 
hans, Ac, This is a steeper roate of IS to 15 miles. 

4th, Past Sclderke upwards to the Schuppcntha], 
by the Quitschcnbilu and tbeBrockenbette; ab«>at 
18 miles. 

Inrtaad of tttmbig fttwn the Rosstrappc past 
Blanlienbarg, and Wemigerode to the Bracken, 
you may follow a splendid way through the Bode- 
thal. past the Tresebnr^ to the 

Marmormlihle (or Marble milt), for catting, 
tnmlng, grinding, and poUsiiing marble, Dttvels- 
hXnschen, on the top of Krockber^. has a splendid 
view of the valley of the Hu.lo. Noxt yon the 
Xcmvork iv": f^mndiies, :itidth<'St;ihll)i'ru iiiiiii"<,to 

fiiUbelaUd. (Stat.), on the line from Iialber> 

ftadt, through Blankenbnrg and Blbtngerod«tiiow 
C4mipleted to Tanne. 

fnn. GnbkMier IJ'we 

A small mining jiluco, oti the Bode, oppositt.- tlie 
remains of Berkcnfeld, an old robbers* nest Heie 
Dr. Chapman, a closer English chemist, was killed 
by an explosion, 1879. 

ami Biolshuhlf. clo.-f 1o RUbeland, about 1"'* feet 
above the bed of the Bode. The BaumoHinJiSklt 
condsts of six terge caves, SMfoailimg; the great- 
est height being 93 feet They are aanied from 

their discoverer Baumann, a miner, 1598. In 184? 
several new cavp<i were disrr.Ycr(i,i. One of the 
stalactite pillars in the third cave, called the 
KUngende SXvIe Is 8 feet Idgh, and hollow in the 
Inside. Bones of thereat Cave Bear hare beoB 
fonnd herr. Tlie hiehhvhfe \\'s\% di»coTered 1879; 
has 12 divisions, and is 85<J feet lonj?. 

Charge fur seeing these caves, including the 
charge for lighting np, one, two, or three persons^ 
about 1 mark ; each person further, 40 pf. 

At Kiibolnnd are veins ..f ])i*rphyry amon<r th« 
limestone and quartz rock. Ktibeland to Elbinge- 
rode S miles. 

Elbixigerodd (Stat.), in Hanover. 


ITo'eU. -Blauer Bngel \ Goldner Adier. Clood 
trout and eel. 

A growing mining town, 1,COO foct above the 
sea, among mines and smolttng worics. 

Diligence to the Brocken in 4| hoort. To 
Scbierkc In two and a half or three hours. 

Rothehiitte - Konigshof (Stat). An iron 

foundry at tlic junciiuu ol the Warm and Cold 
iiodu. OuuiibuB, in conucctiun with the trainsj to 
the top of the Brocken, via Eleud and Sehierke. 
The line is continued to TaillliO* 

Sehierke. a Pru»f(t:ni village, one of the hu'hest 
inhabited places in the Ilarz, situated 1,720 feel 
above the sea, among rocks of a ^ild and fautostic 
character. This is the way up the Brocken de- 
scribed in Goethe's f\itM/. Here arc the Vaupels* 
kiippen, the Iliille, and thf lVn«'rsteinsklippcn. like 
a f^Ii^antic ruined fort. Tlie .Scbnarchcr is mauniotic, 
and presents a fine view of the Broken range. 

A carriage eaa be bad from here for 18 marks; 
a horse or mule, 8 marks to 4} marks. By high-road 
or ftw»tpath in two or tbre** hour* you reach the 
suuuuit I't thi' Ijom.iu Mons Jirurti'vus, now railed 

The Brocken, or BloclMlsers, the highest spot 
of the Hars, 8,498 f eetabove S4a levsl (Bro^j^etiiuui^ 
/fiaX being a feifhnndMd feet aboT8ftMi|rdon. || 
bat amoory surface of 1,908 to l,580feet isdianflvfr, 

Digitized by Goog € 

Boate 95.] 



covered with fragmeuts of granite imd masses of 
rock. Here rice tbe rivers Use, 9ode, Holsenime} Ac. 

The Witches* Springy where the witdie^ hold 

their Sabbath, on the eve of Mayday, or Waiptirgis- 
naehl (the subject of one of Mendtlssuhirs finest 
pieces, founded on Goethe's Faust), H a perennial 
spring, arched over, near the DevO'a Pulpit, the 
MTltcheH* Altar, Witches' Dancing Place, and other 
granite peaks. To this spot Mephi'-toplH It s leads 
Faust. The Snow Hole (Schneeluch), wliere the 
snow never melts, may be visited with a guide. 

The view from the wooden tower, or Brocken- 
thimn, 46 feet high, stretehea over a circuit of more 
tlian 100 miles, and embraces 14 great and 800 
little towns nnd villiiL'os, forts and castles, itc. to 
1*0 seen only at rare moments, when the air is free 
from fog and mist. In the immediate netghbonr- 
liood are varioos other heights, via. Towards 
the north He the Scharfenstein, IMctnekenberg, 
Gebcrsberg. and 1?enneckc*nH<>r?. On thf pnst, the 
Hohnekllppen, and Erdbeerkopf. To the south, 
the Barenherg, Great and Little Winterberg, the 
AehternsaniiataShe, and the Konigsberg. On the 
west, the BliirlcTaiincnhor^r.niKl the Quitflchenberg. 

Further in the distanct; is Petorsbcrg, at Halle ; 
the Inselberg, in the Thuringian Forest; the 
Kylfhaaser; tiie Wartbnrg, at Eisenach; fieeherg, 
at Gotha : the WilbdnsliSbe, at Casscl. 

More (iistJint spots nomctimes visible arc. in the 
east, the heights of Brandenburg and the iiuim- 
berg, at Osdiata; in the north, Hanover; the 
Weasr and SauarlBiidlselie Qebirge in the west ; 
and the upper Rhone in the soiith. The ri^in- f\nd 
setting sun, and a uioonlitrht view, oi-o here seen 
to great advantage. What is called the " Urockeu 
Spectre*' (rarely seen) la nothing more than the 
magnified shadow of the spectator and the moun- 
tain thrown on the wall of fog as it rises from the 
valley below. This effect is sometimes witnessed 
on the Cumberland hills, on Etna In Sicily^ and at 
other loealitiea. The Inn at the top contains a 
saloon and sleeping room«^, hut is often very full. 
Some rnrp plants £\nd mosses grow here. Goethe 
wrote his Harasreise in the winter of 1776. 

Ill descending from tbe Broeken to Osenborg (6 
to 7 miles), a good footpath, at the declivity of 
rntcrnostcrherg, leads to the waterfalls of tlie Use; 
thence to the 

Ilseruiein, a grauitc rock, 600 feet alMtve the 
valley, of a granitic character, on whl^b Is an Iron 

Cross, erected by Count Stolberg to the memory d 
thn-^e who fell |n the War of DeUTcrancp. having a 

line iirusijocf . 
Ilsenbuig (.Stat.), in Trussia. • 
Population, 8,090. 

Inn— Vrc'i EotLe Forellen (Three Bed Trottts). 

A small Miininjr phipc. 900 feet above sea level, 
in the Ilsethal, or Yalicy of the Use. liere are 
several foundries, and a collectiou of minerals ajt 
the house of the mining Commtssioner, besides |t 
bathinpT establishment. Walks to the BHuniJcrs- 
klippc, a little off the road to the Broeken. with 
an excellent view of the valley. Lurriagts from 
heretotheBrocken, 16 to 18 m.; horse, ^ m. Ilsen* 
burg to Neust^idt-Harzburg is about 10 miles. 
Railway projoctetl. I?nil t« Wernl^rerode, pagre 85. 

At f^ckej'krug is an inn, at the entrance of the 
vailey of the Kcker, which abounds w^h trout. 
Thence through the Sehimmerwald to 

NeaBta(lt-Harzburg,orHaxzburg(Stat.), in 
Brunswick, on the Brtuiswick andUarzburg Una. 

Population, 4, C20. 

Iiyxs.— liohr's Hotel and Pension; Belle Vue. 
Coach to Ilsenbnrg 9k miloSt and to Brannlagp 

(page 87) Ifi miles, nn the rnad to Aniireasberg 
(pajrc It i*^ fi ur and a half hours' Wftik to the 
lirockeu from ilarzhurg. 

A nofiH town 011 the Badan, the south part of 
which is called Schulenrode. In the ndghbour- 
hoodaretho Julinshall salt springsand baths. The 
Burffberg (1,660 feet high) is a line spot, and the site 
of aSoAon heathen temple whichstood in the t ime of 
Charlemagne. Bulnso^aeastleof Gmperor Benry 
IV. Cmtona Mmument to Prince Bismarck here. 
Should Harzburg Stntinn T)0 tlie starting point, tj^ 
walk through the Uarz will be as follows:- - 

First Day.— To Ilsenburg and the Ilseustein, 
3 1 hours; the Broeken, H^ours. 

Sacoim Day.— To Schicrke and Elbingerod^ f | 
honr<! ; Ikuhcland and Caves. lutnrs. 

Tuiiiu 1>AT. — Blankenburg and the Rosstxap^e, 
8 hours ; Stubenberg, 3 hours. 

FontTH Day.— TictOTsh&he and Alextsbad, S 
hours; Falkenstein and Ballenstedt, 6 hours. 

Front here n visit may be made tO the milling 
, towns of the Upper Hara. 

Digitized by Google 

BRAt>flllAw'i» iLLOtTHATKH 

Kail from Harzburg ui 

yimunlnirf (Stat.). Here a Itoe rant to 
Okir, Oofllar, and Oraubof. fnm Gosinr to 
LanfOlBhelm, Nenknii;, Seesen, and Hen- 

bSrg (pngf ^^0. At LnnL'i'Ufif'im. a };rnn<'b runs 

to LautenUial, Wlldemaim. ami ClauBtlxal, 
nbont 90 mile* f fom Vlenenbnr?. 

Oker (Stat.), »r Ocker, on the Ocker, 
nmonff copper, brns«. nnd vitriol work^. The 
Ockertbal is one of the most striking valleys of 
the Upper Hara. Ateeiidlng it a« far as Zlegen- 
meken, there is a Tlew of the Stndentenkllppe, 
the HoinkfTkH]ijH'n. and other rocky inn-:'-:.r-^-. 

GOSLAR Stat.), in Hanovor, 7 luiies from 
XeustatU-Uarzliurg, by road. 
POPULATIOH, 14,000. 

Zmrs.— Kfllserworth (formerly the Draper** 

Onlld); Hannover. 

An ancient free city and Han^o town, on the 
river Qosc, under the Banimelsberg, atjtout 900 feet 
ahore the ica. Its medlavat walls remain ; with 
the porch (Domkapelle) of the Cathedral, In the 

Rnmanosquo style, now n i;mscuni; also a re- 
xtorod (iothio I'aJme of thfi Emperors, called the 
KniHcrpfalz; n Gothic market church; and an old 
mild of the drapers, now tlie Kaiserworth Inn 
(as above). Good views frcmi the Zwlnger and 
Rlchenher;,' tnwem. There are silver, copper, nnd 
vitriol works here. The Mining Council of the Harz 
meets in the town. Lampe, the iboemalmr, here 
need to do ** miracles with his dcooetlons. Hers 
Vr'ordsworth, residing with his sister In the winter 
of 1798-9, wrote several of his early pieces. The 
Rathhaas was bnilt by the Kmperor lA>thair In 1184, 
and has n good eolleetlon of eurloritles. 

In the nelghhonrhood are the Ncnstadt salt> 

•prlnps; the Steinberg (cniii;ip(\ TJ m.; mtU^S 
1 tn.); the PiidmrrlifTf,'. witli an old watch tower; 
the Clus, or Clause on Petersberg, with tine 
frronnds and a chapel excavated in the sandstone. 
The mines of the 

BmnilMlTiberg, (g.040 ft.X which formerly snp- 

plied quantities of lead, copper, zinc, silver, vitriol, 
sulphur, alum, d:c., worked as early as 974, can 
be visited every day except Sundays. They arc 
aeeessible even for ladles, and are veiy interesting. 
£ven gold« In small qoantitles. Is fomid. Entrance^ 
1) mark for one person. 

From Goiiar to the Brockeu is about 30 miles; 
to Clansthal, 12 or It miles. The road to thsf^ 
latter passes 

Zellerfeld (Stat.). 


Inn. — Deutscbes Haas. 

A mining town, with a eolleetlon of minerals 
and a Uhrary. It ts aqMrated from Clansthal by 

the river Zellbach. 

GLAViXBAL (Stat.), in HanOTor. 

Popi'LATlnN, 15.000 with Zellerfeld. 
Is.N.— Goldene Krone; .Stadt London. 
DiLiGE>'CEto Osterude (the nearest station on the 
Sonth) In U hour; toElMngerode; andtoGoslar. 

The eai4tal of the mining towns of the Upper 

Harz, on a bleak plain, 1,840 feet above sea level. 
Most of the hoiisps aiHi !)uildinps are of wood. 
The streets arc broad, and planted with chesnut 
and other trees. It oontalns two Cbvrehee; a 
Mining Academy (Bergschnle), with a odleetion 
of tnlnern!-^, coins, and models. Silver, lead, and 
copper are worked in the mines, bj- water power, 
supplied from nrtiticial reservoirs; the most pro« 
dnettve being the Kandlna and Dorothea minea, 
IM to SNK) fathoms deep. The popnlatlQil oonslsl*^ 
almost entirely of miners. 

The best view of ClausthnI nn.! Zi lkrf* Id is 
from the Bremerhiihe, behind the Goldene Krone 
Hotel, where may still be seen the traces of an 
entrandment made by Tilly. To the west are 
Frnnkriischamcr PllherhHtte, a larj^ silver-smelt- 
injr foundry; and the mlnlnpr towns of Grund, 
Wildemaim, and Laatentbal, on the rsUway 
from Langelihelm to Chinsthal, see ahoti. 

A carriage road leads from Clansthri to the 
Brockm. It passes the Spwberheyer Danun, an 

aqnednct r)0 feet high, and over the Bruckberg, 
past the Oder Teich to Kunigskrng, an Inn at the 

foot of Achtermaunshuhe. 

A little further is Braunlage (page 87), about 
20 miles from Glausthal, a town on the Warm Bode, 

with glass works and blue dye works. Tbenco, by 
Elend, to the Broeken. At the S{>erberh^er 
Darom, above mem ioned, a road turns off to . 

A small mfaitng town, prodnohig sliver, load 
and Iron. At Apltienberg is found the Maa^t^ 

Digitized by Google 

liuuLe 25.] 



oiKen<«tein. a rock so called because It acts upon 

the ma^ietic needle. 
From Clausthal It is 9 miles (dillKSiict) to 
Osterode (Stafti), wtiich may also be reaohcd 

vid Lerbftch, In a vallr^y ini'lor the Karbe hill. It 

The second mining town after Claufthtd, on a 
slaty height, 1,830 feet mitove sea level. Tl^e MiM$ 
hftTe been worked tlnoe tlie tbirteenth oentaiir, 

and produce silver, lead« copper, cobalt, arsenic, 
and other minerals. In 1728 a lump of silver 

stands on the rail from Nordtwuisen to .Sceson (sec ^ weighing 80 lbs. was found here, and was after 

Route 26, for this and the following stations). 
PopviA'nox, 6,800. 
/fo/^/<.~-Gng1isch«r Hof ; Krone. 

An old town on the Sosc, with wool and cotton 
manufactures, and large granaries atthe Jobannls- 
thor, where com is sold to the miners at a small 
fixed price, especially in times of scarettj. 

In the Marlct, or Aegldlenkirchc, is a mnnnmpnt 
of the Dnkes of Brunswick. Kear the town is 
dcheerenberg, with its manuiactures of white lead, 
Terdigris, and small sliot. 

Diligence to Ciausthal. 

From Osterode it is aliout eiprht miles to 

Herzborg (Stat.), in Hanover; not to be con- 
founded with the Neu8t«dt-Harxburg(8ee page 87). 


Inn. — Welsses Ross (White Horse). 

A town on the Sieber; with a Custlc in wiiich 
the first Elector of Hanover was boni, and his son. 
King George I. of England, was bsptised. 

In tlie BartiwloiiHlildrehe are Mime family 

There is a road hence to the Junction of the 
beautiful valleys of the Sdse and Sieber, \m*t the 
KnollenlMiv, and tlie town of Andressberg md 
thence on to the Broclcen. Jnnction of the line 
to Northcim (page 80). 

From Herzbcrg the rail leads past Scharzfcld 
and the KUnigshtttte fonndries, to 

UtnttrtMrff (8tat.), in Hanover. j 

POPCLATiou, 8,900. Kron*. j 

A pleasant town on the Oder, amonf? mines of ( 
fioal and iron, with a Water Cure, just beyond 
tlieHaiisberg; which, as well as tlie Engelthalslcopf 
and Ahrensberg, affords a fine distant view of the 

wards stolen from the GQttlngen Museum. The 
shaft of the Great Samson Mine is 400 fathoms 

deep; the machinery is worked by water pjtwer 
deiivp«i from the reservoir under the Brocken. 
The road from here to Elbingerodc passes Braun- 
lege and Elend. Diligence daily. 

TMteabom (Stat), • mUes from Benherg, 

is the station for 

Sachsa, a small Prussian town, among iron 
forges; near tlie Honterstein, a mass of dolomite 
rock having a castellated appearance. 

Thence pass Sachsensteln, and a rugged wall ot 
gypsmn rocks, to 

Walkenrled (Stat.), in Brunswick. 

- riuldener IJiwe (Golden I.ion). 
A town on the Wieda, with an old conventual 
Church, near some Abhey ruins. 
From hence yon can go by a ridge, past Zorge 

Hohegeiss, 1,900 feet above the sea, Bemnecken- 
stein and Tanne, to Elend and so on, to the Urockcn. 
About three miles from Wnlkenried lies 

BDxicH (Stat.) 
/nn.— Sehwarier Adler. 

A small Prussian town In the beautiful valley 
of the Zorgc. with n.fMH) inhabitants. Diligence 
to Harzburg, by itrauulage, and to Wemigerode. 
A pedestrian excursion may be made to Ilfeld, 

WenUl, where is tl>e Kf'h Car<\ HO feet high 
at the entrance, 165 feet inside, and 800 feet long. 
Passing Appcnrodc, you arrive at 


/nn.— Qoldene Krone. 

A town In the l>eautiful Behrc Thai. 3 miles from 

south-east part of the Ilarz. and of the Ooldenc j Niedersachswcrfen station. North of the town Id 
Aue (Golden Valley). A road from here leads to 
Andreasberg ; another leads up the heantlf nl OdM^ 
That The line Is eontlnued to 

AndrMlllMaiSt St. Andrew's HUlt in Pms- 
aiaii HfiTiover. 

Pt>l'LI-.lTIO», 3,500. 

Rathskeller; Schttts«ihaas. 

the Nadelohr (Needle's Eye), a perforated rock. 
A road leads from hare ty Satheobtttte and 
Beneckenstein to the Brocken. At S miles from 

Ilfeld is 

Xeiutadt-IIohnttein, the largest of all the mined 
t urtresses of the Harz. with a ihie Ylew, Hence by 
a footpath past gMifn/crtt In 4^ hours to 

Digitized by Google 

90 littApSHAWV 


NoteU^VrtyULfi £beranit. 

This pictnreaqiie llttla place'- Is ueted fur good 

8AU8ai<:cs and larkf, nnd for itediMybeate springs. 

A Prusshin tr>wit in the vallpy of the Tlira. the 
sent of the Counts StollMjrif. At their Cagtle is a 
jCoUection of onus, library of fiO.OOO volanu*s, 
portrait of the poet I^eopold von Stolberg^, ttiid n 
statue of Krodo, a pagan idol, witb an altar-pletie 
by L. Cnniach, in the Chapel. Here aie peper and 
powder mills. 

Mitnser or Miinatert the leader of the PteMnto* 
War in the slscteenth century, was bMn here, 

StnllK'i-.'- is now (1889) r i?ily accessible l)y rail 
from Kossla (see page 9i), iu about three-quarters 
of an hour. 

Diligence from hence to Harzgerode and to 
AlexUhod, 13| miles. 

On the way to Harzgcrode we pass JonephMhShe, 
on the top of the Auerberg, a cone 1,980 feet high. 
Fcdestrians should turn aeide and clHnb this 
height. At the summit is a tower bnilt by Count 
StolbeiVi with an extensive view. 

Harzgerode (Stat.). 

POITLATION, •2,4i»a. 

Jan. — Wcisses Ilosa (White Horse). 

An old town of Anhalt Bemburg, in the Selhe- 
thal, with a C^astle, now nsed as a forest and 
niiJiinp- court. The Stadtkirche contain-* jrrjives of 
some of ttie family of AnhuU Beniburg', one of the 
most ancient in Germany. 

The town walls and paYement are made of 
marble found in the neighbourhood. I^caidand 
silver are also worked at the Vict or Friedrlchs 
Silver works, the riaffen, and other mines. 

The journey from here to the Brocken is by way 
of Qttnterebcrge, Stiego, Hasselfeldei and Elend. 
Rail to Alexisbad and Qemrode. 

Alexlsbad, wWh U\o hotels and a pension. 
IIfr<' nrc iron and MilpUur sj)riii<rs. which aro used 
alter severe illnesses, tScc. There are many jjood 
walks around, the oonntry being exceedingly pic- 
turesque. Uvin^-^ here is reasonable.- Rail to 
Ciintersbevge ajid Hasselfelde. 

The Valley of the Sell c (^i. lke Thai), the most 
pleaxaut among the Hai-z ranges, begins near 
Batlenetedt (page dl>, and runs past the iAagde- 

iLLtfSTltATBD [8^. 4. 

spriuig iron-works, and the small t^wn^ of 
GUntersberge. Near the former Is «n Moineocf 

crowned by a colo!»sal Obelisk of cast iron, erected 
by the Duke of Anhalt -Bp mbnrp, t<j the nieniorv 
of his father, 1S13. There is also a Diinerai cviicc- 
tion . On the Ui^etrappe Hill are footprints said 
; to b<- the marks left by a Ilunnish giantess, 20$ 
; feet tlistaii'i rrum each other. Clo?«* by is a cast - 
, iron Cross, erected by Princess Frederick of 
Prussia, to her f atlicr. 

Farther up the river, at the top of the M«|s«- 
berg, is the htmting seat of the Duke of Aiihaltr 
Bcrnbnrg, with a fine view as far n;^ tlip Brocken. 
On the opposite bank of the river is the Hausb<'r>' 
on wUiuh arc the ruius of thu lainily castle of tht 
Anhalt prinoes. 

From Alexisbad it is 2 mUes to 

VietorsMhe, on the Ramberg, which has an open 
wooden tower, with 104 steps, erefted 1829, by 
Duke Alexius. Refreshments can be procured, 
and horses baited. From this there Is a fine view 
of 30 miles rotmd, Inctading the Brocken, Magde- 
burg, Halle, Ac. 

The Ramberg. the highest spot In the Lower 
Harz, consists, like the Brocken, of granite, 
strewed with loose fragments, one of which is 
called the Devil's Mill (Teufelsmlible). 

From tbf Ramborcr. a road leads past the little 
waterfall, at t^aalsteine, to the Stubouberg, a £uc 
p(tot of view, 860 leet high, near 

Oemzods <8tat.}, • >maU town of Anhalt> 
Bernburg, in a romantic !^pot. R ill fromQuedliR- 
burp: (pnpro M) and to Harzgeroilo (above). 

PoPLLATiON, 2,450. UoUl. — Dcutsches JUnus. 

The ancient Smaanesqne CtlkiireA, erected MQ^ hf 
theUargraveOero of Lusatla, is weUpreeerved. It 
has choirs at both end?, and a monument Of (he 
fonii !t erected 1645. Close to this is 

Suderode, a village at the foot of Diisterberg, 
near the BeHngtr Beut-^ a ealt both, mneli used by 
women and children fur scrofnlaand consumiption. 
It has a Curhaus and hotels. 

Farther on the same road is the pretty villagre of 

Btecklenberg, with piotnresqae mlns, in the 
Worm Thai. 

Still further, past the PnetflitBtdga (Faets* 

j ladder), is 

I NeiUfltedt (Btat.), with a bathing establish- 

Digitized by Google 


mcnt, opened 1836, which partly ir««eiv«» Its water 
from the nnbdrtnsbmnnen. 

From Gernrode, by the QuedHnburg-Aschers- 
leben Rail, "r on foot ; past the vUlage of Reider, 
over f\ •'■ood stone bridge, to 

EaUenStedt (SUt.) or Ballenstadt, on the 
brunch to Ascb«r»l«be», 4c, to Anhalt-Bcrnbnrg. 

^OPULATIOUt 4»7«0. 

/nn^iadt Bemburg. 

Bail to Quedlinbnrg (page 84), four times a day. 

An old wnlU d town, on a hill side, over the 
Geltel, joined by a novr street, one mile long, to 
the hin on which stand* the ancient Pataee of the 
Dukes of Anhalt-Bcmburg, commanding n fine 
view of thp Hnrz and Brocicen. It contains a good 
collection of paint ings, by Vandyk, Rembrandt.aud 
other Dutch roasters ; a llbniiy of 8,<K)0 TOlnines ; 
cabtnetfl ol colas and minerals. Annexed to It are 
k chapel, tlieatre, riding-house, a lunitfntr box 
called the La Muette. a park of fallow deer, and a 
brewery noted for ''Ballcnstedtcr La^orbler/* 

In the environs are the Zlegenberg; and the 
Zehllng raUancrie, on the way to Quedlinbnrg, 
near which the Tcnf rhnaucr range ends. Hence to 

Opperode, at the foot of the Stahlsberg, and 
thence on to 

M«Isdorf, to the Selke-Tbal, which belongs to 
the Counts Von der Asaeburg; then over the steep 
Liungcnsteigc to 

Falkenstein, an old fortress, in the Sclke-Thal, 
4| miles from BaUen»tedt, on a rock 1,080 fe^above 
the sea. It Is restored, and commends from the 
donjon tower a line view of t&c valley, Ac. Here 
Is L. Cranach's portrait of the Elector John 
FreiiiTifk of Snxony. 

From liiillcnstcdt the road may be taken, past 
Harkerodc, Walbcck Castle, and the Hettstidt 
•liver works, p» Lelmbach on the Wipper, and 
X^HWfoia Otftt), to 9a»ny. 


7«n.— Stadt Keller. 

A smaU Prussian mtotog town, where Luther's 
father, John Lather, was a copper miner, and 
Jjuilter himself was educated in the parish school ; 
whkli has an inscription upon it. There is 
auoLher on the MoftH in which he Uved (''J. L. 


The ruined Castle of the Counts of Mansfcld. 
on th« Lliun)<.'rg, was taken seven times in the 
Thirty Years VV^ar. Luther often preached In the 
castle Chapel ; whleh has an altar-pieee, by Lneas 
Cranach, and a Bible carved in wood hy a 
shepherd. Part of the castle was rebuilt, 1 860. 

From iralbcrsta<l*t, or Qnedlinburg, the following 
route 19 recommended for the yelke-Thal: Quedlin- 
burg,Stccklcnburg, Gcrnrode, Stubcnbcrg, Bullen- 
stedt, Meisdorf, Falkenstoin, up the Selke-Tbal, by 
MHgdesprung to Aloxlsbad, and Harzirerode, Vic- 
torshiihc, Fricdrichsbrunn, Tan/.platz. liusstrappc, 
Bodethal, &c. Rail may be taken from either 
Halbcratadt or Quedllnburg to Balleustedt. 


HftUo toEisie^en, Nordhausen, SrjBiunbf Uif 
Harz, and CasseL 

By rail from Halle in 4^ hours (exp.), or 6i hours 
(ordinary); the stations are as under? — 

Halle to Miles. 

OberiJblingen 17 

Kislcben 23| 

Kiestiidt 32 

Sangerhausen '^7 

Walthansen.;. 41i 

Rossla 47i 

Heringeii 6&j 

■Norilli.ui-cii fiOA 

\Bi'<mchei to Nort- 
heim <as below) aad 

to Erfurt, 44 miles, 
by Sondershauscn.] 
Wolkramshausen ... 

Blcichcrodc 72 

Genu'odc ...»»... 83 

Lotoefeldc 87 

IBranch to Got ha, 
sec Route 29]. 

Heiligcnatadt $71 

Arenhausen 104| 

Eichenberg — 

{Bra flcA to GStttogen] 
M iinden...»«M.**»*M** ~~ 
Hedcmitoden ......... — 


From Nordhanscn (aK 
above) to Horthelm and 
See»in. as follows: (nVi 
Kaunoverschp Eispn- 

Ilerzberg 26^ 

IBrwich to Seesen, 
ftO miles.] 

Catlenburg 371 

?sorthcim 43 

Halle, as ill Route 16. Ti um here 23| mile? to 

EiSleben (Stat.), i" Saxony. 

PofUL.VTlON, 23,908. 

/nn*.— GoldncsScUiff; Anker. 

The birth-place of XaMer, aad an old mining 
town, on a hill overthe river Bose.near t^vo hiki^. 
It was the chief place of the Counts of .MauNfcUl; 
hcirii? walhnl round, and having modern jiliburbs 
outside the seven gates. There is a mining schoo? 
here. Jn the neti^iboarbood are oopper and sllTW 
mtoe^, with saltpetre aad potash works. 

Digitized by Cgpgle 


M llRAU6tlAW*8 

iAtiher't House, in which be was born, the son 
of AinllMr, 10th November, 1482, and In which he 
dtod lHh FdbnuuT, IMS, was hunt down MMt 
bat on its site was erected, 31it Octobif, 1698, a 
building now used as a Poorhonse and School, 
and which was enlarged at the Beformation 
Jobllte of 1817. Hot* are Tarioits memoiatocs, 
rachaahia wiitlng-taUo (ao oallodXwIth a|lor- 
tralt carved on it; his wedding ring, cloak, and 
cap; an cntrraved portrait, and stained portraits 
uf hliu and Melancthon, in the window. A panel 
pwtnlt bean a Lattn distich, dated 1504 (Featls 
oiatn Tivens, moriens ero mors tua, Fapa),foinided 
on hh- -s-tviuK that he would he the *' plafjuc of the 
Pope while alive, and the death uf him after- 
ward*.** The Reformer's bust is over the door, 
with the f amoiia rhyme— 

Dram vrrgefatti* Biaim«nn«br. 
The Wflid «f Oo4 !• Laihm'slM*, 

Which therefor* itanda for evermore. 

In the Peter-Paul-kirche (St. Peter and Faul) is 
the font at which Luther was baptised. 

The ilMlrwj-Mvlle (St. Aiidrew*a) eoDtaina tomba 
of theCoontaof Manafeld, with imataof Luther 
and Ifeianchthon ; also the Pulpit from which 
Luther preached, and from which special sermons 
are preached on the anniversaries of his birth and 
death. Though he died heret be waa bwled at 
Wlttenbetf . Statne^ wiTelled 1888. 

Near at hand is HcttstUdt, a small rainin? town, 
6 miles from which is Mansfcld Castle, the old 
seat of the Counts of Mansfeld. See Route 26. 

8aiig«rliauin <88at) 

PomATK^ir, 11,000. bm.—USwe. 

A mannfftctnrln^ town at the end nf the 
Goldene Aue, or Valloy of the Helme, with nmny | 
peat bogs and copper mines in the neighbourhood. 
AbranehnmatoBrfnrt^oM Artem/whereGoetlie'a 
family, who were blacksmiths, came from. 

The Ulrlchskirche, built l)y T.udwljr the Springer, 
to commemorate his escape from Oiebichenstein 
Castle, eontalns hb tonb. Close to 

BO«aft(Stttt) is a Castle of GoutBtcilberg; 
and near It. on the Kuffhiiuter mil 1,400 feet high, 
is the ruined tower beneath which the Kmperor 
Frederlcii I., it is said, sits enchanted, at a stone 
table, with his red beard (from whieh he was anr- 
named JlorkirsiM) growing through itt waiting 

iLLOsTRATien [Sec. 3. 

I until Geruaauy resume!! her ancient glory. It 
is itaunted by him and his i^ueen UoUe. Here 
the people seareh for gold, and the **Wttiukr 
Blume" (miiaenlona flower). On another height 

, are the ruins of a strappHng' pile, one quarter mile 
long, overlookintr the Golden Mead, built by 
Henry IV, Kail tn .Stolberg, page 90, 

HordliaiUMn (Stat), in Prussian Saxony. 

PopinLATtov, 86,85>. 

//of</#.— RBmische Kaiser; EngUscherBof ; Ber- 
liner Ilof ; Deutsche.s Han^ 

Railways.— To Erfurt, Lcipsic, Berlin. Ac. 

An old imperial city, which came to Prussia, 
1808 { at the head of the Golden Valler, at the fost 
of the Harz Mountaiaa, on the River Zorge. It 
confi^t^ r>f Upper and Lower Town; and has 
large brandy distilleries and breweries, with 
manufactures of oU-calte, chicory, and a good 
trade in com, *e. 

Near the Town Hall is a Kolands-Si&ule. 

In St. ]?I:isionkir<-he are L. ("ranach's paintin^i 
of the Burial of the Young Man of Nain, and the 
licee Homo. Here F. A. W«ti^ tlM great aeholar, 
went to s^MMd under Hake. HewaabomatKai»- 
rode, a neighbouring village. Within a few uiilcs 
are the Geiersberp. and the Kohnstein. with a 
ilmcstoac grotto; the ruins of Hohenstuin Castle 
commanding a line view; the Ebertberg, and other 
polnta of intoreet. 

[SondenhaoBen (Mat.), on the line 

Nordhausen to Erfurt. 

Population, 6,684. /nns.— MOnch { Tanne. 

Caidtal of thelitOo Frtaicipallty of flchwanbug- 
Sendereiiaiisen, In tiie pretty Talley of the Wli^r, 

under the GSldner and Possen llills; with a 
Theatre, ice. At the Castle of the reigning Prince 
is a cabinet of natural history, and a museum of 
antiqnltlea, te. The Prinelptilty Inolndes AXUp 
gtatft (population, 11,818), and oovem nbont 880 
square miles.] 

From Nordhausen to Cassel is C9 miles. At 
LainefMdA is the Janetlon for Gotha, see Route 
39. The only place of interest la 

HeUlgenrtadt (Stat.), miles from Cassel. 

Popt T AT!ON '\AM). - Prcussischer Hof. 

A small town, formerly the capital of the Prind* 

pality of BIdiafeld, wltha CasttoradflnewatiiMls* 
Oawol («M Route 18). 

Digitized by Google 


Houte 27.] 

Berlin to Wittenberg, BeBsau, COtbeil, 
Bemburg, Magdeburg. 

The connection between the places on this Route 
with Meh othM* ttBd wlfh Halle wad Lelpde it 
Btade by the ioUoiring lines ef rail:— 


Dcssaii ...*•»«• 9S 

[BrancA to 
Jcssnitz 33 

Bittcrfcld HI] 

Cutben 85 


..... 6 


1. Wittenberg 
Cos wig .*•..... 

Klickea «.»-*• 
Bosslfttt ........ 

[Branrft to 

Zerbst 36*] 

J. Magdelmiig, Staiefnrt, CVthen, Bemtmrf , Belle, 
and Leipsle. 

Magdeburg to miles. 
Sebteebeek ........... H 

[Branch to mllee. 

Bendorf 6 

Bemburg ISi] 

Stumsdorf 40| 

Halle 58 

Schkcudits 65 

IBrtmeh to Steesf vrt} 

OnadAU 13i 

Calhc on the Seele. 17 

CothPH 31 ' li^Ipsic 72f 

Berlin to Wittenberg, as in Route 16. Then 
Cotwlg(8tat.) PapoLATioit, 8,800. 
A ywy eld town In tbe IHieby of Anhelt. 

The Ducal Castle, rebuilt 1R77, Is close to the Elbe. 
The Collegiate Church of St. Nicholas Is an old 
plain building. There are largo breweries and a 


Tn tJip Duchy of Anhalt, at tbe junction of the 
Rossla with the Elbe. Not far from the little 
Dacal Castle are the remains of the eldfort. Tbere 
ere bfewerlee, pepwend other mUle, en tbe Bosels. 
The railway is carried over the Elbe by e good 
bridge, 740 feet long. 

DESSAU (Stot) 

Fopm.Aiios, 34,668. 

HoTus.— OeldenerBentet; Rirach. 

Chief town end eeet of the Dukedom of Anbelt, 
on the river MuHc, near the Elbe; built in a 
fertile and beautiful spot. 

It is divided into the Old and New Town (Alt- 
stedt end Kenetedt), end hee four Miburbe, of 
which one, on the opposite bank of the Malde, is cou- 
ncrtfd-vrlth the town by a stone bridge ; another is 
called the Sand. Tbe town contains seven squares. 
The best street U Cevalier Streiee. 

The Scblotikiicbe of 0t. Mery, bnllt et the be- 

ginning of t he sixteenth ccntur> . has the tomb of the 
ducal family. Among the pictures is L. Cranach's 
femone one of the Lest Sapper, with poitreite of 
the leaders of tbe Eeformetion, Luther, Hdeaeh- 

thon, Ac. 

Close to the church is the /iw<l«ir<ScWoM (palace) 
which stands in a beautiful park, end oontelns ft 
picture gallery, with 600 works by the luitan end 
Dutch masters, the latter valuable; also a collec- 
tion of <■ >ins relics. &c., In the room called the 
Gypskaninjcr. Among other curiosities are the 
sword and stick of ''Der AlteDessever,** the popa- 
lar Prince Leopold; with Nepoleon^e silver cu^ 
Ac, taken et Weterioo. Trtnkgeld, t m. 

The Ducal Riding School isadorncd with tT^ cnty- 
twohigh reliefs, by Dolls, relating to tiu; history 
of horsemanship. 8utuea of Prince Leopold, and 
his son Leopold Ftande, on the pende. where the 
bend plays deily the favonrlte Dessau Mardi. 
The Franz School Is an excollrnt sch(X)l for Jews, 
to which is joined a seminary for the education of 
Jewish teachers. 

The AmtMemti/tung, or Almshouse, was instt- 
tnted by tbe daughters of Pirinee Leopold, for 
poor old women. Open dally. Tt ii divided Into 
three departments, and has a library and collection 
of models. In the upper storey are seven Itundred 
oU paintings, mostly by old German and Duteh 
masters. The Louisa School of Industry is a useful 
ItTHtitntion Th< (( js rtn oxcellont ducal libraf)*, 
40,000 vols. The public Cemetery is one of the 
fiuMt In Gemuuiy. Here the famous false Mar- 
gruTe Waldemar la burled. 

In the Ascanisehe-strasse was bom Moses 
Mendelssohn, the learned grandfather of the great 
musician, whose father used to say :— When I was 
young, I was known as the son of the great 
philosopher; now I am grown np, I am called the 
father of the famous composer. 
In the neighbourhood arc several due^l villas; as 
The Gwrgeniiatis, uitd its handsome park, nut 
shown to strengers; the Kllhnau, on a small leke, 
8 miles bejrond the Oeoigengarten; Oranienbaum, 
8 miles from Dessau, by diligence; the Luisium 
Castle and Park; the Sieglitzer Berg, having a good 
view over the Elbe, near another ducal monument. 

WQlttti* S mO** ivvM Deesaa, 1 mOea imp 
Coewijrt whereyon leate the rail and erose th« fsnry 

Digitized by Google 


over the Elbe. A short Icadd to the Ducal 
GMtle and Park, xrifh Gardmu laid out lii the 
modarn atylo. Thara i» a fine nntural liiko, 

with snnie other object «« -as the Gothic Ilnusc, 
La»>yi iuth, Nyiuphiium, Temple o( Flora, i emplo 
of Venus, Wood ol Diana, tho Giottoei of Vulcan 
and Haptnna. The Gothic House (1 to 3 marki) 
ooutainsaomG valMnljlo and unique early German 
paintlnprs. The k^uiIoiis inquire tliicc hours. 
Guide from the inn, 1 mark. Tlic Duchy iueluiics 
Cothcn and Beroburg, and baa salt worka at 
I#eopold«haU and Statif urt. 

O^MBV (Stat.), 
At the Junction of the tfasdebnrflr, Berltai, Bern- 
bvrgt tOiA Leipzltr lines. 

PniTT.ATlOK, 18,000. 

Hotel.— Prina Ton Preusseu. 

Notice the Refovmed Ohnrohof 0t. Jamea, In the 
Market place; the Lutheran Church of St. Agnes ; 
andthefonner Dncal Castle, sxirrouudod by a moat, 
vhlch haa three towers all alike, and a i^ood col- 
lection of coiaa and antiquities, also Naumann's 
collection of ondtholosry. In the Stadtklrehe ia a 
font by Thorwaldion. 

GnadaU (Stat.) A Moravian colony, tlircc 
miles from l\Iii<j:<iel)urK, built, as usual, in thefom of 
a square. Before reaching hero the nil eroisea 
the Baale, by a bridge, 1,477 feet long. 

Sdldnebeok (Stat.), on the Elbe, near large 
efiPTniriil works. In the nelghbourhoofl, at Gross- 
Salze, are brtths for the cure of scrofula; and salt 
works. These tsvo places, with FrollBe, form a 
triangular town, and were foonded by Sirederick 
the Great, 1772. Branch line of 20 mil f r m 
SchonebecktoBlumenberg, Egeln, an i Stass- 
furt, among salt works. Schonebeck to Magde- 
burg (page 19X 9i mtlea. 

From Cdthen Btatioa • branch rail tuma off 
toBiendorf and A<;> hnffcnhurp'. jinsslng 

BERNBURG (Stat.), in Anhalt. 

PoroLATiOM, 28,826. 

HoTBL.— Ooldene Kngel. 

Tbiatown, on the8aale,wa«llie capital of the now 
teitt^ Ducliy of Anhalt-Bemburg; consisting of 
affOTdAnd New Town, wnllfd in, and joined to the 
Beri^tadt, on the right bank of tho river, by a stone 
bfld^ ^"fn ffitt long. In a lite wWhfha atreet. 

[See. S. 

Por«el^ and paper ar^ made. The Dueal CcuOe 
la an old building of the fiftoi-nth century, with a 
tall Ke,^j> surmounting the hill on which it stands, 
overlooking the town. It has a theatre, riding 
house, orangery, &c. The family mmuoienta are 
in the Marien-klrche, of the fifteenth eentnxr. 
This little duchy lies between the rivers Snale and 
Elbe and the Hnrz mountains. 

At StumsdOrf (Stat.), the first station from 
Ciithcn, twelve miles from Halle, the hill of Peters- 
bergta eeai rising on Hm right, l,380feet h%fa, wHh 
fragments of a convent i also the mined eaatle of 
Giebichenstein, an old state prison, on a rock 100 
feet hijrh. where the Landgrave Louis of Thiiringcn 
escaped from captivity, by Jumping through a 
window. From this eyenthe Is called "Ludwig dte- 
Springw.** Fron Stumsdorf to Kalle (paga M>. 


ElBenacb to Coburg, Souneberg, anA 
LlclitenfelB (Werra Eisenbahn— a part ef «he 
Thoringian BaUway Bystam). 

StethMla aa ft»Ilow:-^ 



Themar 51 

Hildburghanaen ... 6$ 

Eisfeld...... ....... 68 

Coburg , 89 - 

[Branch to 

Otihlau 4^ 

NcustJidt 9| 

Soimebei^ ... 19J 
Bbendorf ............ M| 

lichtenfets....*....... 96 


Eisenach to 

Mark.suhl 8} 

Salznngen ............ 17 

Iminelbom 20 

Wemshnusen 25^ 

[Bmnch to Schmalkalden] 

Wa.snnjrcn 30.J 

Walldorf 84^ 

Meiningen Sa 

^B'-'!'\'~h to Ki^singon.] 
CirinuiR'iithal 4'i| 

This line ascends tho deep valley of the Wcrro, 
on the borders of the Thnringian Forest. 

KtmwiaCll (Stat), as in Boute 16. 
Hence past the Wartburg to 
SalZimgen ( Stat.), and its mineral springs. 
Immelborn (Stat.) ; from which there is a 
short branch line to 

LI£B£NST£iN, in Saze-Meinlngen. 
Population, 1,0<M). 

HoTSijs.— Kurfaans; Betlemet Hotel Itflfller. 

A small bathlng-placp. in a fine part of the' moun- 
tafns of the Thurinprian Forest; wfth Sprin^i 
resembling those of Pyrmont, but contaiuhfig more 
iron. There la a handsome Bath>hoiiiB« with Water 

Digitized by Google 



Cure, dancing and dining rooms, theatre, and the 
FBntmilHUia, where tbere is a fine garden. Froe- 

bel, the Inventor of the Kindcr^rton for cliiMi en, 
lived at Liohen?toin . Ercm'swnx can be made to the 
Burg liebenstein, the old scat of the Saxe-Mciuingcn 
family, on a fine point of Tlew ; to the Brti^aU and 
Its grotto, in which 1,600 persons can be accom- 
modated; to the ^otto at GlUcksbrunnen, about 
(JUO f< (.'t 1(111- : to AJtensitun Castle; and to the 

1. Inselttery, one of the highest points of the 
Thiiringor Wald (Forest of ThuriDgia), 3,060 feet 
aboTO sea. It can be readied in a walk of about 

nine miles, by the Thiiringorthnl, or by the 
Truscnthal, along the course of the Truse. At the 
top a bed can be got at two small but very com- 
fortable inns. It is generally visited in the after- 
noon. It stands on the old Rennstcig or Ramstc- i is 
road, which runs along tin; rid^rc and is the 
boundary of Saxc-fJothfi and I'lussia, as it was 
formerly of Francouia and Thuriagia. The View 
takea In aliont 150 places and pealcs, Indnding the 
Sclmeekopf, Ueerberg, and Hohberg Hills, the 
Tlnr?:, Gotha, Eisenach at^d the Wartbur?. Erfttrt, 
and the Drci Gleiclien, <tc. There aie numerous 
fijie walks in other directions from the Inselberg. 

8. Altenstein, a summer castle belonging to the 
Duke of Meinittgen, in a fine altnatlon. The 
TeofelsbrScke, a chain suspension bridge near it, 
has a p:nod prospect of the Werrathal. The Gothic 
Ritterkupclle contains some painted glass, besides 
drums, helmets, shields, &c. Not far from It is a 
eroeiflx, on the spot where St. Boniface is said to 
have preached; also Luthersbrunnen (Luther's 
Well), with a pillar close to the site of iMther's 
Buche, or Beech tree, where ho was surprised by 
the Elector's men in masks, and carried off to the 
Wartharg> The Gerberstein, in this part of the 
Thuringian Forest, is a granite peok, 2,'iCO feet 
above the sea, with a splendid view. 

On the way from Immelbom to I4ebenatein 

ynu pasH 

£&rcMeId, a small town in a beautiful valley, 
on the Wenra, near the railway, with a Castle of 
the Landgrave of Hesse Philippsthal. 

POl^imATIOK, 1,500. 

Wern8liatis«n (Stat) Abont twenty minutei 
by riil fhun here is 

SCHKALKAUDEN (Btatb) In Prussia; formerly 
In Hesse-CasseL TbB rail waa i^ened te this 
place in 1874. 

PoPULATtOK, 6,500. 

Inns. — Adler: Krone, in the Market Plarp, 
A very ancient town, with old walls, and many 
wooden houses, at the junetloB of fke Stllle and 
Schmalkalde, among Iron and saltndnee. Here are 

the old Wilhelmsburg and Hessenhof Castles, and 
a Gothic church. At the Crown Inn the famous 
Protestant League of ikhmalkald was signed 1581, and 
promulgated in 15i7, after seyeral. meetings held 
here. A painted window has portraits of :Ftln<!es 
who Tvprp present. The articles were drawn up liy 
Melanchl li'>n. laithcr, and others, in the .Sannersche 
Haus, near the Castle. Iron and steel goods, arms, 
buttons, meerschaums, stocidngs,dMs.,oremadehere, 
and in the neighbourhood. The estates round this 
town, forfeited by the late Elector of Hesse-Casscl, 
have been given by the King of Frassla to the 
Duke of Sexe^oburg, a great supporter of BiMb 
German suprenuicy. From flchmalkalden lines to 
Floh Seltgenthal, and to ZeUa St Blasfl. 

WasUnSill (Stat.), on the Werra; another 
old place, with a Castle, long the rcsldr nce of the 
Counts of Henneberg, the founders of the line of 
Saxc-Cobnrg. Much tobacco is cultivated. 

Just past WalldOEf (8taft.)istbeane(restored) 
castleof XttMbtetv, en a conical hillf l,2fiOfeet high. 

MBININCffiM (Stat.), in Saxe-Meintogen. 

POPULATION', 12,029, many Jews. 

Inks. — Sachsischer Ilof ; Hirscb. 

The capital of the Dnchy of Meiningon and the 
dmeal residence, in a fine valley, on the Werra, 
about 000 feet above sea level. The town was 
half destroyed by a fire in 1874. The streets are 
broad and straight, and watered by the river, 
which divides into several arms. The Palace or 
Ellsabethsbnrg is a handsome pile, about 000 feet 
long, with two wings. It o6ntains a gallery of 
Italian and Dutoh ma^tpf. colloetfons of natural 
history, coins, a library of 20,0«0 volumes, and the 
Henneberg archives; with a chapel in the fine 
Park or Ett^tA Cardtn wflh its pnnnenades, 
Wednesday and Saturday. 2 to 4. The Rathhans 
and the I>ucat Gardens are especially well worth 
seeing. *" 

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[Sec. 2. 

A chanuiiii; walk l««dt to tbe Z<mdU«f7i i 
under Walldorf, pag« 9ft), with •oaii« iiitorosting | 
rollcctions, froacoes, *c. It overlooks the Werrn. ' 
and the Thttriuger Wald. Excursion to the Dolmar, 
» bMaltIc HMmntidiit with grand vtew* of the 

Rail from Meintngen, through Ebenhausen and 
Kjssinpcn to 8oh\\Hnfurt, pages 170 and 171. 
Themar (Stat). Branch to ScblenaiDgen. 

BXLS8VBOHAVSSH (Btttt), In Sax«* 

PoPCLATioy «,000. i 
Ikks. — Eujs^lischer Hof ; 8acht>ischcs iluu>> 
Formerly the seat of the Principality of Snxt- 
HildburgluiiiMn, foanded hy £nieat, the ton of 
Ernest the Pious, and annexed to 8exe-Melningcn 
In 1826. It consists of an Old and New Town, 
1,225 feet above sea level , and has nn old Castle. 

Sl8f«ld (Stat.) 

POPVI.AT10K, ft,4W. Tm.— Post. 

A smnll town on the Wcrrn, noted for its beer. 
The wntrh tovvvr of tho old Castle is as many yards 1 
hv^h as It is ruuiid. The Church contains a uionu- 
nent to Jturtoa Jonei, the cimteDiponiiy of Luther, 
who died here. 

Short line. Hi miles, to Unterneabrunn, in the 
ThUrioger Wald. 

The remarkable beeeltic rocks of the Glelch- 
bcrgc form a prominent featare on the road to 
COB0Ra (Stat) 

The capital of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, near Roseuau, 
the birthplace of the late Priuce Consort. 

PorOLATlOX, 17,106. 

Hotels.— Grttnar Baum; Qoldcner LOwfc 

This old walled town Is the seat of the reipiln"? 
duke, in the line viiHey of the Itz, or Itsch, about 
ddO feet above the sea level. Most of the houses 
are smalland poor looking. Some of tlie oldest are 
In the large market-place, which contanis the 
Government offices and Town Ha)!. ;iTtti Thced's 
Mtalue of the Prince Cmtsort, uucoviircU in 
th*: Queen's presence. 

The OkoNMrr AiAlteft (KansleigebKnde), bnllt 
in the Italian style, by Duke John Cadmlr,eontain 
a library and collection of prints. 

The Arsenal or Zeugbaus has a collection of 
flra-anw and weapons^ *e. Open, S to S p.m. 

The Jfiw<itKrcA« (St. Maurice) contains the ducal 
tettbe, from John Casbnir downwards, and tereral 

moBnnMnts, frescoes, and bronui. Hera the 
Tercintmun^/iuttvat of the Couf ession of Angslnuip 

was celel)rnted June 2'>, 1831, by a sermon preached 
before tlie rrinces. Ernest and Albert, after a lon^f 
procession had been formed round the market-plac«. 

Near this Is the gymnaslnm or Collega, founded 
by John Caslndr, lfl>6, with his statna In th« 

In SchlossPIatz stand the Old Schlossor Palace, 
faced hy Schwantlialer's bronse etattte of Dnke 

Emc!(t I. ; the Palace of the Duke of Edinbnrgh ; 

and til • T)'K al T!j<»ntre. In the a(Uoinin<r Park i«i 
the liuke's town seat, ''Pnlais," or Ehrenlntrg 
(Castle of Honour), a large and handsome pile, 
wlileh was a convent before IMS', bat has been 
enlarged with additions in the Gothic and Italian 
styles. It forms f hrco sides of n square, surmounted 
by a fine tower over the chief wing; and contains 
some paintings and portraits, including the Prince 
Consort, Qneen Victoria, Ijeopold King of the 
Beljjrians. the King of Portugal, and other mem- 
bers of the family: also alibraryof 25,000 volumes, 
and collections uf birds, minerals, coins, <tc., 
dispersed tbrongh the Govermnent bnOdtaigs 

Up thronjfh the Park, oii the Festnngftberg, a 
bill ddO feet above town, and 1,640 feet above sea, 
is the Old Castle, Fcstuug, or VtMe Coburg (Strong 
Cobnrg), on the site of a fortress, bnllt by Charle- 
magne, and formerly the seat of the Counts of 
Henneberfr nnd Dukes of ."^nxony, which the .Sweden 
held successfully against W'aUenstein in the Thirty 
Years' War. Part has been restored in the Gothic 
style, by Hcidelof, for a nuisoum, called the 
FUrstcnlMiu, including the Ernest- Albert collection. 
To see the place, application mu&t be made to the 
Ins|>ector. Ring the bell in the outer courtyard. 
Trlnkgeld, fiO pf., for a company SO pf. each. 
There is a fine pro!*|)ect of the Thliringcr Wald, 
from the battlements, near some old cannon which 
arc placed there. 

Here are portraits of Landgraves, In the Bitter^ 
saal; tome modem frescoes, by Schneider and 
Rothbart ; an Armoury, irflnfifn- Arrdrew Hofer*s 
gun, in the old banqueting room; the Horn 
Zimmer, containing a fme mosaic, in wood, dated 
MM. Heta LvUter resided, 15M, translated part 
of the Bible, and wrote his famous hymn. 
I " Ein' feste Burg tst «nser Oott." They show his 

Digitized by Google 

Ront€ S9.j HAKD-BOOK TO QBHlllKT. — COBt'RO. 97 

bedstead, and some cirviugs from Ixia beech tree at 
AU«iitteiu, which wat Irfown dofrn, 1841. In th« 
CliApol or oratoiy It the pulpit from which he 

preaehetl, and a Blblo Jnted l^.'O. In the Ucforma- 
tionsaaal is a copy of an uld picture, tlte orij^iual 
of which is in the charcb, representing the Diet of 
AngtHaarg, and portniite of the Bef omen. 

There are many 6ne mtlks and excnrsions in 
the Tipif,'hVoiirhood ; amonp which fire tllOM to the 
K'-ktit-^lH r^^. the Holie Fiehte, aiul to 

Rosenau^four milesdistant,thc birthplace of the 
Prince CoiMort, on Mth Ampist, 1819. Hts elder 
brotbw Ernest was bom bore 2Ut Jane, the year 
before him. The boys were nnmed after the two 
sonB of tho Kh ctor. Frcdi ric the Mild, who were 
stolen by Kunz of K.uuibngcn. It is described iu 
the Early Years of the Prince Consort,** as an old 
baronial pOe, chnrnnn;^'1y ]i1iuM'iI on a knoll of a 
ridge dividinfir the valh-y of tho Iiz from th«- plain 
traversed by the main road from Coburg to Uiid* 

The Hbuae U a lolld oblong building, with btgh 
js'ablo ends north and south, entered by a round 
tower on tho west side, to which there is an 
approach through a grove t>f spruce firs. A broad 
winding staircase leads upwarda to the principal 
rooms on the firtit flow, and downwanis to the 
^Inrftlr Hall or dininf^-mom nn the smith, which 
from the sudden fall of the t^i-ound stttiuis at a 
lower level than the rest of the house. In tiiis 
room the Prince wat christened. A terrace 
garden commands a lovely view of the Itz vnlley 
and the country hoyond, terminated by the Thii- 
ringerwald; and it is added by tho Queen that 
tiM **peae«fol Iteauty of the scene is perhaps still 
more strilting by moonlight.** There are some 
fine specimens of tho Abcle poplar grrowin^r here, 
a tree which was always a favourite one with the 
Prince. Below the huui^e the stream winds to- 
ward* Oeslan, and a range of thickly-wooded 
bills which terminate at the old Fcstuug, over- 
hanging the city of Coliurg. fl tnilos lower down. 
Rosenao, after having been injured hi the year 
1848, and neglected, was restored by the Queen, 
la 1868; anbseqnent to the Prince** death. 

Near it is a small Wirthshaus or Inn, where the 
Colmrgers corao to driulc their beer or coffee and 
ramble about on Sundays. Behind this is a small 

; summer-buutie and skittle-ground, in which the 
j Prioce and his brother need to play. He kept 
I up a liking for this gnme to the last, and had a 
skittle-ground made in the praw'<*n of Huckingbam 
I i'alace. A museum fonned by the brotherf>, called 
the Ei'ne*t- Albert Muteuni, is now removed to the 
Festnng as already mentioned, where rooms have 
been built on pui*pose for it, and additions have 
been made by the Qnrcn. Both this and Kallcn* 
berg arc only shown in the absence of the duke. 

iMMkortWrmn, 8 mile* from Gotha, with Hue 
pine woods and lime trees, stands dose under the 
wooded hills, and contains many romantic glens 

■ and valleys and wild hills, of which the brothers 
were never tired, in June, 1829, they made a ten- 
days* pedestrian tonr throiigb the whole district. 
And thus the Prince Consort acquired that fond- 
ness for highland scenery which he enjoyed to the 
last in Scotland ; parts of which ho used to com- 

, pare with Tiiuiingia. 

KMmbetg is a hunting seat of the dulce's, in a 
picturesque pork, full of game. It was restored by 
Roth hart. 

Lauterberg is another spot deserving a visit. 

At tlic Tillage of Netue* there arc nionumcnts to 
a Prinee of Saxe-Coburg Saalfeld, and the Coun- 
tess Cornellln. The poet I? fielder* n here. 

For tho branch to Sonneberg (Stat.), sea 
Route 30. 

Ucbtenli^ (Btaft.), on the Bamberg and Hof 
line, see Route 41. 

Lainefoldeb MuMhausen, Langensalsa* ati4l 
1 Hildburgliausen. 
I By rail to Gotha and Olirdrnf; 1 hence by road. 

{ Leinefeldeto Miles. ' Byroad Mile<, 

Dinjrelsliidt 5^ Oberhof ^ 

I Dachneden 12 i Zella J4 

I MUhlhauscn 17 , Suhl iga 

Langeiisalsa.. 28 < Sehleasingen :8 

Gotha 42 Utldburghausen ... so 

■ Ohrdruf fl3 I 

{ Leinefclrte. Koute 

Mulllll&USezl (Stat.), in Prussian iSaxony. 
POKTLATIOX, 97,540. 

Ituu.^ Schwa n ; Konig von Prenssen. 

An ancient free city, nntu xed to Pnissin in 18(;2. 
It stands at the Junction uf the L'nstrut aial 
: Schwcmmotte, and consists of an Upper ai.d 

Digitized by Google 



Lowei- towu, wall«d rooiid. with four gates. Of 
Its four ehurehea, tli« Mirlenldrelift, • fine Qothic 

' bailding, with Ave aisles, and St. Blolse. dcscrrc 
• notice. This was the hcad-quortcrs of the fanatic 
Miinzer In the Thurlnglau rising of and 
here he was exeeated after the battie of Frankeii- 
hansen. There are cloth, yam* and leather fac- 
tories, wifli inllls for stnrcli. phtc, nnri oil, and 
ncvcrai dyeing and falling luUls, to which cloth is 
sent to bo prepnrpd. 

PoniLlTIOH, 11,000. 
IxNS. — Mohr; Kreuz. 

A mnniifaptuiinj,' tn-mi. on the Salra, with the 
mined convent of Homburg, near snlphur Springs, 
on the Uustmt. resorled to to the seann. There Is 
a convenient Bath>HOQ«e. Here, In the German 

War of 1866, the Hanoverian troops, when on 
their march to j.>in the AuRtrinns, repulsed the 
Ptussians In a bloody battle, fought 29th June; 
bnt were obliged to surrender the next day. 

OOTHA (Stat.), on the IHie from Lelpslc to 
Frankfort; see Konto 16. About 10 ndles south- 
west, near Friedrichrodn. is 

Rnnfiarff^'n-miTi. nlrcady mentioned in Koute 28; 
a ducal country hous*', iu a fine spot, on the site 
of an abbey, founded 1089, by Ludwi|r the Springer. 
It has portraits and monuments <<f the I.and- 
grnvcs in the church. On f«H>t from here, tin outrh 
H niiL- country, to the Uebelberjt. 2,'2W) feet high, 
and Insclberg (page S5>, in the heart of the 
ThOrlnger Wald. 

From Gotha, rail to Ncndletendorf (below), also 

to (Mivdnif, In 4r> inlnutCS, 

Onrdruf (Stat.) 
PorObATiOir, 8.000. 
IsNw— Anker. 

A very old town in the Ohrthal, among copper 
and iron works; having a palace and a church on 
the site of one built by St. Boniface. The line ii» 
continued to GrSfenroda. From Obrdmf the road 
rbosto thi lii-lifHt ridge of the Thili lngcr Wald, 
aiming fine piiir r-n sts. pnssiii-* Luistiitha!, Stutz- 
haus, and Schwarzwuld, with its rained tower, to 

OlserllOf (/»<*: 2ur Domane), about 8 hours' 
walk. This is the highest village in the Duchy of 
Gotha, 8,6iM> feet above the sea; chiefly a eoi- 
lecUon of wooden huts for the woodcutters, with 

a post-house and Inn, and the duke*e httatSng 
seat. An Obelui marks the hlgheet part of tiiia 

rldgc of the Tfiuringer Wald. 

The woods abound in red deer and game; and 
the pine trees arc of a magnificent height, often 
above 800 feet. Two mllee fnm the village ia the 
station on the lim- from Plane to Mciningen, the 
next -t.tti n beiii^r Zella Mehlifl, and then 

SuM (Stat.), on I'rubttiau ground, in the county 
of Hennnherg. 

Poi'i ttATios, 9,900. 

Inns. Kron*'; DcntschcH Hans. 

A manufacturing tuwa among the forests and 
forges of the Thiiringcr Wald, in the valley of the 
Ane or Lauter; noted for its manufaetnres of 
swords, bayonets, and surgical instruments, and 
other articles In steel and iron. Fire-arms have 
been made here since the fifteenth century. The 
town is well buUt, and has four ehurchee. 

There are several objects of intereet in this 


The Doniberg rises 760 feet above the town with 
gardens and a mineral spring at its base. The 
OttUiautein is a poriAyry rock, at the foot of 
w hich flows the Lauter. Caf^ at the summit. 

Beyond Is the Beerherg, the highest spcit in tlie 
Thiii'ingtr Waid, 3,240 feet above the sea, with a 
signal tower on the top. Not far from it is the 
SchneOoffy 8,^10 feet high, commanding a splendid 
view of ThurinL'in. the Brocken, Ac. Refresh- 
ments inriy be had at the Schmikke Inn, about I^ 
miles, the highc(>t house in this range of hills, 
2,990 feet high. The old Rennstelg Bead is traced 
along the summit. Diligence dally In summer 
from Suhl to 

Qmenau (Stat.), a Water Cure on the Ilm, 
where Q9ethe (with whom It was a favourite 
resort) celebrated his last birth^^day, in 18SI ; It is 
4| hours from the SchniUcke, over the Kickel- 
hahn, 2,?''»0 frr t hi:rh. Tlmenau can be reached by 
rail via Noudieteudorf (between Erfurt and 
Gotha); AmBtftdt (Stat.), a little town fpopu- 
lation, 12,818), with an old castle, church, salt 
spring, etc.; Plauo (Stat.), under the Ehrmhor- 
a fine point of vir w. From Ilmenau the rail 

passes on to Langenwleson, Gtelireii, and 

Diligence daily from nmenau to Schleuslngen. 
and from Schleuslngen to HOdbnrghaosen. 

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fioQte 30.] 




ForoLATiox, 3,300. 
Imr.— Orilner Baiim. 

A Frmalnn town, at the junction of the EriAu 
and Nahc ; once the property of the Counts of 
Henneberg ; whose tombs arc in the church. Here 
is also their old Castle; with the Ordenshaus, 
fom«rl7 a Mai of tbe Knlghta of St. John; and a 
papier miehtf and doll factory. At Ycssra in tbe 
neighbourhood is an Abbey of the twelfth century. 

About 8^ miles beyond (which uuy be done by 
diligence in two hours) is 

BUmrargbaiumi (tlaU» m in Bonto S8. 

Weimar to Jena, Rodolstadt* 8a«1ft>1fl, and 

Cobnrg, through Thuringia. 

Ry Wcimar-Gcra and Saal rails to Saalfcld and 
Eichicht; thence, by road, to Sonncbcrg ; thence, 
by rail, to Coburg, Ac 

Weimar to Miles. 
Mellingen ..•..**•••»• S 

Jeurt 14i 

{Branch to Gros- 
shcringen, 15 m.] 

QSaehwttz 17| 

[RmncA to Herms- 
2« m.] 
Rothensteln ......... 25^ 

KAtUa, <fee> •»••••<•»• 

Orlamando m 


Uhlst^t 36^ 

Rndolatadt^ 42 

Schwarz.i 44^ 

Sanlkia 4fc| 

Eichicht tl\ 

By Road to 
Retehmanntdorf ». 8 

g<inno?KTL' ,„ 17^ 

1J> Kail to 
Neu!4tadt..*>«*»>«i». 3 
Ocslau..*.M., 8 
Coburg M 1S| 

JBHA (Statw), in Saxe-Welmar; pronoanoed 


PoprT.ATidN, l",nO(>. 

Inns.— Bonne; Ueutschcs Haus; Schwarzcr Bar. 

An old town In the Taltey of the Saal, where 
tbe Leutra joins it; celebrated for its University 
and for the Baffle of ^M\ Oot.. 1^00. fuu-1it in its 
nci<?hbourhood, which laid Prussia at the feet 
of Xapulcou I.; whose head-qtiorterB were at the 
Landgrafenburg. With 80,000 men, against 
£0,000 on the PrUBsian side, under the Prince of 
Tltihculiihc, he catipht the Prussians in a trap he 
bad laid; even as they caught the French at Sedan, 
1870. The Prussian forces were near KStsehau, 
the Yleraehnheillgen Tower, and a spot called 
the Schnecke, in the MiibHluil. At the battle 
of Auerstadt a few miles distant, fou;jrlit the same 
day, the Duke of Brunswick was killed. The 
Bioheaplata has been i^Mittt since the batttsi 

and the ramparts razed, liapuieon extracted some 
milliards from Prussia, after the war. A stoue 
Bridge of nhie arches crosses the jiTsr. 

Tbe (University wns founded by the Eliietert 
John Frederick. In 1558, and its tercentenary was 
observed in 1858. It numbers fifty professors and 
about five hundred stvdents. Better was Profes- 
sor ol History here, in snocession to Elehhom the 
Orientalist ; his house being close to the Observe* 
tory and marked by his bust. Here he wrote hfs 
"Thirty Years' War," and " Wallenstein." 
Kotaebne, aniliorof the Stranger,*' when a stu- 
dent was here assasiiaated* lUOi, branotiMir student 
who considered him a political traitor. The name 
of the assas.siii. George Sand, was assumed by the 
eccentric Madame Dudevant, tbe French novelist. 
The University was shut np from 1810 to 189&, be- 
cause <tf tte radicalism of the students. At the 
Schloss arc many rare books, MSR., nnd illumina* 
lions; with collections of scientihc objects, coins 
(valnable), minerals, Ac. Draice's bronze statue 
of the founder stands in the market place. The 
students were great fighters (with the sword)| 
hence this rhyme — 

" Wer kommt r<iii Jena unfretehlnKcn, 

Di r lint vdii tcrtjsiitiji OlUok sxnen." 

i.e., the m/iii who t;ets away from Jena without a 
slash is a lucky fellow. 

The SladtUnke or Pfarrkhrche of the fourteenth 
century, has a good proepeet of the Saalthal 

from its high tower. It contains a lar^re brass 
of Luther. Musiius, tlie ^cliolar, a native of Jena, 
died here 1787. At the Fiirstcngraben is Drake's 
bust of Oken, the naturalist. 

The environs are geologically very interesting 
for peculiar stratification. The old Fuchslhurm. 
tower, on the liaubberg, commands a fine view. 

Diligenee to BttZ^el, with a Romanesque early 
18th ooitury (diurch. 

Kahla (Stat.) 

Population, 2,500. 

Ikk. — Qoldner LSwe. 

A small town of the Duchy of Saxe-AJtenborg, 
on the Baale, near tbe Dolenstehi. Tanning is 
carried on here. The old fortress of Leuefatenhiiig 

has a well '3tlO f'>ot ''r- p. 

BUDOLSTADT (Stat.), the upper part of 
Schwartz burg U udolstadt. 

PoruLAmv, ll,8W. 

Digitized by Google 


tSec. ^, 

IxHi.^BUter ; L.uw«: Adler. 

Th* ehtef town of the prliielpAUty, on tb» Stale, 
on the edge of tbe ThU ringer Wild. It Is well 
built and ha!^ iwo rlinrcbeii, one a cathedra); 
with the Prince's CatUet of Ludwigtbnrg, con- 
UUilng tome eoUeettont of BAtimt history, Ae. 
Above the town is another aeat, called SMa$i 
MtUtekiburg, comprising a church, theatre, library : 
palntinsT'i hy rarrnr*^), rriinach, Dlircr, Rembrandt, 
Bubens, Koos, Wouveruiaus ; and eugravings. 

Between here and Ameladft (itatlon on the 
Erf nrt line) ia Btadt-Ihn, near whleh It an innnenae 
pine tree, 25 feet round, and 150 feet high. 

VoLKSTEDT Is a beautiful spot, "where Schiller 
IMMted the summer of 1788, writing his Revolt of 
the Metheriandt. It haa a hntt of hbn bjr Dan- 
naeker, and a porcelain factory. 

8chwarza(8tafe») the Jnnetlon of the Scbwarxa 
with the St.i1. 

[Branch line from here to 

Imia.— Lowe; Boat. 

A small old town near the very ancient castle 
of Grei/enstein, tbe birth-place of the Emperor 
QUnther of Schwarsburg, in 1804. Onmlbna from 
the ttatlootwloe dally* np the 8chwaraathal,8nillea» 
to the Tillage of 


PoPCLATioN. 5,000. Imn. - Wclsser HirKch. 

The old seat of the princes of Schwarzburg, in 
the romantlo Talley of the Sdwanai^^ one of the 
Ancst In Thurlngia. A1>ovc it rises the modern 
fVrjfV, rebuilt 172<>. including' a chapel, with the 
family graves, an armoury, and tbe Kaisersaal, or 
Emperor's Room, contahilng portrait* «A aU the 
emperon from Jvliua C»sar down to Cbarloa VI. 
Thl* if the only remnant of the old building. 

The KUttUburg. or Tripstcin, near this. Is 1,626 
ft ct high, and has a remarkably fine view. About 
t> wiles distant, In a foreat, are the mint of the 
AN«y ^ FatMfuau^ founded HQS, in the Bonan- 
eaque style. 

Another place, C mili^s from Scbwarzburg^ 
towards Ilmenau is KonigBOe, noted for its tracie 
in drugs. OmnlbntAromBchwaraburgtollmenau.] 
gAA£fELB (StaD, In Base Melniagen. ■ 

POWLATIOV, 10,000. 

mm.— Ooldener Anker; Hirtcb; Prett9.Hof. 

' At the " Goldener Aiikt^r ' Uhariei V. and liu 
i prteoner, the elector John Frtderiek, tiept after 
i the battle of M1thlbet«, 1547. 

A picturesque town on the Iwrder of the Thll- 
ringer Wald, on the Saal, with a stone hrldge 
and two palaces. The new Palace has a hue view, 
tbe oldie now the mint for the Dnchy. St. John**, 
one of the four churches, is a Gothlo building-, 
oFf'rtpd l'it'2. frf>ra the profits of a ueiphbouring 
guld mine, and has some good stained windows. 
Here Tetael aold bit Indolgencea. Late Ootldc 
Bathhan* of the lOth century. 

Near the Snale are tbeminaof the SovbettbWVi 
a fort built Charlemagne as a defence against 
the Sclavonians. At Wqtzelstein are some alura 

A monument, under poplar trees, maika the 

spot where Prince Louis r.f Prusfila was mortally 
wounded, at the battle Jenn. Oct. 1^, 1S06. 

Short branch, 6 miles, to Eichicht, on the way to 

Hohe ndM, a villa<re on a high plain. 
Beldimannsdorf, a small town at tho f.x>t (<f 
the Goldberg, 2,470 feet high, where guld was uuce 
found. In the nel^bourhood are Iranatone mine*. 
About 8 mile* from thl* 1« 


POPDLATIOX. l.-wn. Ins.— Ptt<;f. 
A small town at the foot of a steep slaty liiU, 
having a Church, which was a place of pilgrimage 
before tbe Beformatton. The Cattle of Wetpen'' 
stein, an old seat of the Pappcnheim family, on a 
steep, overlooks a fine ^^rospect. From bore to 
Lauscha, wIk iu e rail to 

Sonneberg (Stat.) 
Poflvtaviov, 11,460. Ixx8.«-<Ktug; Blr. 

A very old town, 1,800 feet above sea, noted for 
the mantifaeturc of children's toys of every sort. 
Of late years a favourite resort. It has a modern 
Gothic Chnreh, Sehool of Design, and a Hydro- 
Therapeutic Ettablithnent. On the road to 
Tlildburghauten la 

Schalkau, and it" 'i!ie Gothic Church- nhout 
1 wile from which arc the ruins of the Sciiaum- 
burgs' old Cattle, destroyed in the Thirty Years* 
War. The Ble$tbei^ beyond It, hat a tplondltl 
view of the ui [ i r oountr)'of Meininjicn. Anotlior 
mile to BIflUd (gtat) (SeeBouteS8.> 

Digitized by Google 


ll01IStadfemiL-4lM-Bftlda (fttat.). in Saxe- 

Population, 2,500. Jnn. — Ualber Mond. 
A small town on the Rotheo, at the foot of the 


tenbeig (page 4S>. Three mtlet weet of ToftftH It 
Annaberg (Stat.), ^eo page 118. A rail was 

mndc from here, 1872, rtVi Weipert, to Komofau, in 
Bohemia (Route d9). Dresden may be also reached 

Mvppberg or Mnpp Hill. It oontmins two eharebM from KoaMrtan, vid Teplitz and Bodenach (Roatet 

Mid ft (kutU of the Dokie of Mciuin^en, and has a 
good trade in Sonneberg toys. Hops and tobacco 
are grown. The beer is good here. 
Coburg (Stftt.), as in Koute 28. 

Time, 8 honn. 


Eisterwerda 77 

[Lines to Kiosfl, 
RQderaii, Ac J 

Ororaenliain 78 

Weinbiihla 08 

Cossebanda 107 


Bvrlla to DieidML 

Berlin to Mile». ! 

Sttdonde &i 

Marienfelde 6^ 

Zoisen .................. 90| 

Clasdorf So 

ITkro 47| 

Urcnitz 58 

Kirchhain ............ 64^ j 

[Hranchos to Cottbns, 
Fallcenberg,andTorgau] | 

The above is the new direct line, passing nothing 
of interest. An alternative line (117 miles) runs 
fid Harberg, Falkeaboiv, RSdcrav, Ac^ in H houra. 

JttterlMg (Stat.) in St. Nicolaa Chareti ia 

Tctzf-rs Ii)dnl;-CTir<- Chest. 

Herzberg iStafc.), a town, on the Biaclt Ki-ster, 
with cloth factories and potteries. Pop. 3,000. 

VUkmlMrg (fltet), the centreor six llnea, to 
Torgau, Wittenberg (opened 1875), Cottbua, Ac. 
TORQAXT (Stat.), In Pmsalan Saxony. 

POPDtATION, 11,100. 

HoTBLS.— Anker ; Goldener LOwe. 

A atronjr fortress and trading town, on (bo 
marabes of the Elbe, taken from the French in the 
War of Iiid<'i>f'n<U nre by the Prussians, 1814. The 
French converted it into a miiitary port in 1^9, 
when Hartenfela, the old Castle of the Princes of 
Saxony, standing on a rock, was tnmed Into a 
magiizliie. A brid;.'e 8(10 feet loiijr. and 20 feet 
bro^.d, erosgcH the river, half beiii^^ covered and 
built of wood; the uncovered half is stone. The 
principal Chureb e<mtains paintings by L. Cra- 
naeh, and tlie grave of Lxitlier's wife, ratliei ine 
Bora. Here the Reformer drew i\\> tVn' Articles 
of Torgau, 15^0. on which the Confcs.sik;n of Augs- 
bnrgla baaed; and here the Torgau protest against 
CryptoX!alTinls» waa aigned. In the nelghbonr- 
hood is LupUtt where Frederick the Great defeated 
the Attstrtans. 98rd November. 17an. R»il to Wlt- 

3lA and SBa), by a line completed 1878. 

Rdderan (Stal), page IIS; from which a 
branch was opened, 1875, to Elttenoerdeu Hence 
through Rlcs.i, Coswipr. Ac, to Dresden. 

DROXJXE QX— Continued, 


Population, 276,085, chiefly Protestant. 

Hotels.— Hotel Bristol, first-clnss hotel, wpU 
situated, near the Central Railway Station. See 

Hotel Belle Tue. 

Great Union Hotel: well situated, near the 
Railway Station for r'arlMbHd, Vienna, Ac. Mode- 
rate cliargcsi recommended. 

Hotel Goldner Engel. 

Hotel Kalserhof nnd Stadt Vien. Well sttnated 

in the new town. Deservedly recommended. 

Hotel tin Nord. Conveniently situated, and 
tlcjervedly recommended. 

Hotel Weber; beantlfully sltnated In a delight, 
fnl part of the town. 

Hotel Kronprinz; Hotel de Rome; Hotel Stadt 
Moskau; Hotel Goliia; Hotel Pension National. 

Fi&ST Class Pkksiov.— 28, Lilttlchaustrasse, 
His* Bell. 

Amseicah avd EMOuaa PitN8ioir.<— f ff, Sldontcn- 

strasse. Kept by Fran H. Sehmalz. 

Pension Frances Martin. Situated Prager* 
strasse, 31. 

RsaTAiniAim. — Engllscher Garten; Victoria 

Keller; Belvedere, Ac. 

Railway ST.\Tir»N-s. The Dresden railway sta- 
tions are distant about a mile from the principal 
hotels in the city. The Leipsic termlnna ia at 
Neustadt, on the right banlt of the Elbe. Tram- 
ways to all parts. 

Between Drosilcu and Pniciu' (at Bodenhacb) 
customs examinauoa. liagi;a^c of travellers 
Is scarcely looked at. The same on leaving the 
Austrian frontier. 

Cabs. — 1 to i person by the course. $0to80pf.; 
by the hour. 1 mark 60 pf , 9 marks tO pf. 

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Oftiilict anA pair, 4 mailctaa bonr; lialf-A-dasr, 
IS nnfca; the dftj, SI ma At. It U, howeTer, better 

to make a bargain bt^fore-hand, when the carrlnrro 
(Flaker) is taken for more tliiiii an hour or m. 
From 10 30 p.m. to 1 (wiuterS) a.m. double charges 

Cab from may of the Stattoni into the town, for 

one to four persons, 60 pf.. 70 pf., 90 pf., 1 mark 
respectively. Doable faros At night. Boxes, 20 
to 40 pf. each. 

CoNVKYAKGBS.— Rati to BtuTzdorf, Heniber9,and 
Berlin; to Rcichenburg and Oorlltz; to Kiesu 
and Leipsic, thence via Colocrne nnd Ostend to 
London, In '26 hours; to Lobau and Breslau; to 
Prague, Brunn, and Vienna; to Cheiunitz. 
Tramway to Blaiewitit Flanen, Ac* 
ateamen np the Elbe to the Saxm awiiMtrland 
from the landing place, Briihlsche Tcrrasse. The 
quickest way to visit it if by rail to Potscha, cross 
the Elbe to Wehleu, ascend the Bastei, thence to 
Schandau, and sleep. Next day, ▼Ult the KnhitaU, 
Winterberf, and the Prebiaehthor, to Hemie- 
kretchcn ; and take the evening steamer back to 
Dresden. Return Tickets (DoppelbtUete) are 

Coming down by rail from Prague, it will be 
well to get out at Anssig, and take the steamer, 
the ^mall ?3.n<Titice of time being repaid by the 
beauty of the scenery. 

Steamers to Meissen, 4 times dally, starting from 
a pier jnst abore the Angnstns bridge. 

BniTiSB CHABfti D'Afpaibbs, RBamnifT. 

English Cnrncn Sbrvice, twice daily. Scotch 
end American churches. Roman ratholie. at 11 
and 4, musical service. Sec Bradshate $ Continental 
Culdi for partienlara. 

OriftA Aim TaxADBBS.— Performances at 7. 

Akglo- American Club. 

Information fo» Stbangers.— Office— Pra- 
gcr-strassc, 241. 

Po8f^OvncB.-Poat-plata near Zwinger. Letters 
poated before 3 p.m. arc forwarded the same 
day ■ Letters for London take about two days. 

Telegraijh ia Waiscnhausrstraase. 

OMiMn»o«Honcik'<^TIiePistareChUIery, Taes- 
day, Thnrsday, and Friday, free, 9-to8; Wednesday 
andSaturday, 50 pf. Sunday, 11 to 2. Catalogue, 
1| mark. Green Vault (Griines QewVlbe). 9 to 3 ; 


Sunday, It to >$ 1 mark. In winter, ticket for 
one to tlx pereone, 9 marks. Royal Library, !i\ 

t!ic Japanese Palace, 9 to 2 daily. Fraucnkirche. 
I ('atholic Church. Synagogue. Zwinger, Alberti- 
num, and Johannenm. Academy of jftrta. Wnla- 
turee for brooelies are painted at a moderate price. 
Copies of gallery pictures from Ss. upwards. For 
sights, and dayn for visiting^. seo the "Dro«!denpr 
Anzelgcr" daily paper. Nearly all are closed or 
have an extra foe on Monday.. 

BfMdmi, the seat of the Saxon Oorerament, 
occnpies a hend of the Elbe, where the Welsserite 
'i joins it. on a plain about 370 feet above sea level, 
at the junction of the rails to Leipsic, Chemnitz, 
Prague, and Brealan. It etanda at a point about ' 
equidistant from Hamburg, Frankfort. Munich, 
and Vienna, m., about nrA) ndli s: and is 108 miles 
I from Berlin, the capital of the Uerman Empire, of , 
which Saxony is a member. Within view of the 
city, or not far distant from it, are the bills and 
Tlneyards about Meis^fn on the north; the heights 
of the Saxon Switzerland, the inost romantic part of 
the Elbe, on the east; the Erzgebirgc Hills, on the 
sonth and simth-west; and the Planensche Qmnd, 
or Yale <rf Rocks, on the Weisseritx, on the west. 

It has not only a pleasant neighbourhood, but it 
is a ]>leasant and invitin- p!ari- tolivf at; offering 
pood society, and all the resources of a capital in 
its collections, shops, and means of enjoyment. It 
is worth noting tlut, owing peihaps to the rlTcr 
and th e n at are of the surrounding country, T) resden 
and tha environs are frequently very cool In the 
summer evenings, and care should be taken with 
regard to clothing. 

Hie old walls and ramparts were, after 1811, 
replaced by gardens and buUdlngs; there are a 
number of handsome Square*!, of wliich four are 
in the old town, and some of which were re- 
named after the Emperor, Prince Albert of Saxony, 
and other heroes of the war; about 20 Churches 
(six being Catholic) and five synagoi^^ues. 

The houses arc of stone, generally five to six 
storeys bi^'li . The Fountain in the Bautzoner Flatz 
is supplied by an Artesian Well, 420 yards deep, A 
large and handsome Gothic Fountain (1844) stands 
between the Post OfBce and Polytechnic School. 

Dresden is divided into Altstadt, or Old Town, • 
on tb« "ottth side of the rjv^r. and 27enstadt on 

Digitized by Google 





Digitized by Google 

Route 31.] 


the north side ; the two being coimMted hj thm 
bfldgM« for purtleabm of which see below. ' 

The Altstadt has the Plrim suhm li nnd Gn ■^'^■r 
Carten on the east; and the FiiodrU listatlt ami 
Wilsdruflf suburbs, adjacent to the Weisseriiz on 
the wost. In this half of the capital are the 
Altmarkt annNeunmrkt, Anton Platz and Theatre 
PlatJ^. thp Royal Pnlncc. Crcon V.uilt niid Picture 
(Jallery, the Zwinger Palace, the Hruhl Pahice and 
Terrace, facing the river, the Post Oftice, Theatre 
tad Arsenal, the Frauenkirche, Catholic i.nd other 
principal Churches. The Brlihl, with its Caft-s 
and stops up to the brldK'e Is afavoiuito uromenadc. 
la the Neustadt, on the north of the Elbe, are the 
Kea«r Anbaa or Anton anbnrh, the Jaimneie Palace 
and the Palala nats, the Nenatidter markt and 
Rautzener Platz, Military Academy and Tlosrltal. 
Cavalry Barracks, Trinity Church, and tlio prin- 
cipal Railway Stations for the Leipsic and i'rajjue 
I lines. 

Tbo Attgnatna Briicke, the old and principal 

bridge of the city, Is a handsome structure of stone, 
extending: from Briihl Terrace to the Ncnstadt. on 
sixteen arches; and is 1420 feet long, and 36 feet 
broad. It wu rebnllt by Popelnumn, 1727-81, in 
the reign of Angnitoa n., in aflolid style, strong 
enough to resist the force of the ice when the rircr 
i<4 frozen. The floods and ice of the 13th March, 
1845, carried away a bronze crucifix, erected by the 
Elector, Johann George lit on the fifth areb. Two 
arches blown npbjr Davonat in hia retreat to Leipsic 
1814 were restored 1814. There wa« a bridge here 
as early as 1119, which was rebuilt 1344 by the 
sale of Papal dispensations. It Is the rule to take 
the right-hand side of the bridge in passing over. 
Below this hridfrc is the .\fari> nbritcte^ on fourteen 
arches, built for the railway, and having a carnage 
and footway as well. It Is 1,480 feet long, C2 feet 
broad, and 40 feet hig^. 

The Albertsbriicke connects the Neosiadt with 
thf Pinm suburl>. 

l-'roni the Old 15 ridge, a Ion;? thorott?:hfnrf runs 
north through the Neustadt, past the Markt i iutz 
to the Bantaener Plats. In the Markt PhUia stands 
Wledamiann's equestrian Statue o/Auguttut 11^ in 
copper, erected 1735. Ho is dressed in the Roman 
style ; and the horse is distinguished b^ a large 
bushy tail, 

Near the Arsenali in the Briihl 0ardMi, lathe 
Meiumeni of tho meotor 1Caiirke,killed at SieTers- 

hausen, 15*53. This Is a jrroup including his 
lirothrr Augustus (whom lie appointed his suc- 
cessor), with their wives, and Death holding a 
scythv. It is abovo three .eentnrles old. tmt was 
forgotten and thrown aside.t ill tlie raxing of the 
fortifications brought it toliu'ht .ngain. 1811. 

A Inrgc Iron bust of King Antony, 1638, ^tAn(i9 
in Friedrichstadt Promejiade. T>e Huuso of 
Assembly or LandstXndc, where the Estates meet, • 
is a huildiiif,' two ntoreys high, in Pimnische Gasse. 

The Town Hall (Rathhaus) is In the Alt ^faikt. 
The Po!if-(]ffii>' U an extensive and handsome 
structure. In the Dohnaplatz is the Kreoa School, 
by Arnold* one of many excellent lehools berr. 
Tieck's House was a tall red bonse at the comer 
of tlie Altntnrkt. 

Churchf-.i. - The FrauntHiXhf (Our Lady), in the 
Noumarkt, the largest and handsotuest in Dresden, 
built 17M-88, hy BKhr, of stone, in the Italian 
style, an Imitation of St. Peter's. There is a fine 
view from the dome, which Is 810 feet hijrh. and 
so strong that it successfully resisted the cannon 
balls in Frederick the Great's siege of 1760. The 
ascMit is easy. Fee 9 m. It Is fitted up some- 
thing like a theatre inside. In the copolaare the 
Four Evangelists and Virtnes. The altar-piece is 
Christ on the Mount of Olives. The fine organ is 
by Silbemumn, baa 14 stops, and g,000 pipes. - 
The catacombs are deep and capacious. 

The Roman Catholic Court Church (Hofkirche), 
Initlt clc^e to the Royal Palace (Schloss), to which 
it is juiucd by a covered way over the street, was 
built in the Italian style, 1789<^1, by Chiaveri, for 
Fredariok Augustus II. It has a fiat roof and a 
pyramidal steeple in three storeys. 280 feet liigh. one 
of the loftiest in Dresden. Kound the roof are 60 
Apostles and Saints ; and at the doorway are the 
Pour Srangelists. The centre comprises two 
larger chapels to St. Beuno and St. Fr. Xnvicr, 
and several smaller ones, adorned with i»aint- 
ings, statues, altars, and carved work. The 
Director of the Opera, with his band, oondncts the 
musical part of the service, tVc, ou Sundays 
(eleven and four), when the church is usually 
crowded. At the high altar, constructed oi native 
Ijvarble the brothers AgUo. is (he Ascension 

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[6ec 3. 

by Raphael Menpr«. The altar-pieces of the side 
churches are hy Count Rotnii. viz.: The rleatli of 
Xayier, and the Virgin epiieariii}:: to Ifrnatius 
I^yolft. The Sacrament Chapel in inlaid with 
nurbto, and luii a painted eetling by ToreUi. Th« 
chapel of St. John Nepomuck has scenes from his 
life, by Palko; f*t. Ileuno's chapel, paintings by 

open only to stttd^atsi, Tuesday and Frlday^lOlol. 

The PHnzm Palais is behind the Sch'n'^^ It has 
some family portraits, a library of lO.OiiO vo!s^ 
with collections of engraTings and porceiaiu. 
The Japane$e Adae«, eontainliiff the tAbaetf, 

The Zicinger and .Vuteum, containing the Dretden 

Gallet^ nf Pictures. Collections of Engravings, 

Torelli; chapel of the Holy Cross, a fine altar-piece > Drawings, Zoological and Miueralogical Museums, 
by Htttin, and a eeOlng by Thiete. Statues by 
Bemlnl, In the Magdalen and Xavier ebapela. j 

The chancel wood-cnrrinp by Pcrtnoseu. 

The Sophieen, or llofkircho (Conrt Chtirch) for i 
Protestants, in Great Urlidergasse. bnilt 1851, was 
part of a convent, conrcrted into a City church in 
18A9,by8ophIa, widow of tbeEIectw Christian. At j 
thoHi;fh Altar is aCruclfixion, by Rossini: withan 
Ecce Homo to the memory of that 8culj>tor. The 
confeHsion chapel Jj** an altar, on mnrblo pillars, 
Which wore brought by Duke Albert from Palestine, 
I47(K. A monument of the wife of Duke Maurice 


The Museum Johanneum is in the Neu-Markt, 
with the Historicil Collection, and the Porcelain. 

The Alberlinum, on the Briibl&che Terrasse, 
completed IM), contains the Antique senlpturet 
formerly divided aumng the other museums. 

There is a small Palace, the LusfsrhlofS. hi Iho 
Orossc Garten, the head-quarters of Najioleon in 
181S. Here la Mutlall'a Neptune and Amphltrtte 
In the grounds. 

Tho Itor/af Palace (Pchloss), near Schloss Platz 
and Ell)l)rticke, is a larg^e, irregular pile, partly 

.... , Gothic and later styles. It includes an Audience 

repre.entH hcr and her twochlWien,befoiualarge Chamber, with a celling by Sylvester; a Throne 

ivory crucifix, in one pieee. 

The Kreuztiirfie (Church of the Cross), near the 
Attinarkt, Is a rectangular pile with a steeple in 
thi t e storeys, 310 feet high. 

The Anntnkirche, in Wilsdruffer suburb, has a 
good altnr, and a beautiful ccitiuiu' by Miiller. 

The P/an kii-che (I'nrish Church), in Xeustadt, 
coutalus a stone altar representing the Ten 

TvooiM. with frescoes, by Bendmoann, from the life 

of Henry the Fowler, Ac; a Prachtzlmmer, or 
Chamber of Ceremony, where the Povcrciirn 
recelres the Legislature ; a Chapel, adorned with 
paintings by Qnldo BenI, Mengs, and 4»thers; 

but the great attraction Is the unequalled collec- 
tion of rare and vahialde J -frr nnd works of 
art, in the ariinf$ Gmolbe, or Green Tatllt, on 

Virgins. In the ehutchyard Is the Todtentans, | the grouttd floor, kept bare for security-, like'the 

or Dance of Death, consisting of '27 figures of 
every age and rank, in rough sandstone, carved 
153i; also a monument to the soldiers who fell in 
the riots of 1849 ; and the graves of Adetung, the 
philolo-ist; Ticdge. Bottcher, Ac. 

Trnifv Chnrrh (English), in WIener-strasse, a 
bantisouic huilding, with stained windows, and 
English graves In tho churchyard. Russian 
Chun^ by Von Bosse, In Beiehs^rasae. The 
Sirnago'jtie opi)oslte tho Botanical Garden is a hand< 
some building. by Semper,1840, in thcOricntal st^-lc. 

I'ALACiis ASU CoLLEcTioxs.— There arc four 
principal Palacea, of which three are in the 
Atlstadt, and one, the Japanese PaUce, in the 
Xcnstadt, viz. - 

Tlio Roiia^ Pafare. or Schloss, containinpr the 
Oreen Vault and the Jetce!s. Open In winter to I 

Engl Ish jewels in the Tower. The GoUectlon dates 

from the fifteenth century, but was chiefly made by 
Augustus the Strong, and U valued at a million 
sterHng at least. It consists of precious stones, 
pearls, works in gold, sUrer, ivory, amber, A&, In 
eight rooms, iwiinted green and lined with mirrors 
set in marble and serpentine. Open, Juno t6 Sep- 
tember, Sundays 11 to 2, other days a to 2 (May 
and October, 10 to 8), 1 mark. In winter, see 
Dretdnur Anmijfer. 

In tlie Ist room— are Bronaes; Copies of Italian 
and other works of art. The Fnn>e?;e Hull. Rape 
of Pix»serpine. Equestnan statues of Louis XIV ; 
Peter the Great « Augustus lU and Charles lL,of 
England ; the Inst cut out of a solid piece af Iron. 

2nd Room — Ivory collection — Overthrow of 
Lucifer and bis Angels, being a up nf ninety-two 



parties of six for • marks. Aho the Coin Cabinet ( figure*, carved fn.jn a ^Jnglc pjcce o/ ivorj 16 inchea 

Digitized by Google 

Route 31,] HAND-BOOK TO GBSMAW _r.uir*r.»» 

» -^^HEiDEN— c;HliaCH£8,G»Mli VAULT, 105 
bigb. Two horses* heads and a crucifix mIH Kn i . < 

enamels-Florentine mosaics ; a cabinet eSS^ ^^i a famous green bniliant wei^^hing 160 grains. 
Of amber, «6 taehe. high;' chi!:' 7-110^ ^ ! aT^^a^rl™!^ 

D»«|«, p«„:eW„, with ornau^eat, «ade of Saxon | olen eZT^"* tk« 
minerals; Madonna and EeceHoow. by Jl.Mengs; i ""^'f " ^''^ *«• 

portraits by Diiipli„^er. ' ; C^^inet of Coint, rich in medals of honour 

and Saxon coins. It was bcpun 1716. Open to 

4th Room- Gold and silver plate- Goblet 2| 
yards high moved by mechnnism ; four niaesive 
gold eii|»; a gold then, ornamented with sapphires, 
presented by Peter the Great to Angnatna tbe 

Strong; christening' font of the Saxon family, te. 

scientific visitors, Tuesdays and Fridays, lo to l 
'Admlialon to atadeota only. Bell at the entrauco 

The Siiberkammer, oontalning the Boyal Plate, 

, ..II i^iuM.iit' lont 01 toe saxon family, te. ^ ^ttoertamnur, oontalning the Boyal Plate 
The plate wa* used by the Electora at the Imporial ! " oP«n (Sundays and Saturdays excepted), 9 to I 
^«"o°- I and 4 to 6. 8,H,cfal fee. Apply at the office of th^ 

sift Boom — Veaeela of agate, jasper, rock, ^onrt Marsha! (Hof-Mnrscha'inuit). 
rki'!!';f!" V~ ««in> and cameos. Two The Albertinum. on the B. iihl Terrace now 

:x^;:Ct:"c"^"'^^^^ -•^;^^^^^ 

■ Miand 7th u , . '^^^^ formerlyln the Ifenga, HKhnsL 

ul, the s..e of a hens egg. Pearl ti,'u,.s in I Two Lions, by Syen it; Bustsof Maurice of Saxony 

form of dolis. Ivory carvings. Group of 
matlelans. A gold Egg, otit of whleb 

0C8 a gold hen ; from the hen, a crown ; fromthta 
"al ring-; and from this a small brilliant ring. 
"1 Carvings liy CoUii of Malincs, and A. Durer. 

and Marshal Saxe: Saxon Electors and Kinps; copy 
of M. Angelo's "liay and Nighf ; Nessus and 
Dejanlra, by Giovanni d« Bologna; Hercules and 
Anta>u8 ; Bape of Proaerplne; Pan canrlng off 
Helen; Bronze busts of Richelieu, Chartei Lof 

thltnon.^k<i\4.t. » r | 5 «'''>"ze busts of Richelieu, Charloi L of 

l^sl^ i! «f ? ; • containing gems, England, and Gustavus Adolphus; Fragment of 
m, wvitpuiis, «c., oi great value : the Beiraliu Pallas ProiiiAciinn 

» weaiNms, dee., of great value; the Begollu 
Baxuny ; the decorations of the Order of St. 
ttrich, the Garter. White Ea-lc, Ool.lci, Fleece, 
l^many other orders. Uuo attraction is the 
tof Aamngzcbe, the Great Mogul seated on 
inmei 1S3 lignroe In all. It is of enamelled 
on a silver plate; and occupied DlngUnger, 
list and court jeweller, eight years, at a cost 
riy CO, 000 thalers. 

talaois the largest onyx known, Gj inches 
fi inches broad, forming a medallion, with 

ns .stones, valne.l at 4S'.000 thalers. Immense 
(Is, and silver from the Freiburg mines. 
•ftiMk are in six coaipartnients, and con- 
sapphires, emeralds, rabies, strings of 
XMirls, and oriental pearls; a breast knot of 
lliants; a necklace of 38 lartro diamonds ; 

P*lla« Promachos (or the Dresden Minerva) ; Head 
of Nloho; SUenns reposlngon a wine skin; Statues 
of Neptune and Jupiter; A yoang Athlete; Head 
ofalicarded Bacchus; Hercules; Bust of Ajax; 
Group of Venus, Cupid, and Psyche; Head of 
Domltlai; Empress Plotina; Trajan; Busts of 
Empress Domltla, and Marelana, stoter of Trajan ; 
Matron and two daughters, from Hmulanenm, in 
an almost perfect state; and one of the greatest 
ornaments of the collection; Cupid piayin- with a 
Lion; Busts of Marena Aurelius, and LuciUa, hia 
daufrbter ; Bust and Head of Jnlla Domna, wife of 
Septimius Severus, Torso of a wounded Gladiator; 
Faun fuhtin;; with a Homiaphroditc; The dead 
Son of Niobe ; Statues of Kcptune, Dancing Faun, 
Diana, Venns; Basts of Hellogabalus and bis first 
wife, Four Romans playing at tennis, supposed to 

„ „™„v,= ui oc n^rf^v tnamonas; witc, i"our Komans playing at tennIs, supposed to 
rings, two of which belonged to I*uthfr j ; hsTO been fopqd l|i Adrian's V|l|«,4t Tlwli j Head 

Digitized 6y Google 



uf LuciuH Vi rus; bas-relief with triamphal matrh 
of Lucius Verus; Bast of Marcus Anrelius; Ariadne 
At NaxDs; Antinoas Bacchtts; Athlete anointing 
hia n«ok; Venn*, the h««d and torn original, the 
rest restored : Bustattf Ciltgiila. 

Beside these there arc many hronites, unit, TM^t, 
and Indian and Assyrian antiqaitics. 

In the, new Albertlnam are also the Plaiter 
€kM* of the bojst antlcive aUtaes collected .by 
Uniihaol Mciifrs, thefliti^t. jispjsted by Bi.mconi. 
and nftcrwnrds purchased hy Fred. Au^ru^tus of 
Haxouy. The ousts include copleb of thoLaucoon, 
Md the Dyhig Gladiator^ the Elgin merblee; 
Venns of Milo, and de Medici; Cupid and Psyche;, 
the Discol olus : the Faniesc Hercules; Vatican 
Apollo; Burhcriui Faun; and many tine antique 
vases. Also casts of mcditcval and modem 
maaten, among which are ecnne by Tborwaldseiit 
presented hy himself to the mnseaiu; with the 
Twdve Ai ostles of Sebaldnskirche in Nofem- 
berjf : and the Victory at Berlin. 

The Rietsciiel collection of casts i» al^o now 
located In the Albertlnum, formlnir e very rich 
collectton of eculptnrei and casts; open on wecli- 
days, exctptlnpr Satnrdays, from 9 to 8) Sundays, 
H to 2, without char^'e. 

The Polutechnikum, in liis^marcli Place, contains 
plans, patterns, and models, with line wall 
paintings. The latter can be seen. free, on the 
first Sutidity \n the month, 11 to 1. The Library 
is closed in August. The Library of the Isis 
Society Is also here. 

tht Japant9e Ptttaci* In Kaiser Wtlhdm Plats, 
is surrounded by a line garden, and contains the 
Koyal Library. 

The Library^ on the first and second fi<Jors, com- 
prises abont 800,000 vols, and 4,000 MSB., 20,000 
maps, and 180,000 pamphlets. 

Anion? the curiosities arc— A. Dllrer's Treatise 
on Proportion, with hif (nvn sketches; l,^flf) mrly 
printed boolcs of the fifteenth century, including' 
two copies of the Karrenschlff; letters of Luther, 
Udanchthon, and Grotlus ; several books of auto- 
graphs; uMexlcan MS., on nloc loaves; Bajazct's 
Roran, and other Eastern MSS. ; also a hook which 
belcmged to Charles the Bold and Rend of Anjou. 
Adelnng, who was librarian, died here In 1806. 
Open every day. except Sunday, from 9 to 9; 

[Sec. 2. 

admi«5sion, 50 pf. Close.! «t Eastor. Whitsuntide, 
and Christmas. Residents are allowed to borrow 
books; and strangers also, on giving good security. 

8. The SvlnSOT, in Theater Plats, near the 
Schloss, Is part of a large Palace, denigned by 
Augustus I., hut never romi letcd. Tt fnnns a 
quadrangle In the Kenab^ance style. 2G0 paces loner, 
by 170 broad, with three porticoes and six pavili- 
ons. In the court are four fountains and 800 
oran^r^ tnes, with Bietschcrs bronze statue of 
Frederick Ansm-Jtus, supported by enil)!ematic 
figures by Semper, iu the pedestal. The side 
nearest the Plata, containing the Musemu aiid 
Picture Gallery, with Its Corinthian co]anin«, 
was rebuilt by Semper. 18W, siih^viiient to the 
insurrecticm of lft49: when tills side, with the 
Natural History and Botanical collections, was 
burnt down, as wdl as the Opera House adjoin- 
ing. It is adorned with statues and tias-xellefe, 
by Rlctsfhel nnd TIHInicl. 

Besides the I'ioturo (lallory, it contains tbe 
Zoological and Authropolo^'icil Museum, the 
MIncratogicalHuseum, Mathematical and Physical 
Instruments, and the Engravings. 

The Pfrfurr GaUerij \s one of the finest collec- 
tions in (j< rin.iny. nunii»ering nearly ?.400 works, 
l>cgtin by Imke George, and greatly added to 
by Augustus II. and Augustus III. The latter 
i purchased the best picture of the collecfton, 
T{:i]>h.'i< t'» fainons ^^'^flonna di San Sisfo, and other 
' valuable works. There are noticea'dc views of 
Dresden, by BcUotti. English, German, and 
French catalogues are sold In the building, price 
i U to2| marks. 

Under the dome of tlie Gallery, in the Fnnd- 
i^aal (Cupola Saloon), are l^lomish Tapestries after 
Raphaera and Quentin Matsys* cartoons. In the 
left wing are the rooms for the Italian Schools, 
ending in Raj)haer% Madomai in the other are the 
' J^iiaiii^h, Flemish, and Cerninn fehAols, temiinnt- 
Ing with Jlolbein s Madonna, ni the comer 
to Raphael's. In the Cabinets on the north aide 
are the smaller pictures of the Italian, Dutch, and 
old German schools; those on the south nido con- 
tain chiefly Dutch nnd French M ork". The second 
storey contains Italian, French, and modcru 
Oennan pictures. 
The MifdontM «ft San 9UI9, to called from ttia 

Digitized by Google 

BoateSl.l SAit]>*B00x lo oebmai 

ehiiTOli whMCtt It wft t bron^t, tad one of the raost 

beaxitiful of Rapbacrs productions, was bought 
1753, at riacenza, for £9.000. It represents the 
Madonna and Child, with the old I'ope SUtus II, 
8t. Barbwa, end two clilldren esAngiAs; all We 
alse. It ia painted on lUk, and henoe Is thonvbt 
to have been done for fi fla?: to be cnrrted \n pro- 
cessions. Xliero i» a cartoon of it iu our National 

Xieavinff this room as the starting-point, some of 
the most noticeable works in the rooms which 

Btt<"cco(l it, !\rc the foUowiiif? : — 

( iiilo Dolri .K St. Cecilin. Garofalo's Bacchus 
and Ariadni! ; Mary and Child, ii. Komano's Holy 
Famllf, called the "Madonna della 8oodella,**or, 
with the Porring-cr. A. Turchi's David with 
Goliath's Head. ( 'orreggio's Madunna and Fmir 
Salnt«<: Madonna and Three Saint.**; Ailoratkiii 
of the .Shepherds culled "La JJotte, the Night 
Piece. A. d^ Sarto's Sacrifice of Abraham. 
Giorgione's Jacob and Racbar' Titian's Portrait 
of his daughter Lavinia; and VcmiH nnd Cupid. 
Guercino s Lot and hi.s d^ugbturs. Guido's Niuus 
and Seniiramls. Caravaggio's Card Players. Cor- 
reg0io*s (?) Ifagdaien. B&rocelo*s Hagar and Ish- 
mael. L. da Vinci's Virgin and riiiM. Talma 
Veccbio's Threo Sisti-rn. Titian's Triluue Money, 
called "Chrisio Delia Moneta. ' Cigiiani's Joseph 
and Potiphar's Wife. C. Lorraine's Flight Into 
Egypt. Jordaens' Presentation. Hnrlllo's St. 
Rodcricit crowned by the Angel: whicli belonged 
to liOttis Philippe. Spajriiotettn's St. Mary the 
Kgyptian. Kubcns' Piirlrait of hi.s two .Sons; 
Iteptnne and the Tempest; Qard^ of Love. 
YandydL^B Oharies I., and his Three Children 
of Charles I. F. Bol's Flight into EuTI't. Rcin- 
brandt'.s ^aerifice of Manouh. Holbein's .\fiiflo»na 
and CMlt(\ with the Burgomaster of Basle and his 
Fhmlly. This la now belleTed to be a copy, bnt Is 
an exceedingly flno picture. Also, bis Portrait of 
Ifenry VTTl's Gt.ldsmlth, Morett. G. Dr.xv's Tlcr- 
mtt in i'rayer. Piir{rait« by Denner, Nattier, 
G(frard, Sylvestre, Ac. Several Buttic-plcccs. Mo- 
dem platings by Saxon artists, Pesehel, Dahl, 
Hdbnct-. Grossa, and others. Finally, aeoileetlon 
of 200 Miniatures of liings and emperors. An 
exhibition of Uolbeins was held here, 1871, to which 
the Qnsei) sent • low of ssvitsl from £:nglaud. 

rT.»OBBBDail, SWIHGUe. 101 

The Gallery Is open daily in summer, 9 to 3; 

Sundays, 11 to 2 : Mondnyf, 9 to 1, 1 mark r>i) pf. 
Weclnt'sdaysand Saturdays, ."iOpf., other days free. 

The Historical Muteutn is in the Museum Johan- 
nemn, Neu Markt, and contains a valnable; 
collection of objects relating to bygone times, . 
portraits, painted windows, Inlaid armour, wea- 
pon3, furuittire, drinking vessel-^, .^c Optii in 
summer, daily (except Saturdays), from D to S, 
50 pf. Sundays and FestiTsls, 11 to 2, 2^ pf. 

1st Room— Contains portraits of Saxon Princes ; ■ 

! a golrlct of rhinoceros born; drinkin'^' vop'-'cIs; 
old .-tallied glass ; tlie work-taMt i f the lilectre.s-* . 
Aune; Luther's sacramental cup, and the sword 
he wore at the Wartburg, when disguised as 
Jtmker Georg (^^quire neor>re); also a cabinet , 
presented to him liy the Kh'ctnr. 

2nd Room -Tuurimiiu-nt Gallery, with rows of 
horsemen in armour, some very splendid, others 
of w^hty metaL Among them are two coats of 
armour of sdldsllTer. 

3rd Room — Hunting weapons, bows, knlA-es. 
horns «fec. Implements of gardening, turning, Ac, 
used by the Elector Augusttis I.; the crossbows 
of the Elector Maurice and John Frederick; 
hunting honi of Henry IV., of France; dogs* 
collars; enibriiidered irame batrs. Ae. 

4th Roonj— Second tiallery, containing warlike 
weapons, swords, spears, shields of the fourteenth 
and fifteenth centuries; shields <^ the Hussites; and 
a portrait of Ziska, the Bohemian leader, and his 
coat of armour. The «<vvord of Thonia«' Mfinzor. 
the leader of the Thuringian peasants, 1525; this 
is a short dagger kind of sword, with a Rnnic 
calendar on It. The dagger of Rudolph of Swabia. 
10^0, and the Hword of IHin John of AostriSf the 
General at Lcpantn. 

Among the coats of armour is that of Henry 
the Piotts, with tho chain by which he wished to 
hang the Frieslandera; two others M the Eleetoir 
' Christian II., made by the eelebrated Kollmarin 
of Au^-^hnrsr, one beingcovcred with mythologicnl 
figures, in relief; the cuirass of Augustus II., ■' 
called the Strong, weighing IM lbs.; the annovr 
and sabre of John Sobieski. King of Poland; tho 
Turkish colours and horse's tnil carried -off by 
the Saxons from Vienna, luS3; and other objects, 
' all arranged chronologically. 

Digitized by Google 



Sth Room— Collection of flra^miM from the 

fiftfonth century to the present time; among them 
«rc two pistols of Charles XII.. of Swcrlon, at the 
Uattlo of Friedrlcbftball, where he was killed; 
ptttoli of Loolt ZIY^ Mid of the Eleetor Mftnrieo, 
of Sftxonr* 

6th Room — Containing armour and weapons 
used in battle hy cclcbmtod men; three suit^ of 
the Elector Matirice, with a cabinet containing his 
bloodj Mill, ftnd tb« boll which killed him et 
Sierenbavien, 1553, fired hy « traitor, U it mid; 
Tilly's general's staff; r^rTTiour of OnstftTas Adol- 
phus, with his sword and buton. 

7tb Room— Contains modem weapons from 1620 
down to tlie present day. Follah, and Saxon, and 
modem French. 

8tb Room->Thi8 room contains the tent of the 
Viiicr Kara Miistaphn. tnkcn at the sicfrr of 
Vienna, 1CS3; anuuiir and sabre of John Sobicski; 
also Turkbb carpets, arms, &e, 

9lh Roonir-Containa harness and trapping*, 
robes, Ac, nscd at coronations and on public occa- 
?5oni, sonic of the harness lielng inlaid with 
pearls and rallies, and other precious stones; also 
6tate robes; a culicctiou of shoes of different 
countries; saddles; trophies; sledge bells of silver; 
an iron stimip and remarkalde spur, Ac. 

10th Room — Court, Ac, costumes, IClh to 18th 
c-cutury; coat of Napoleon I., the Imuts \vliirh he 
wore at the battle of Dresden, 1813, and his coro- 
nation alioes ; liat and sword id Peter the Qreat. 

Gaiierif <tf Arm* (Gewehr Oallerie); « fine col- 

Ifo'ioii of arms and wonpciiis, stapra* antlort, Ac. 
Adinis»ion, t>H pf. : extra in winter. 

The Poirefain Collection Is on the second 
door of the Museum, and consists of nearly 15,000 
•perliconsof China, chronologically arranved, from 
the first rude attempts to the finest productions of 
Mt.i~.sen work. Here are sp^rliuens of Sevres 
(given by Napoleon), Italian, Chinese, and JapnncNe 
porcelain; Florentine and Soman mosaics; Saxen 
marbles; and many beantlfui vaies and figrnres. 
Scvernl of Bottf^r's earliest attt'nipt!< nre here. 
This is luobnbly the finest colici.tion of purce'ain 
in existence. The Hoyal Factory for Dresden 
ehlim is at Meluen, two or t)iree hovra down the 
' <r (see pare IIS), 


I The Mooloifkal m4 EUmogrmfkieai IfiraMni, en- 

traneeonthcsou»h-west sldeof fhcZwlnper. Itwns 
partly injured during the insurrection of JUay, 
1849, when the Herbarium of Professor Relchen* 
iMch was destroyed; this liaa been repiaeed by a. 
botanical collection given by the Queen Dowager. 
Here are (5,000 sj ecimens of hlrd* In the Mineral' 
ogical Mmeum nre nniierals from the Sttxon mines, 
among which is a mass of fine silver which MTvnd 
as a talde for the Eleetor at tim 8chneeborg 
I mine. Open, free, Sunday, Monday, and Thursday, 
j 11 to 1; Wednesday and Satnrdjiv. 1 to .i- rlnsod 
Tuesday and Friday. Minerals: free, Monday, 
Tuesday, Thursday, and Friday, 9 to 1; Wednea- 
day, S to 4 ; dosed Saturday and Sunday. 

The Cabinet Bngraftngt.^ in the gronnd floor 

of the Zwinger, fills 12 rooms. It contains more 
than 30r>.000 prints, from the first disc overy of the 
art, about 1466, to the present time; including 
some rare specimens by Follajuola, Finiguerra, 
Albert Dttrer, Van Eych, Ac Also a collection of 
designs by the old masters; coloured enfrrnvlng? ; 
find oi lentnl pnintJngs; and an interesting collec- 
tion of above 3W portraits of celebroted perscns 
of mcdevn times, with their autographs attached. 
It was founded by Vogel, the Dresden painter, 
and pie cnted by him to the cillcction in 1832. 
Ol»cn dnily (except M<in.). 10 t.. r>: Sun., 11 to 2; 
Tues., Thuis., and Triday. free: other days, 60 pf. 

The Academy of Art and the Art Exhibition 
are on the Brtthl Terrace. 

The Roman Catholic Cemeierp is In the Fried' 
richstadt, nriir the O.vtra (Jehepre. n well-wooded 
spot. It contains the tomb of I'ennuser, the 
' sculptor (a Descent from the Cross), by himself; 
I the two painters Casanova; of Schlcgel; the 
I painter Gerard vun KUgelchen, murdered at 
Dresden, !?<-J0; ftf ^Viber; Dorothea Tieck, 
Weber composed his Der Freischlilz at Hosterwitas. 
. near Dresden, and was the Director of tlie Opera 
I here. A Sttrtue of him, by Rietschet, faces 

The iir«w CoMTt Theatre, a handsome buUdlng, 

facing the Court Clturch. rebuilt since a fire, 1809, 
by Professor Hemper If h' Uls 1.700 persons, 
and is nearly 240 feet ^quare, and 90 feet high. 
The Curtain is by Hnlmer. At the entrance an 
niched atAtuea of Ooetbe, Soliiller, GlUch. Hofart, 

Digitized by Google 

Bottte 31] 



U«libre Aristophanes, Shaketpeare, and Eurlpidos. 
by Rietschcl and Hahnel. The reliefs on the 
f«» flf th« bttiUUiiff ftra by HShnel. Schittlngs* 
Dtonyfint and Arladsie itaadi In front. 

Th« MediCftl School^ fonncrly the Aendemicnl 

Buildinf*^, has some palntlnj^s by Casanova, in 
the basement. The Kaulballe (or the Trades is 
faced by a colonnade. 

Tbe FreouMsons* Lodge in the OktnHill^e Is a 
very line bnildlng In tli« Florentine style; and 
the Orangerie Ilaus hero also deserves notice. 

At the end of the Obcn'C'Ofrnssc is Dr. Struve's 
Mineral Water Institution, built 1821, and resorted 
to by {Mtients in suimucr. The Orotse Garten, on 
tba east. Is a fine park, containing some wooded 
einnps, Tases, and marble groups by Corral in 1 
and Ball"' trr In tho centre of it is the LtistseMoss, 
in which are now iocatcd a Museum o f Anfiquilies^ 
chiefly Saxon ccclcsiustlcal. Open in suiomer 
dally, 50 pf. In winter* November to April 
InolntlTe, special application and })i;.'her fees. 
Here v,&^ foaght the Great Jinfth- of Dresden, 
27th August, 1813, when the Allies advanced 
ou the city, then occupied by Napoleon, and 
were defeated with tbe loss of 35,000; a result 
brought about chiefly by Mtirat'^ splendid cavalry 
eharge on the Austrian foot at LnbunH 'I'he total 
nnmber of combatants was upwards of 
This was tbe last pitched battle In which Napo- 
leon was victor. It was attended with tbe death 
of the poet Komer, who wrote tbe well>known 
lines to his Sword just before the battlOi and of 
Moreau, as mentioned helow. 

EMYiKOKfl.— The Linckes'sche Hod, at the north- 
east end on the borders of the river, in the Schiller* 
strasse, Is a garden beautifully situated, ofTording a 
fine view of Dresden. Wolfshligel Is another fine 
point of view. A little farther on is the Wald- 
fcchlusiichen Brewery, celebrated for Its beer and 
the fine view from its terrace; and accessible by 
omnibus. Near this is the ii/dmftlatef^, with two 
chateaux belonging to Prince Albert of Saxe- 

More distant excursions to Kmigmeinberg, the 
former residence of tbe Dowager Queen, where 
there Is a sjdcndld view; and 

To L»¥lhrttt^ on the right bank of the Elb«» 

; where ScMUer resided in a house belonging to tbe 
father of KUmer, and wrote his ''Don Carlos." A 
good reataniant here. 
At Bkmmlit^ the Urth-ptace of the composer 

Xaunmaun, opposite T.,oschwitz. lived "Chistd Ton 
' BlascA'vitz," the daii-rhter of a clerjryman there, 
whom Schiller has introduced into his "Wallen- 
stein's Lager," in revenge for her dislike to him. 

At JUfeinAr, sonth-east of the town, is tbe 
Monument to Moreau, a block of stone with n 
helmet on it, placed between three m\%. Morfitn, 
sitting on horseback by the Emperor Alexnnder'n 
side, at the battle of Dresden just mentioned 
(In which he fought against Napoleon), was stniek 
by a ball which passed t!inni;:li one leg. through 
his horse, and through his other leg; it was fired 
at the distance of 2,000 yards. Hislegs were burled 
on the spot, and bis body was taken to fit. Peters- 
burg. Not far from this monument, at the 
Grenzstcin, Is a fine view. 

An excursion may be made to Thar.mdt, pass- 
ing FeldsschiUsschen, an<l tlauenscttf Grundy & 
romantic valley on the Wdsseritx, shut In by 
walls of red sandstone. There is an inn where 
Hungarian wine ntid other refreshments may lie 
had. Plaucn, on the t'heiunitz railway, is tlu* 
nearest station. Further on is a well-known inn, 
caliod **Tho Stelger,** and still higher Is the 
"Juchhc Inn," both remarkable for good prospects. 
At Hain^bor^'. tlie Wilde and Rotbe Welsserlta 

rivers unite; and beyond tilis i> 

Tharandt (Stat.) 


Jnn. — ^Dentsches Haus. 

An ancient and picturesque place, in the valley 
of the Weisscritz. Mineral waters are drunk 
here ; It is well known for its celebntted Forst* 
Academic, Which yearly draws thither a nnmber 

of studcntH. The finest points are— Rurp Tharandt. 
a ruined hunting seat of the Saxon princes, and 
the Forstgartcn, coutoinUig the Belvedere temple, 
besides a beech wood with Its splendid trees, ^*Dle 
helligcn Hallen.*' 

Another excuri«i(>n from Dre«;den is to 
Moritzburg, a royal huntiiifr seiu. )1 miles from 
Dresden; built 1542 by the Elector Maurice, and 

enlaiged by Angnstns the Strong, 17SS. The 
tapestry of one of the 850 rooms Is worked tnm 

Digitized by Google 


[Sec. f . 

the featbera ot South American Urds. In the 

cUnlng'-rooni are spvont y-onc very raro «ta£rs' honi s : 
one of great sizo, the root beiutf tunied into a 
drinking cup. Four puirs of twisted horns remain 
as th«y trere entangtod by the llylng animals In 
flu'ht. The paintin}?9 are chM^ hnntbig scenes. 
Thcix- is a plu asnntry in the •rronnds. 

Kitisdie, aixiut y miles from Dresden, ia another 
fine spot with a bathintj-houae. It to the aeat of 
the straw-plait manufaetnre. ilayiifiiM Jtod; near 
the Badeberir Station (p. 121), is frequented in the 
season; also the beautiful Selfersdorf valley. Pill- 
nitz and Hchaudau arc in the Haxon Switzerlaatl. 

Dresden to Saxon Switzerland. 
(Siehslsehe Schwelz.) 
This is a picturesque and hilly part of the Elbe 
in the highlands of Moiascn, In iriimtnir about 8 
miles above Dresden, nnu h visiti d l>y tourists and 
the inhabitants of the cui»itul. It extends from 
Pima, past KSnlffsberg and Sehandan^toTetsehen, 
on the Bohemian froiiti' r. mA fur about six to 
eight miles inland. Srli.amliu, miles from Dr<>«- 
den, i9 in the heart of tlie district. To the north 
of It are the sheep waUcswblch yield the flne Saxony 
wool. There are no lakes or glaciers, or high moun- 
tulns, to astonish tho travoUor. whomiirhtotlicrwlso 
expect them, on account of the popular name of 
this district ; but it offers several fiue points of view, 
and Its geological eharacter Is qnlte unique. As 
an example of ik nudatiou it is only surpassed hy 
the famous Yollowstnno Rh<»ion, U.S. The high 
rocky walls of the Blbe, ou both sides, are pierced 
by deep ravines and valleys— so narrow in some 
eases that they can only be traTelled on foot. 
Broken rocks are piled together in th ■ nio^t 
fantastic shapes, occasioned by the prndual wash- 
ing away of the soft sandstone. The highest 
points are the Great ^nterberg, 1,850 feet above 
the sea; and the Ltllenstein, opposite K9nigasteJn, 
1,340 feet. 

All the hc^i pidnts arc ousiiy accessible, by 
Steamer, up the river, several times daily; or 
by the Dre$den and Prague Batt^ five trains a day. 
The rail follows the south bank, with stations as 
below, near the landing places of tlic steamers, 
from which the principal objects can be reached 
by f«rry or ottwrwlse. PVtxseha is the station for 

the Bastei view. Koni-rsteln, f -r i!9 Castle and 
tlic Lillenstein. Kripi*en, for hchaudau and the 
Kuhstall. Niedergrund, for ilerunskrctscheo, the 
Prebiseh Thor, and Winterberg. 

Onldes are not necessary, bot tbey can be had 
for fonr uiark.<t a day, for which they will carry 
22 lbs, (if lufTirage. Bearers also maybe hired, two 
to a cimir, fur those who require them, at certain 
fixed charges, to the best points of view. 

A Pedettrian Tottr from IXresden may be made to 
Konigs Weinberg, KeppmUide, the Porsberg, 
Pillnltz. tho LfH'hniiihb', an<l Lohmen ; ihcnce to 
the Uastei, to Hohusteiu, and down to bchaudau, 
which is a good starting point for the whole dis- 
trict. Thence to the Knlistall, the Wlnterberg, Pre- 
Mschthor. t'« Ilornns Kretsciieu, Obcrgrnnd, Tets- 
(.iicn, thonic by steanior down to Dresden, or by 
land round to the Schneebcrg, ScbwelzermiilUe, 
and KSnigstein Castle; np the Lillenstein, and 
lj;i( k to I'irna and Dresden. 

Tho stations of the Dresden and Prague line are 
as follow : — 

Dresden (Neustadt and 
Alstadt) to Miles. 

MUgeln.,....,, 7i 

Pima A\\ 

[Branch to Berggicss- 

Put zscha.. ....*•«..• 


KSnigsteiu......... 89 



[Branch to Bautzen] 

Krippen S0| 



Tolsohr-n 40 

[Branch to Aussig] 

: Bodcnbacta 40| 

j [T*vo tiinnols, 4G8 feet 
I and aOd feet.J 
Thence to Prague, see Boute 68. 

Starting from Dresden we come to 

FlXILa (Stat.>— population 14,000— near Mount 
Calta, at the beginning of the ^axon Switzerland, 
near the old Castle of Sonnensteln. Bsgrond 

this is Keppmtihle, a romantic spot, near a fine 
point of view at Zuckerhut. From Pfma, a 
branch line of bj^ miles (in connection with one 

fh>m Berlin) rans to Bottwemsdorf, Neuen- 
dorf, langenbeniuradorf; and BdiggUw 

hiibel, through some pretty scenery. 

Pillnltz (Linn) Is the =?unnncr Palace of the King, 
in a beautiful part of the Elbe, near tbo Porsberg. 
It consists of four pavilions at the four comers of 
a square, built since 1788, a mixture of the Italian 
and Chinese styles. Nc.vt tothisis the now Palaco, 
rebuilt since the fire of 1818, on the site of Augustua 
II.*s Castle. Here are portraits and frescoes Ui 

Digitized by Google 

the l>ntiqtictin{^ room nnd Chnpcl. hy Vojrel ; with 
a Theatre. Thfre are sunu; rare plants in the 
gardcus, aud a bear pit. licre tho Euipcror 
Leopold ITm Kin; IVederlck WlllUim 11^ Mid the 
Count d'Artoifl (Charles X.) formed the co.-ilition 
of PiUnitz, 23 Aaguftt, 1791, againsi the French 
Bevolution. From here the 

Fricdrichsthal leads up to tho Pohrsborg, a 
grenfte peek 1,19§ feet high, Affording n fine 
l»rfis|K>ct of the Elbe from Mclawn to Kunigstein. 

The Wesiiitz flows between -walls of rock nr 
ravine, at tho bottom of the Liubethaler Grund ; 
from which there Is a way up to the Lochmiiblc, 
a mill to eaUed; beyond which is Danbe. 

At f.ohmcn. nn the rocky C(l;ro of the %-fiUoy, 
titdiids the <>i<i ca-^tlc, now u royal farm, com- 
manding a fine view. Descend to 

Uttetoatder Onmd^ a cleft formed of rockii, fk-oro 
60 to 80 yarde ht^ Thence throu<„'h the Tcufcls- 
kUche (Dcvirn Kltehen) and BiiUengrund (Hell 
Bottom), to the 
Bastei, or Bastion, a mass of freestone, close to 
- the Elbe, and 7M feet abore it, snnronnded by 
Mveral peak*, and remarkable for the extensive 
prospeots it enjoys from the iim tower. It takes 
In both sides of the river, the villages ot liathen 
aud Wuhlen, Kouigstein Castle, thu Lilieuberg 
and Wtnterberg, as far as the Sehoeeberv, itc^ 
in Bohemia, with Ilohnstein, and other nearer 
h('if?ht«. Coining by rail, the ])P^t point of 
depart urc is P5tZ80lia (Stat.), opposite the little 
town of Wehlen, to whieh there is a ferry$ and 
thenoe to the Bastei is abont 2 miles. Onides to 
alt parts arc found here. From the Rastel down to j 

Xir<lt>r Ritfhi n (an inn> by a w.ay leading past 
the bridge, built 18dO-S7, to shorten tho path over 
the cleft of tlie Kartertelle, onoe gvarded by a 

ffte Amtdgrmi Is a wild rocky valley, through 

which the Ainscl flows, ninl is only to be reached 
on foot, passing the AimcUoch, where the rocks 
arc piled up in the most grotesque way. Upwards 
to the vltlage of Ratherwalde, and then to tho 
nocksteln, overlooking tho little town of Ilohn- 
stein, oppn-site, with its oM fr^rtres?:. In the 
distance are the Scbneeberg aud PfalTcnstiln. 


Ams.— Hirseh; SSchslsche Schweiz. 

V.-~SaXoK SWlTXJiliLAKb* 111 

The old fortress of Hohnsteiu has a Blireu 
garten beneath it, a l avcm surrounded by rocks, 
I where some of the Saxon Princes kept bears for 
I baiting. The ascent to the Hehnstfiln, by the 
footpath, offers some fine views. Hence, la three 
quarters of an hour to tho 

Brand, n proieeting steep, on the border of the 
Polouzthai, with a prospect equal to that from 
the Bastei, taking in the whole cliain of hills fhnn 
the Winterbcrg to the Polursberg. Down to the 

7Vc/(? Gruiui, n jrloomy valley hetweem high 
preciplees. on tht^ Orhel. \v!ii( li. with the Poloni:- 
bach and i^ebnitzbacb, hero unite to form the 
Laehsbach. Past the Elbe yon proceed throngh 
the Tillage of WendlsebfMhre, on the Elbe, to 



/n«i.— Scndig Hotel and Pension; Forstbaus 
and DeutschcH Uaus; SUchsischc Schweiz; 
Dampscblff; Goldner Bngel. 

This little town is the chief place in Saxon 
Switzerlntid. ami Is suitiible as a head-q\iarters 
for visiting tlie neijihliDurhood leisurely, by steam, 
rail, or otherwise. It faces Krippen Station, on 
the Dresden and Prague line. At KUmittschtM^ Is 
a bathing establishment, with iron springs, uaefnl 
for weak nerves, pile's. <tc. It is sheltered by a 
hili. llie Ostrauer ikhcibe, at the top of whicli a 
bust of Luther was placed as a memorial of the 
Reformation Jubilee in 1817. 

From .Sihandau to the Kuhstull, in three hours, 
along the Kirnitz.Hchthal. a v.nlky lu unnod In by 
high saudbtone rocks, passing the Wildcnstein. 
The KukstM fcow-house) is an open cleft or arch, 
20 feet high, SO feet broad, through whidi there is 
a view of the Ilahifhtsi.'^rund. 

During the Thirty Years War, the inhnhitaiit* 
of the neighbourhood made this spot a shelter for 
their cattle. A small inn is open in summer, 
w here a night's lodging may be bad. F^om the 
Kuhhtall a steep path londiiets d vwn to the 
llabichtsgrund, and thence to ilie Kleiner or 
Lesser Winterbcrg, 1,040 feet high, on tbe top of 
which is an inn, with a line prospect. An Inierip* 
tion in Qennan and Latin, narrates that, tliree 
centuries a?o, the Klectur Augustus of Saxony, 
while hunting a furious stag, nearly met with 
his death, and only saved himself by a fortunate 

Digitized by Coogle^ 



[Sec. 2. 

fthot. R«ra are tiro l4olftled rock* of taiHtttom 

vaA basalt, close together, lK>th of the same 
JM-5::rlit. uiid alike In shajw. In tho noi^'-hbour- 
hood are the Scbrammstein and the I'uUtitiitelu, 
tlM Ultar nearly 1,500 feet high, and a line point 
of view/ 

From the Kleiner Winterberg, in three^uarten 

of an honr, you reach the 

Cfroua' Winterberg^ a dork gray mass of basalt^ ( 
1,850 foot above the na, and 1,000 above the Elbe. | 
The inn at tbe top orerlooka the greatest part of 

Saxony, nnd part (<f Rt>horaia, from the llicsen- 
geblrge to the Kulmbcrg at Oschatz, a circle about ; 
00 miles iu diameter. Nearly 3 miles from this 
(on Bohemian gronnd) is another point of view, 
the Prebitch Thot\ 1,410 feet, so called from a 
natural gate (thor), formed of a «<nioiiUi rock, 
60 feet long, at the summit of a peak res^tiug on 
two pUlan of rock 00 feet blsh. There la a 
aplendid landscape from tbe Inn near this. After 
descending the Dicla, between deep precipices, the 
vulii y widens, and the river joins the Kamnita, to 
lull at length into the Elbe. 
From Schandan, rail to IToiistadt* NiOdor- 

AOVldYell, and Bantsen (I a^'e 121), 

Hermskretcben, on the Elbe. 

The nearest station to this is Scbona or Nlcder- 
gmnd (aa below), both on the opposite banlc. 
Tourists nay end their excursion here, return. 

Inp by «!rf^;i!iier. past Koiiljrstein, to Dresden; or 
they iniy i xtnid tlie journey up to Tetschcn, past 
Rasseln and i^ubc. At 

KiOdngnilld (Stftt), the Orst in Bohemia, the 
passport will be demanded at the Cnstom-honse, 
and InjrfragT cxamlnod. Iloyond this, a pranlte 
rock bears the statue of St. Adalbert, the patron of 
sailors. Opposite Kosscln, on the uthcr bank, rises 
a ateep called Rosenwiind. Then follow Mtttel- 
gmnd, at the foot of the Lnohenberg, and 

C^ergrund, at tlic foot of the Dreibcrg, Here 
steamers may be talien for tbe ascent of the Elbe, 
to TetBdien,in two hoars; they He olose to tbe 
SXchslsebo-BOmlscben Schwlta Inn. There is a 
bathing bouse on the hill above* 

Tetschen (Stat.) 


/tws.— Krone; SUbemer Stem. 
A small town and the last plaee in Saxon 
gwltserland, at iu Boltemian extremity. Steamers 

\ dally down to Dresden. Tbe seat of Count Voa 

\ Than on a cliff over tbe rain, about 110 feet high, 
is a fine point of view A time gnn is dis- 
charged every day at noon, by means of tbe 
sun's rays. A paper and cotton factory are in tile 
nel^bonrhood. fVom here a oulde may be taken 

for ascending the /Jt7m?^i><»rf;. Three huts arc on 
the top, with an insrription — "Monumcntum 
astronomico-geomctricum— Ibe highest point of 
the moontain, under the OOkh degree, f,SSi feet, 
2,370 feet above the sea.'* The view embraces tha 
whole of Saxon Switzerland. It Is four hours 
to tbe Hydropathic Establishment at Schweizer- 
mtthle and tbe caverns in the Bielcr Qmnd ; and 
two hours from that to KOnlgsteln. 
Kanlgttein (Stat.) 

Port'LATiox, 8,790. 

/nn<.— Blauer Stem ; Sachsische Schweiz. 
A small town under the picturesque CastlO, 
which stands on an almost imp re f/itable Mgkt^ 
nearly 1 mile round, 820 feet above the river, 
and 1.100 feet above the sea. Permission niAv 
be obtained to visit it at tbe gate. Fee, 4 m, lor 
a party. An ottcer acts as guide. It Is strongly 
fortified on every side, and is only reached by 
drawbridges. Here are barracks for 1,200 men, 
with bomb-proof vaults and casemates; a bust 
of King Frederick Augustus, who retreated 
hero (1700) in the Seven Years* War; a well 000 
feet deep; an arsenal, and a state prison. The 
garrison church has an altarpi^n- In- I^ucas Crauach. 
At the Commandant's house are portraits of many 
Commandants. There an cavea for storing pro> 
visimis; with gardana, and a little pasture and 
j woodland. The royal archives and treasures arc 
! removed hither in war time. The circuit of the 
j rock should be made to enjoy the fine prospects all 
I round. In October, 1000, Saxony was oUiged by 
treaty to give up this important mllltaty pOSt to 
Pmssia, with the command of her army, rails, and 
telegraphs, and to pay J i millions of tbalers towards 
war expenses. 

Across the river is the Llllenstcln, a taller peak, 
marked by an obelisk <m the top, 1,840 feet above 
the sea. It is nearly 3 miles distant. About the 
same distance to tbe south-east is tbe Pfaffenstein, 
another peak nearly as high. 
Pima <8ttit.), as above meotionad. 
FwoLktumi HOOO. 

Digitized by Google 

goute 32. j 

/nw^.— Schwarzer Adler; Forrthaus. Buffet. 
A thriTing town on the Elbe, hmut the Sonncn- 
•tein, vbere Frederick the Great defeated the 
gazooa, 17IS$. It b boitt of atone, f ram tli» large 
gVaiTiM in tli« iMli^ibottilidod, iron wbkk grfnd- 
stones, millstones, and stones for statuaries arc also 
procured. Here arc n fine Onthir riiurch with 
stained windows: a Domiutcaii Lhurcii, built 1361; 
ft hudKMBM new Wtls OTh an i or Ofphon 
At the top of the 
Sonnm*lein arc a castle aud rc<itnnrant. with a 
splendid view of the valley of the Elbe. The Ca»»tle. 
which had been dismantled in the Seven Years' War, 
VM aftomurds eonTerted into s Lvoatie Aiylnm. 
in 1813 it was again fortified by Napoleon, and 
restored to its present use at tli f nclusion of the 
war. There la a convalescent house nearer the town. 
A line, 18 dUm lopg, miu Irom bwe to AmsdOZf 
{pn the Dreaden line), thorn 1^ mUeatoBmiau. 
At Dilrrohrsdi->rf, between Amsdorf and Plnia, a 
short branch goes off to Scustadt, and Scliandau 
j;page U2). From Firna it is 2^ oiiles to Gross 
Beldltts aii4 its rojel cpstle, end thence 4 milee tj> 
]fteiMsf<^'n, which has a remarkebly-built Ceetle, 
the property of Prince John of Saxony, on a rock 
in the valley of the Miiglitz. It isciprht storeys 
high, with three eomen and a high mwer. The 
Chapel it on the topmost storey; the itf Ues ere on 
the third, and the cellar is on the fifth itOfeijr. There 
fvro many portraits of Austrun, Saxon, and V,a 
rarjan princes. Thence is 1^ mile to Dohua, and 
then about 7 Dresden. This completes the 
l^iipni* fi^ Btxoa Sidtserland. 

Dresden to Leipsic. 

(Letpsi9>Oreadener Elienbehn.) 

Stations as follow: — 

Dresden to Miles. 
KiHxschcnbroda ..- 6 
{ P> inch toMaissen] 

Kos»wig „»..«* 8 

Pristewitz. t9| 
Branch to Gosscn- 
helm, Cottboa, it 
Bicsa dO| 

[Branfhu to Chem- 
nir/. Huderao, A 

OiichatB 88 

Dahlen 48 

Wtirxcn ............... 56 

Borsdorf.,m»m.»M* 65 

Lcipsic 72 

There is another line vid Ddbeln (86 milasX 
n^bic}! InveNei e more Inteieetingconntrj, bnt 
^#^piiSstimi|iegob7Biefe. . 

KoSiWlg (Stat.) Here the other line to 
Leipzig turns off near the Oberau tunnelt about 
300 ymds long, passing Meissen, Ac. 

Ctfeissen (Stat.) 
PMOiJunoii, 18,000. 

//o/eb.— Hirsch : BlsnerStem; Goldene Schiff. 

A very old town on the Elbe, at the junction of 
the Meisi; founded in 922 by Henry L, and which 
remelned the seat ni the Margraves of 8axony 
down to the thirteenth century, when they moved 
to Dn sdon. It is now celebrated for the govern- 
ment Porcelain Factory /or Drvfdeti China, estab- 
lished in 1710, upon its diseovery by fiottger, in 
the old Ceatle of Albreehtsbnrg In the town, but 
now carried on outside. It employ;* 500 to 800 
persons. A stone bridpe across the Elbe replaces 
one of the eleventh century. The Cathedral, or 
DomlElrche, is a fine Gothie hvilding, fiiiwded by 
Otho L, having some good windowe and an open 
spire, wbich Is ascended by a wlndlnp staircase. 
In the Princes' Chapel, built by Frtdcrick thn 
Yaliant, 1428, are a bronze of the founder and his 
son, Frederick the Ueek, with sererel hressst. 
The old Palace of the Albreehtsbnrg. on a rock, 
was rebuilt 1471. It has been thoroughly restored, 
and i& lihown. A bridge crosses tlie ravine to 
the f rinces* Sdiool, in the ancient convent of St. 

Afr*. At Bnschbediseniron-epringwlthnbath- 

bonsr, v,hir-h in nuich frequented.] 

Rlesa tStat.) Here railways join from Chem- 
nitz. Jiiterbog, Berlin, Ac. The Castle was for- 
merly a wealthy Benedictine convent. Branch to 

iUMmn (fltftl) Here is a viaduct about 

1,000 feet long, near a bridge of eleven aicheW 
The Dollnitz viaduct is about 800 yards long. 
The line gouii 02i to Fallieubcrg and Berlin. 

Osohati (Stat.) 
Fomanov, 0,000. 

/nn.— Weisses Ross. 

A walled town with a hnndsnme tuodern church. 
Formerly there was a fortress here a;;aiiist the 
Wends. Within a few miles are Kolmbery, 8i» feet 
high, a heantif al spot, and the eld buntfaig caetle 
of HuUrUkmg^ where peace was concluded after 
the 8oven Yoars' War 15th Fob., 17Ga. Branches 
toWeniUUiorf C l ^ mUes), auU to ItrOtlla, 7 uUes 

WMMi (ita^) 

F^tfSl^tiMT.a^OQO. /aw.-^Fti ftadtLolpaig 

Digitized by Coogk 


f 6ec. 2. 

An old oplsooiNa town on tho Muldo, ovor trhkh 

besides the railway bridg-e is another handsome 
bridge, bnilt 1838. It was founded 1114, and has 
repeatedly suffered in the German wars, es|)ecially 
^«n talcen hy tho Swedos in tho Thlrtf Toon* 
War. It has an old Town Hall; a Cathedral with 
tombs of bishops; and a Palace, built in 1497. 

Branch line to Glnurhnn (Route 34). 
LEIPSIC, German. Leipzig ( Stat. \ in .Suxony. 

POPCLATIOK , 2ui,000. With Llndeuau, dec, 

H0TBL8.»Haufre ; dc Sedan; *le Prussc; de 
Rome; de Russic; Pulmbuum; Heller and Bam- 
berger; deDaviere; Ilentschcrs Private Hotel; 
Stadt Dresden. Double eharget cU fair-time. 

a|^.-~*Aoekerleina Kollor, In tho llarkot Plaee. 
Aoorbadi't KoUor (eoUarX odebrated in Goethe's 
FftQBti In Grimma'sche-strasse, near tho Haricot. 

Resident Esglish Consul-Gkmkrai,. 

Post and Telsgbapb Officb, — Augustus Platz. 


At tho CbttKb, SebftitiAtt B«sh->otn880. 
Amkbigah Chuhcb 8cBTioB.-Ento Bttvffor- 

•chule; 5 p.m. 

CosvEYANCEs.— Cabs, under 20 minutes, for 1 to 
4 persons, \ mark to 1 mark ; from tho railway 
otationi, nthor more; by tho hour, 1| to 9 norka. 
LnffgAS** 30 pf. per package. 

Loipsic stands in a wide plain, formerly a tnarsh, 
now drained, and watered by the Pleissc, and 
its branches, the Elister and Parde, on which 
tho olty atondo. It wat lonndod in tho twolfth 
century l>y Otto the Rich, and is especially noted 
for its l?ook Trade, its three Fairs, its University, 
and the great battle of 1813. It is the seat of 
tho Superior Imperial Conrt. Tho Old Town oon- 
■Ista of aovoral narrow atreoto and old-f ashlonod 
houses near the market place; and is surrounded 
by a ring of promenades on the site of the ancient 
walls, beyond which are the live modem suburbs, 
oach of whleh la aa largo aa tho Old Town. Tho 
Promenades are laid ont with treoa and gardens, 
and adorned with statnea and Oilier memoi1ala,and 
public buildings. 

I^Faiks — The Jubilate Messe, or Easter Fair, 
hegina on tho JuhUato or Snd Bnnday after Kaster, 
tho Boat Important of the Uireo, Tho Vlehaalia* 

messo, on 2nd Sunday after BOcliaofanaa. ' Nen- 
jabrBmcs«e on New Year's D.iy. They last thrc# 
weeks ; and bare been held regularly since 1458 — 
two since the twelfth oentnry. Booths are erected, 
and merbhantaandtraderaoomofrooi aiU partaof Um 
world, especially from the East. At these seaaonn 
the population is doubled. The busine^f done H 
reckoned at sereral millions. I^eipsic is the ccntro 
of tho Gorman hook trade ; overy bookaeUer in Ger- 
many (about 4,500 flrms) haTfng an agency hor« 
among about SOO resident booksellers and pubUahen 
who act in that capacity. There arc 2.50 presses at 
work, and the value of the books printed annually 
is abont £S80,000. Hero the woika of BioeMiana. 
Tanchnits, Ac, are isaned. Tho **GartaDlaiibe** 
has a sale of 3(>0,00n. At Ka.stcr the German book- 
sellers meet to balance accounts at their Bach* 
hiindlcr Borse (Book Exchange), built 1836, in 
Rltteraatraaao. Ldpaielaalao noted for Ita mami- 
factnrea of pianoa and paper. 

The great Battle of Leipsic, which determined Ui« 
fate of Europe after the Revolutionary war, by the 
defeat of Napoleon, was fought on the wide plain 
of tho Bbter, to the S.E. of that town, li honr dis- 
tant, noar the line to Dresden, on 16th, 17th, and 
ISth October, 1813. The Allies, under Prince 
Schwarzeuburg, nnmbered 300,000; the French 
about 180^000 with a total of 2,000 guns. The 
French loaa waa 60^000. Tho principal pointo art 
marked by memoriala, and are aeon from the 
Ob8ervatorJ^ Twenty vlllagres were burnt The 
Elster is not more than a brook, but its sides are 
deep and atoepu Thia waa tho eighth great battle 

fought in880yoarsonthogra«t]daln8annwiBdiag 

the city. 

Churches.- -The Nikolaikirch. a fine old build- 
ing, erected 1525, and restored 1785. It has paint- 
inga by Oeaor, a good organ, and atone pulpit. . 

T/ioni'isiirrfie, reatorad 181«, haa an esoeileni 
organ. The choir sing on Saturdays at one o'clock ; 
and on Sundays in the morning, nUomntely at St. 
Thomaa and St. Nikolas. The Pauitnet ktrc/te, or 
ITniToralty Chnrdi, which haa a roonnmont of 
Marfe'rave Dlezman. Johatmetkirchey in JohannM 
Platz, is near a Cemetery, with tomha of QoUoitt 
Rosenmiiticr, Tjtschlnier, and Politr. 

Tho CittMk CWcA, opposite the Pieisscnburg, 
to a modem Gothic, iSM. JVMralMa, in tho 

Digrtized by Google 

Boute 32.] 


ftsIiletter-PlAts, belongs to the Old CatlMHeB. : 

Imperial Law Covrtt, erected 1895, one of the 
finest modem buildings in Germany, fronting 
Blntoaitniiae, near left bank of the river. 

Tlie VM9erHtpi9W» of tbe best In Germany, and 
well endowed. It was founded 1409, and oonaltts 

of three roiirsje<?— thp Pnulinum, the FttrtUm Col- 
legium, aiut the Aupusteum, on Augustas Platz. 
Tbe last is a handsotue pile, SOO feet long, built 
IMS, by Sebinkel, at a inemorlal to KlngFrvdMtek 
AngQstos, including the Aula, or Great Hall, 
adorned with busts of Liebnitz (by Knaur), Her- 
mann, &c., and twelve reliefs, by Rietschel. It 
containt tarendeablnets and museums, and special 
insUtBtea, witb a tlbrary of 960,000 volnmea, and 
4.000 MSS. Gessner, Emcstl, Rciske, and other 
eminent names fifnire in connection with ft. There 
are about 120 professors and 3,600 student m. 

The Town library contains 300,000 volumes, 
and 2,000 H88., indudlng seTeral Oriental M8S., 
with a collection of coins and medals. There Is a 
loan or People's Library, the oldest Free Library 
in Europe. 

At the fton JfiMMim, in Augustni Flatz, 

built 1858, byLangc, is a picture gallery of Ger- 
man and French masters, ih>- trift of Schlettcr and 
others; besides Lampe's collection of onirravinc-!. 
Open Sunday, Wednesday, and Friday, free, ii to 
9. Other days, entraaoe M pr., 10 to S. 

Another colleetion of paintings Is tiiat of Baron 
8peck, at Liitzschcnn. The Illstorical Sooiety has 
a collection of church und other relics. 

The JifitMtaM (Town Hall), in the large Market 
Place, Is 4me of seToral old bnll^gs here ; erected 
1509, in the Renaissance style. Here the Allied j 
Sovereigns met after the battle. The Konigthaus, 
beloiiglnE- to the king, was occupied by Napoleon j 
AS bis bead-quarters. Here Schwarzenburg died 
In lOSOt. AiMrtodk*s CWar, me&tioiiad In 6oethe*s 
**Faust," la round the comer. Other Irolldhigs 
are the Cur-prsohule ; New Theatre, hnllt 1868, 
In tbe Italian style, with caryatides on f}ie front, 
looking over the Schwaneuieich, or Swan a Lake; 
Old Thsatre; Cloth Rail; Central HaUe«, the new 
Barrncks, near the Pleissenburg; and tYm JokannU- 
ati/K or House for tbe Aj^cd am), a large pile, on 
,i| lusfsi, 476feot long, with wings of 230 feet, and 
• apireef Its feet, 

A Synagogne hi the Centnlstraaie, was bnllt 

1855, by Slmonson. 

HhQ Fleisienburfj noar Petersthor, is part of the 
old fortification, iuciuduig Prince MavLrice's Citadel 
of the sixteenth century, on the site of Dletrlcfa*t 
Castle (1218). Its high, round tower havtng 
an extensive view of thf ru i-hhourhood, and of the 
I field of t^attle, was used as the Stfmwartc or 
Obser?atoiy, till this was moved to Joliannistbal. 

There are several MonwnenU in the grounds on 
thealtoof thefertifloatlona. Beforethe Petersthor ia 
Oeser's marble .statue of King Frederick Augustas 
(1817). between the Grimma and Halle flntr-s \% 
one to Burgouuister MlUler, who first planned the 
gardens. Othersandedlcatcd to Tbaer, the agri- 
culturist (1858), opposite the Bttrgersefanle; to 
Gellert, on the i^rhncckenberg; to Hillcr the com- 
poeer (by bis pupils), on the promenade before the 
ThomaspforUdient toSebastbtn Bach (by Mendel- 
ssohn), on the Anlagen promenade; and to Haiuia< 
ma n n . t !i e f oun dc r of Homoeopa t by — a bronze sitting 
figure in the Theaterplatz. Ho prartised hi"» new 
system here till be was driven away by tbe apothe- 
caries. There is, or waa, on the Esplanade, a Tbmple 
to Leibnitz, inscribed **0s8a LeibnitU.** He' ins 
bom here, 1646. Other natives were Thomasius and 
Fabricius. Schiller lived in HainstrasKe in 1785-9. 

At Ucrhard s Uarden (formerly Keichenbach's), 
where a bloody battle waa fought, 1818, is a cubi- 
cal atone Monument to Joseph PonlatowakJ, who 
was drowned, 19th October, in the Elster, which 
flows post, and was at that time greatly swon<'n. 
Tbe prematnre blowing up of the bridge on the 
Ranstidter road was the occasion of his death and 
of great disasters to the French in their retreat. 
A larger monument has since l>een erprtrd to him 
by the l'i>le&, wilb a cast of Thor-r> rtliiscn s statue. 

New Concert Hall, near tbe liutauical Garden; 
and JfAanna Park; the Mtlch Insel, with Its Ball 
Memorial of the War; Ketchet's Garden, and 
the Johanncstbal, near the New Ccmetcr}*, arc 
other open spots in the suburbs. Tbe Rotenihal 
leads to tlw vtllafe of GobUs, and to the house 
in which Schiller lived, marked by a tablet. 

Near 8t9tterits, on the GrimmA road, a Btone 
Cnbfi, surrounded by trce.s. stnnd? on a hill, 
occupied by Napoleon, 1814, on the decisive day of 
the JBattle. At Taucba is a monument of the 

Digitized by Coogia 


KiMiUuig«ii«ftl. Mantenffel; also one of CapttiB 

Bowyer, who cominnndcd the Enirli'h con<rrcvc 
rocket batten', then tried for the first time. A 
monument to Prince Schwarzenberg, the Cora- 
iDMider-iii-Ghief of the Allies, wm erected by hie 
ioni, 1888, at Ueufld«)rf, where he stood. Monti- 
mfiits nlsoare placed on the Mnnnrchcnhii^ol, from 
whic h the Allied S )vcrcijrns witnessed the attack 
upon Probsthcyda, the French centre, which Wis 
token and retaken four tiines. The tradition is 
believed to be without foundation. At Llebcrt- 
wolkwitz, n«ar Wnchau, Murat"s cavalry cnpaired 
the Allied horse. Nearly all these sitea are visible 
from the DoUts CUttaan, on the Plrtsae. Blncfaer's 
covpa fongbt Key*s, near BnUt»fM^ on the road 
toBeilin; whereamonnment, surrounded by ci?ht 
pine trees, commoniorates a previous victory which 
OastavuB Adolphus obtamed here, September 17, 
Un, over TUly. Xkbuttchoaer ta tba seat of 
Baioo Tanchnlta, tbe great pobUsher. 

fiiMdeii to ftttberg, Cliomnlts, ZwlOkaH, 
MUl Boi^ 

Stations, as under— (10 kilssftEni^ miles): — 


FlSha .... ••••••••• 

IBranrh to Auna^ 


From BMdOit aa In BobU M« to 

(8tat), in Saxony. 


Nicdcrwiesa ........ 45 

Cbeiuiiltz............... 50 

Dres(k-n to Miles. 

Potachappel 4i 

Tharandt 81 

Klingenberg 15j 

Frelberff 25 

j;Mraach to Nosaeu] 
Oederan 86 

Then by rail to Zwickau and Hof, as below. 

From Zwickau, by a short branch rail to Wcrdau, 
on the Saxon Bavarian line, six Ihiglish miles. 

The connection with Riesa, on the direct lino 
from Berlin, is shown as follows:— 

Rlesa to Chemnits, Zwlekan, Werdan, and Hof 
(SSehtSsehe Staatseisenbahnen), 

Rlesa to miles. 

Dobcln » 15t 

IBranch to Koss- 
wcin {branch to 

Wuldhoim 22 

Mittweida 30 

Oberllchtenan .....* 86 
Chei]iplUi**«*«**..*A 48 
[firtnchto Anna- 



St. E{?idien ..„„.,. 

Glauciuiu ., 


[Branch to Scbwar- 

aenberg.] * 
Wcrdau (junction 

for lA'ips:c.) 

Reichenbaeh 86i 

Flauau ............... 101^ 

Mehlthoner lOd 

Reuth 114 

Hof 110 

POPULATIOH. 98,954. 

Imra.— Hotel de Saxe; Sehwarxes Boss. 

Bah. AMD DiuiiBXCB8.~8ee BrmUkam't (km- 

ttnmtal Guide. 

An old imperial city and miiiiiig town, founded 
by Otto of Saxony, 1176, as tlie Freetown or 
fortreM. It stands on tiie rnvtb slope of tha 
Erzgebirgc (or Ore mountains), on thellnnabaeh, 
near the Mulde, about 1,340 feet above sea; and 
is the chief mineral court in the kingdom. AiM)Te 
100 wines of silver, lead, and copper are worked te 
the netghbonrbood. It waa formally walled romid, 
but the remains of fortlflcattooa are tnmad Into 

(gardens and promenades. 

Tlic Bi'ni-Mridi'im'e, or Mining iMtitution, is a 
very celebrated school for scientific miners from 
all quarters, established 1765, and revived again In 
1828. Werner, who gave name to the Wemerlan 
theory of rocks, was one of Its seven |HX)fessors 
from 1775 till Ids death in 1817. He heqneatbod to 
it his rich Mineral Collection of 100,01)0 specimens, 
besides his Greek and Roman coins, which are to 
be seen here ; as weU as a good Ubrary, a valnaUe 
collection of machines, tools, chemical apparatus, 
&c. A preparatory' school is attached to It. A. Von 
Humboldt, Von Buch, Jameson, Brocchi, <fcc., were 
all pupils of Werner. 

The old Castle of Freudenstcln or Friesteln, the 
seat of the former princes, who resided here in the 
sixteenth and sevetccnth centuricM. isnowaniilitary 
storehouse. Protestantism was here favoured by 
Henry the Pions, 1687. The Walsanhana, lor 
orphans, is a wealUiy mdowment, founded 1924. 
There arc seven Churches; the best of which isthe 
Dom, a Gothic church, built 1484-1512, on the site 
of St. Martin's cathedral. Here are two stone 
pnlpits; a good dianeel; one ot SilbemMm*s 
organs; and the graves of samal dnlms and 
electors, from Henry the Pious (1541") down to 
George IV. (1694). There is a fine marble monu- 
ment, by Floras of Antwerj^, to Maurice of Saxony, 
who waa killed at SWershansen (1688) s^e gain- 
ing a Tietory. They show his armonr wtth the 
bole made by tbe bullet. Also Monnments of 
Anna of Denmark and her sister Hedwig: and 

Digitized by Google 

lioute 33.J 



of Werner (1817). This last is near the GoldPne 
Pforta (or Golden l>oor), a richly-carved porch, in 
the Byzantine style, of the twelfth century. 

the ancient lUibhana* In the Unrket Place, bvilt 
1410, has a 0(dlection of annour, and the carved 
head of Kunz von Kaufungen, who was beheaded 
here 14 July, li5&, for carrying ofl the young 
Saxon Prfaieea, Albert and Emest, from the Castle 
of Altenbnrg. A stone of green pfMrphyry narks 

the spot. 

At tlio Pi'tcrs-thor (Peter's Gat< ). i« n boaivliful 
Monument, erected 1844, to commemorate the 
defeat of the 8wedes» 1649-8. The Town was be> 
Aeged four times In the Thirty Years AVar. A 
Mnnninrnt to Werner stands near tlie Krcuzthor. 
The raantifactorea hero are silver lace, iron, 
copper, and brass goods, white lead, powder, &c. 
Near Freibiuv* the Imperialisls were defeated 
Oct. 1762, at the doie of the Seven Years' War. 

The amalgamation and smelting worlcs at Hah- 
brUck close by arc worth seeing; and several 
mfanes (gmbe) are also on view, by permission of 
the Snperintendent, sneh as Himmdfahrt (Ascen- 
sion), HimmelsfUrst (Prince of Heaven), near 
Brand, Ts'cu Oottesacgen (God's Blessing), Mord- 
grabe (Murder), Beschert Gltick (Luck-giving), 
FVed. Augustus, near Oroas Schirma* the Chnr- 
prlns, and others. The Hfanmelfahrt, employSng 
nbout 1,500 hands, has superseded the Hlmmels- 
fttrst, formerly the richest about here. Annual 
yield of silver, about three million marks. At the 
DrelKbnige (Three Kings) mine is a Honiunent 
(1888) to a former Superintendent, Ton Herder, 
Inscribed with the miner's tisnal sahttftlion. 
"GlUck auf " (Her«'N lurk), and " Here rests the 
Workman's True Friuiid. ' The best view of the 
town is obtained here. 

Rati to drosahartmannsdorf . 

Frnrn FrflJif-L- t v.-'is i-;i'nr>ri in ]?7n to 

Nossen; i*ast Gross Voi^sberg, on th« direct 
line to Leipsic. An extension from Nossen to 

MttMa and Blfliiieiimtthle was opened 1875-7. 

At NOBSen (Mat.) the line from Ifelsaea and ' T-'t''l' '"=- "^^5^- Government Buildings, 

it are Flttlia (Stat.), the birthplace of the famous 
Statesman, PMffendor/} and the Castle of Angus* 
tttsbhrg, bnm on a tan difT. Wwa^ FlSha. jt 
dlieet Una ia open, ttd FotikMi, MkilMftdli, dM 

Reltsonbain, towards Komotau. 

CHBMNITZ (Stat),inSaxenj. 

POPCLATION. 138,955. 

Inns.— liomlscher Kaiser; StadtQtotba. 
Chemnits (pron. '^Kemnita") alargemannfaetnr- 

ing town, formerly a free city of the Empire, on a 
wi(l(^ phiin nt the foot of the Erzgebirge Hills, 980 
feet above the sea. It is well built aud lighted, and 
contains many handsome streets and houaest the 
most modem being in the suburbs. Among then 
arc the SehJo»$ Kirche, of the sixteenth century 
(rich portal), and the Jarobi Kirche, with fine 
paintings. Ratbhaus and Theatre, Casino, and a 
Oewandbans. Here are aoferal large machine 
factories^ cloth and woollen faetoriea, alao dyelnf 
and bleaching works. Stocking wenvfn-' occupies 
many hand". The r.T<t!e (now a J#staurant) in the 
noight>ourhoo<l was part of a Benedictine Abbey. 
A rail connects with Leipsle, Sl» BgMlSO* 
Meerane, Altaalnirg, ftc. There is » psrfeei 
network of lines round Chemnits. 

COaudkan (8tal)> see Boute 34. 
XWICKAU (Stat)» in Saxonj. 

POPULATIOK. 44.202. 

I31KS.— Post ; tiriino Tonne; Anker (old). 
An old town on the Mulde, in a pleasant TaUey, 
under the Erageblrge Ifonntafns, among pre- 

durtivo f nil lidnes. Here are chemical works, 
and and {Kircelaitt factories, with woollen 

manufactures, &c. 

The ifariMMrate, in the Qethie style of tM 
fifteenth century, has a tower 9S0 feet high, with 
some good carvings and paintings by Wohlgemuth 
ani! T,. rrniiach. There is another of Cranach's in 
the Katheriiicnkirclie (fifteenth century), of which 
Mttnaer, the leader of the Thurlngian peaaanii, 
was minister. Around the ICarket Place arc the 

Dl^sdcn fall^ In. 

Oederan (Stat.) 
Ponn.aTioN, 5,200. 
iiHM.— HIrsoh} Poet 

Heiean many weavers and petteni andnear 

with a eollectiyu cf niiiierais. At the High School, 
or Gymnasium, is a library uf du,000 vols. Oster- 
sleln Ckstle la now n Bouse of (Tonectioii. 

Srom Zwickau, a branch goes 21 miles to Lengeik- 
FUkWUrtetn and Otftatta (page UiL 

Digitized by Google 


From Chemnitz (nn HboTC) 
off to Aimabenr, as follows:— 

CllMUlltX to 

FUfhs......... 18 

....... St 

A tMmnch UMtnrns 

[Sec. 5. 


ZsohoiMn ............... 47 

Wolkttnstein €8 


Wolkmlaln (Stat.) 

POprLATiON, 2,000. Inn. Sachslscher Hof. 

A tmall town in « tine part of the Zschopau, 
having an old ruined C«stl« of tb* Sason priocet 
on • Uno pidnt of rlew: and tome alkaline tprlngt 
near it; witli a lolphar spa at WlMOnlMMl, 
farther ofT, useful in scrofbla, Ac. 

Branch to Juhstadt. 

Aimaberg (Stat.) Populatiox, 16,ooo. 

. Inn*. — Gans; Wilder Mann. 

A mining town, on the slo^ye of the Piihlberg, on 
Um Elba, Ugh up on tba BngaUrga range, 1,970 
feet ahoTe the sea. It wta founded on the dis- 
COvpry of 5i!ypr here in 1496. Tin ftnd robalt are 
aUu worked. Anne's It a bandM>iue church, 
with a painting by L. Cnuiach, and aome good 
leliefa of tlie sixteenth eentnr7. The bene laee 
manufactory, b^n by Barban tfttmann, is still 
carried on ; « monument was erected to her in 
1834. Near here is the Lochauer ffaide^ where the 
Kleetor, John Fraderleh.iras made prisoner, In the 
battle against Charles Y. and Manriee of Sasony. 

Eail to Buchholz and Wcipert. 

I^OXJTE 34. 
Lilpllo, Chemnitz, Werdau, Zwit^u, Hof 

(Sichsische Staatseisenbahnen). 

Leipsic to miles. 

Aitenburg 244 

GOssnitx ............. Ml 

{firamch to 
' Meerane ...... I9| 

Glauchau 46| 

Chenmitz ... 07] 
Krhnmitedhau ••••** 49 

Werdan «*e«««e*e*MBoo 49 

IBt&mA to 


Stein ink 

Schneeberg... 2^ 

Aue 29* 

Scbwarsenbg Sl|} 

Kenmarlc M 

[Branrh to 

Greiz 7] 

Relcboubach 59i 

rTo Eger, as below.] 
Planen ................. 74 


Hof 109 

Bramdi from Bekshenbaeh (as above) to Eger. 

Rciclu ni uchto Miles. 
Ketzschkau ......... 8} 

I«engenfeld 14^ 

Auerbach 18 

Falkenstein 2U 



Adorf — 

Elster 47 

Bramhach Sfi 

Franzeusbad 66 

Eger is the station for the Carlabad braaeht and 

for MarlenlMd. 

The direct line from Leipsic to Chemnitz, rim 
Boma, 51 English mtlea long, passes Nandorf, 
where branches strtke off to BiMffliUti and Vonlg 
for Glauchau. A line to EUenlmri', of 14 miles 

i» open towards Torgau, Gubcn, &e. 

From Chemnitz a line passes Aue and Zwota 
to Adorf (page lid). At Zwota are branches to 
KUngenttial, Faikeiutein, and Herlasgrtln. 

LalpttG, es In Bonte 99. Theaeeto 

MLtEXmiM (Mai), the Capital of Saxe- 

Population" viiavj. 

Inns.— Hoteiaeliimie; deSaxe; Thftriogerhof. 

Rail to Leipzic, Ac 

Good view ef the town from the staikn. 

The residence of the Duke of Saxe-Altcnborg^, 
and an old Imperial City, near the Plcissc, abont 
3^ feet abOTe sea level, in Thuringia. it ha« 
eight Chnrdies; andaDneal GaitfefSdilossX on 
a porphyry rode, one of the laigeit In Germany; 

consisting of ronnd towr<^ <>M thr tonth to 
thirteenth centuries, and a newer part, finished 
in the eighteenth century, inhabited by the 
dneal family. 
The CSasUa Indndss a gallery of paintings; 

the Klrehcnsaal (chapel), with srenf^s of fnxon 
history painted by L. Cranoch ; and an armoury 
and chest of antiquities. They show the window 
on the north side by which Kimi Ton Kan* 
fungen carried ofT the two young princes, 
Ernst and Albrecht, on the nl^rht of "th nnd «th 
July, 1455, for which he was beheaded at Freiberg-. 
The Princes lived to be the founders of the two 
chief lines of the Saxon house; and one of them 
was ancestor of Prince Albert and his brother, 
who were named after them. The old family 
vault in the Castle Chapel is replaced by a newer 
one in a wodnrn Gothic Chapel, In the Cemetery. 

At the Bathhans, bnlH In the middle of the 
sitteaath eentury (1991), are archives and libcary, 

and letters of Luther aiid Mf^lanchthon. The 
Josephinlum Gymnasium is a handsome pile, 
finished 1843. The Lindenau Museum of paintings 
bequeathed tothe town, 1969, eentalns many Italian 
speeimena. easts, and vaese. Open dally* 11 to 1. 

Digitized by Google 

Boute 34.] 



. Tbere Is a promenade at the D&mm or Lake. 
From Altcnbure there ia a short line to Zeitz^ tee 
pace 190. . . 

. KotiM the high bnt9 and short petticotta of tlie 
P«opl«. Many are of Wendislideaoeiit. . 
. OOitnitx (Stat) 

H«r0 the lines from Chemnitz, Zwlcbia, and 
Q«n fall In. Sea G«ra, pa(« UO. Bnmdito 
. (BAUohau (Stat.) 

POPULATIOX, 23,404. 

/niu.— Deutsches Hans; Adler. 
Tha aeeond maaofaetoilng town of Saxony, on 
tlia MbMOi In a beautlfnl country, belonging to 

the Princes and Counts of Schoabcrg, one of 
■who'sc fine old Caff^fs datrs from the ninth oentury. 

from Gbsanitz the rail as far &n KT-jnr^mitanhan 
m^y, and Wttdan (ital). goaa through a 
oountry onltiTatcd Ilka n gardan. 

Branch to Annaberg through Nledendilcma 

f^Om whirh there is n line to Schnt'fbprL'. 

[SobneelMrg (Stat.}» or Sclmeeberi^-Neustad- 
tei, in the Erxgebirge circle. 

POPOLATlOll, 7,800. 

Inru. — Siichaisches Haus; Fftrstenhaus; Ring. 

A well-built mining town on the ScbneehprfT 
Hill, near the Mulde, WitU which it communicaics 
by eanal. It ^nw foandad 1471, on tha dlsco^raiy 
of a rich allv«(^inina« now vnvfcad a«t A table 
and honches of silver were used when the Chur- 
furst diued in the mine The table is now at 
Dresden. Silver, cobalt, bismuth, lead, and tin 
ara ttill produead. Tha nuurafaetnrea Inelnda 
•llYcr work, lace, chemicals, tobacco and snuff 
(called "Schneeberger"). The handsome parish 
Church, one of the largest in Saxony, contains a 
Crucifixion by L. Cranadi, <»io of his best works. 
About 4 mllaa distant Is Stem Caatle, and iha 
Prince's Cave, in which Knnz Ton Kaufungen con- 
eealed young Prince Ernest several days.] 

Keiebonbacb (Stat.) popdlatiok, 21,498. 
/mm.— Lannn; Engel. 

A manofaeturfaig town tor woollan yams and 

goods which has been partly rebuilt since the 
trc of 1833. Near this the ri\\\ cros<?f"3 the deep val- 
ley oi the Oiiltxsch, by means of a Viaduct, one of 
tha most ramarkabla In Oanuany. It Is About 9,108 
fsat long, and 285 feat hl|rh hi tha mlddla, and rests 
on four tlart of areha^ on« oyer anotber; tha 

lowest having nineteen arches, the highest twenty 
thiea. Beyond this is the Elstcrthal Viaduct, 230 
faat high. From Balc1ienb«.ch rail, to Naumark, 
tbanoe bran h to CJrciz, see pa^e 121. 

PL AUE N (Stat.), in Saxony. 

Population, 47,uuo. . . 

/oM.— Engel; Deil; Lowe; Eisehbabn. 

Rail to Leipde, Koremberg, Ac 

The capital of the Voigtland, so called from tha 
Imperial Volgt (Ad-vocate) who resided here ; and 
the chief seat of the muslin and embroidery mauu* 
faetufu, known as nauenaobe, Waaren, or Plimcn 
goods. Paper Is also made. It stands In tbo 
picturesque valley of the White Elster; and hai 
been improved since the fire of 3844. Here arc a 
Stadtkirche, with two towers, rebuilt since 1548; 
and tbo old Ceutle of the Volgt, called Badschln, 
which came to the Princes of Reuss. The name 
show*; thnt thr Wends had a settlement here. 

Oelsnitz (Stat.) 


It has one of the oldest churches in Saxony ; and 

is near the old mountain Castfe of Volgtsberg, now 
the seat of a royal court. To Adorf, along the 
valley of the White Elster, where the Saxon pearl 
iistiery Is eanledon. Tbara Isaatrhigirfheaatlfttl 
paails, from this part. In tha Green Vault at 
Dresden. Hail to Falkoustohi and Zwickau. 
Adorf (Stat.) 

PoPULATioH, 3,000. /nn.— Post. In Its neigh- 
bonrhoodlsXUngontbal (Stat), reached vfo u 
branch from Chemntti (page 117), the scat of « 
nnnufacturc of muslcal hMtramonts and of cat* 

gut. Beyond is 

Elster Bad (Stat.), m a charming spot, among 
the Voigtland hills, 1,870 feet aborasea level, noted 
for Its alkaline and saline springs, which are iUied 
up In a handsome building. They are both bathed 
in and dnink. Living Is moderate. Excursions to 
various points of view, as the MUhlhausen, to S^hl, 
to the fiehnbergCa splendldpfoapeetXto the Rape!' 
lenberg, to the heights at Wohlbach, Ao. 

MeMtbeuer (Stat.), where the range of the 
FlchtC'lg-ebir^'e beeomes visible. Ball tO W«ida| 
) 20 miles, theucc to Werdau. 

The railway thence to Hof is about SI miles, by 
a winding route, owing to the difficulties of the 
ground, though by the post road It Is only 8f miles. 

Digitized by Google 


llftii>8flA#'i TtLUSTBATED 


Sclitfniiers (0tel) ; dlllgtntw to 8cbl«is (page 


Hof. See Route 41. from Munich. 

The following places in the princi|)ality of Renss 
adjoin the aboTO lino of rati. Or tbey may be 
roached by tb« rmtt fiw» IMuenM* to Ova and 


TJm atationi from Wetaaonlela are- 


iM*oa«B*« 10 

..MM. 80 


KSttriti .............. 3 I 

Qefa .................. dSf 

8aatfcld.j............. 8§ 

Zeitz ...... 


XBZZS (Stat.). In Fmislan Baxuliy. 

Iwirs. — Kronprlnz ; Bother Liiwo ; Baum. 

An old town of the Sorhen Wends, on the White 
Elstcr, here crossed by a stone bridge. It is 
■waUad rownd, and has bU gates. Upper Town 
on tbo bill aide ta steep and Irregular. Hero are 
spinning- factories and mannfactores of gloves, 
ribbons, and cashmere goods. It was the head of 
a bisbopriCf founded 968 by Otto the great, and 
af tonvarte morod to Nannbnrg. Upon befaig an- 
nexed to Saxooy, IMi, It was beqneatbed by the 
Elector, John George I. to his son Maurice, the 
head of the Saxe-Zeltz Une, which lieciinie extinct 
1718. In 1815 it fell to Prussia. Of four 
ohvrdies, ono» the Minster, standa in the court 
of the iroHtehny, a castle built K5S-64, by 
Duke MauHcc. ns a family scat, now turned Into a 
honse of correction, and hospital for the poor. At 
the Minster (or Trinity) Church, the old ducal 
family are boiled In thlrte«) lead coffins. Here 
also are the remains of Julius Pilttg, the last 
Roman Catholic bishop, who died I'ni, aud was 
the founder of the Gymnasium or Hi^h School, 
Trhlch contains a library of 12.000 volumes and 
some MSS. The andent Bathfaana poiseases a 
good portrait of Pflog. Near this Is the old Bene- 
dici'-e ronvent of Posa. 

Sostriti (Stat.), near a Castle and FarlL. 

GERA Stat.) 
Population with Poppcln, 39.699. 
Inns. — Reassischcr Ilof; Frommater. 

The chief town of the principality of Reuss- 
Oera ^onee part of the Saxon Yoigtland), in a 
pteturiifOT HSLkf mt tM BsMT, lo ^irUeh If If 

joined by 4 canal. Tt i-i 21 English milc^ from 
G08Snlt2, (page 119). and is well built, having been 
restored since a lira in 1780. Than iS9 fojur 
cbnrotaM, be^ea the rnlndd <Mieof 8t, JaBdes; a 
well-built Rathhaas ; an excellent Gymnasium, of 
High School ; and the Prince's Castle overlooking 
the town. In the neighbourhood are two of his 
country seats— Osterstein Casde, mi th4 
Halnberg, and Ronnebnif, near a Imtb of tbd same 
name. 'Woollen and print poods, chemicals, ^rc, 
arc made here, with china at the Schloss Uhterm- 

From Gera the statlotti to SaAlfeid are m 

Enp. Miles. 


[Branch%a Weimar, 

Ac J 

Wolfsgerartk 4 J 

{Branch to Grcfz.] 
Weida 8 

Eng. Miles. 

Niederpollnitz 13 

Trlptls ......... 18 

Ncu.stadt 14 

PSssneck......... 28 

9aalleld..M<.**.M«m«* 49 

8CHLBIZ, H miles from 8cbonbcrg Station 
(page 119), or 10 mUes from PSsoieck Station. 
POPD&ATXOir, 4|M0. 
Imra.— Eng«l{ Sonne; Adier. 

The former capital of Reuss-Schleiz, now iin'fed 
to, with a residence of the Prince. 
It has been rebuilt on a handsome scale, since the 
disastrous fire of 1^87, wlddi destroyed a castle, 
flonie churches, the lUtbbaus, and other bnlidlngs. 
The Castle Church is a good building- near the 
Schloss, on a small hill, in the middle of the town. 
At the Bwgkirche^ a fine old church outside the 
town, are the family tombs, with those of the old 
Counts Ton Burg, including several handsome 
monuments, and painting's. The ancient Burg 
Castle stands on the Saalc, among iron furnaces. 
Fine views from the Ileinrichsruhe Parle, and 
the Hermitage. There Is a trade in Iron and 
woollens. Schlciz was the birthplace <tf BSttcher, 
the discoverer of the Dresden ware. 

The Principalities of Reu^ifSchleiz-GeraandGreiT: 
lie between Saxony and Altenburg ; Greia being the 
Elder, and Oera befaig the Tounger tvanch of thn 
family, which dates from the eleventh century, 
and (livifl'vi off in 10G8. All vfigning^ menihcrs 
have been called Jlenry, some at first distinguished 
as Henry the Elder, the Young, the Fat, the 
SfrOBg, In 1701, thtf two Unas iihding It eon. 

Digrtized by Google 

Itonte do.] 



vfn?fTit to reckon separately by number:*. Iiegaji 
with No. I (Elder or Younger). In 1«01, the 
Toon^r htgtn Ho. 1, XTew Strles, irblle the Elder 
eoDtiiiiied to mn on. In consequenee of thfa^ ind 
of failures of issue, intcrmftrrlajres, Ac, the Henrys 
of the two lines arc in a state of th<» most puzzlins; 
confusion. For example, the reigning Prince 
ol Beow-Sehlels-Geni, of tlie Toimger bnnich, 
Henry XIV., encoeeded his father Henry LXYII. ; 
Ills mother Tva«i doTir'^iter of the lafc Henry LI. 
of Rcuss-Ebcrsdorf ; and his son and heir-ap- 
parent is at present styled Henry XXVII. What 
mimber be ivtll oome to when his fether dlei 
Done but the Court genealogist can tell. For 
convenience, the Princes are generally called after 
their number. Thus the common name for Prince 
Beniiy.wee TIfnfter, or ''Fifth,'' eiid Uieynwd 
to 11^, MHefOoomeeTonng Fifth.*' TheTouneer 
hmioh reigns orer 808 square milos of territory ; 
the Elder oTer 112 rollest and tljeir population is 
119,911 and 62,764 respectively. 

From Schleiz, the distances by road towards Hof 
nro w tinder^--(httt the nenieet wtif ^ 
thener, on the r«U.) 

Oktmian miles. I Gcnnen miles. 

Saalburg ............... 1^ Lol)enstein ............ li 


Saalbnrgf a email ancient town in the beantlfnl 

valley of the Saale, under the Culm mountain, 
2,2fiO foot hi?h. It hm an old Castie, and a Church 

of th«; fourteenth century. 



A smaU town, formally the seat of the Beuas- 
Ebersdorf branch, now ahaorbed in Iteuss-Schlciz. 
The last Prince was Henry LXXIT. vist* r 

married Henry LXVIL It has two or three 
pk iCHiire Castles aud a Moravian colony. 

ForcLATiOK, 9,000. 
/f?tK.— Reus8>Hans. 

Formerly the chief town of Reuss-Lobcnstein, 
on a ct»nc-!sliapo(l hill ; liavinfr a Prince's Castle and 
old fortress. Here the river Kosel johis the 


Oerman miles. 
From Scfaleiz to Zenlenroda 9 

Orela....*...........*.». 9 



A town of the Principality of Bents, #h«re 
stockings and snnV are made. It has been bulli 
in n rcgalar manner since the last lire, and has a 


Orelz or Greltz (Stat.) 

POPULAIIOW, 30,141. 

/nnf.'^Srbprins; Kranieh; Hennlng. 

Thechiof toisTiandrcsident ( of the Principality of 
Reuss-Greiz, of the Elder brancli, now represented 
by Henry XXII., in succession to his father Henry 
XX. It stands in a beantifnl part of the White 
Elster, on a short rail from Nenmark ; and has an 
old ca." tie on a ht i^'ht, now turncil into a school; 
and a summer Castle of the Prince, among fino 

From here a rait Is open to SelchenbAch and to 
Weiscblitz (towards Bger) and Wi^ftfifllirtll 

(on to Oera). 

Drcsden to Lobau, (Idrllts, Liegnltz, and 
Brealau (Sacbsisch-Schl^sehe-Elsenbabn). 
By rail the sUtlons are as follow 


Dresden to 
Badeberg ... ........... 


[Bmncf^ to Pima 
and Kanicnz.] 

Blschofswerrla 28 

Bantzen J15 

[Branch to Schandau] 
Pommritz — i 

Hence by the Lower Sllesian line to Breslan. 

viz.: — 

[fifOMftts Ebersdorf] 

Liibau 48 

[Branch to Reich- 
en licrg, 38 miles] 
Roiohcnbach.... 80 

Gliriitz «8| 

[&wtch to Ciottbns J 


Kohl fnrt Junction.. 17 
Uttuziau ............... 33 





Llegnitz 01 

Hence (as in Route 
14} to 

Rrcslau 89| 

Dresden, ■ - in T!oute 31a. 
Radeberg ^Stat.) Within half an hottr^s^k 
is the Auffutttu^t a watering place with sis 

springs, In a pleasant country (p. 110). 

Cr-T-'^: tlip Sproe. by a li>njr Viriilire. near 
Bautzen (Stat.), called BuJixhyn, In the Wendish 
language; the capital of Upper Lnaatla. 

PopuiiATtoir, 91,017. 
J7«l«b.— Qolden Kronen Adle^t 

Digitized by Google 



An old well-boUt epUcopal town, on the Spree, 
founded in the tenth century, and surrooiMlMl by 
ancient waUiL ThcM It n paper factory In tlm 

Seidau suburb, where the Wends live, with their 
Protestant church. Otto the Orfnt biillt a Ca«tlc 
here, 958, called Ortenbui^, which was rebuilt by 
Klttff If athlai, after the Are of 1440, and oeenpted 
by the Margravea of Saxony. 8t. Peter's ebnreb, 
built 1=5 used by Protestants and Catholics at 
the same time; the divisiim b«*tn<j ma4f> by a 
screen. Other buildings worth notice are a new 
QotUic Ratlilianfl and Library; th« Higb Behool; j 
Theatre; and Cloth Hall, where is a museum, open 
■Wedne«i(lny, 2 to 4. Melssncr. thr poet, was bom 
here. Here Napoleon defeated the Allies, 20th 
and Sted ICay, MIS. 

In the nclghboniliood Ib Kktm- WOte, a Moravian 
colony for ehUdren* Fine points of view of the 

pfrtnresque country around. ;tt Feldscblosschen 
and Salzenforst. At Doberschau is a fortification 
of the time of the Wends, one of whose heathen 
altars remains at Csemeboh <1,7M feet, good view). 
About 180,000 Wends still live in this part, qteakiDf 
for the most part their native language. 

Pommritz (Stat,), near Hochkireh, where the 
Austrians, under Daun, defeated Frederick the 
Oreat, 1708 (Hardial Keith belnsr killed) ; and the 
French defeated tlie Bns^uis, 18IS. From here a 
short line was ope^ted. lS7f to Ebersbacll and 
Selfheiinersdorf. At Ebersbach a short branch 
runs to SoUand. 

LWmii (Stiht.) 


Jnn. —Scbwarses Lamm. 


A very old town, dating from 706; containing 
a Wendidi church, and a flue old BaUHtaas; and 
•verlooked by the Frcdcrlch Angnstna Tower, 
on the hill above, built 1855. Here &rc- mineral 
springs, where Lubau crystals are found. 

At L13ban, the branch line to Hermhut and the 
Blesengebiiv0 Range (see Sonte S7) monntaint 
turns off, foUowing the road Into B<diamia, the 
scene of the battles of 1 B66. 

GORLTTZ (Btat), in Prussian SUesU. 

POPCLATIOM, 6*i,136. 

Imra.'-IIotcl Victoria t Herbet. 
Ball t« Kohlfnrt, dec 

This capHai of the Pru/uian provhkce of U|i>er 
Lusatia (transfcitcd from Baxony In 18U), on 
the Nelsse, has several hfond, etxalgbt streets. 

some of which arc arcadcd; handsome gateways: 
good Renaissance buildings; also a Castle and fine 
Gothic Churches, and an Arsenal in the old 
B:alBertnits Gate^ Three bridges ciws the river. 

8B,Ptt0rm4Fiata$ Chnre* is one of the flnest 

buildings in the German style of the thirteenth 
ccnturj-, finished 1497, It hi? fire rjaves, 83 ft. hiprh, 
resting on twenty-four columns, spreading like 
palms, and a sablerranean crypt In the rook of 
older date. The ergan contains dgiity^wo etope, 
andMMpIpM' The bell welglis nitons. 

The Frauenkirche (OurLady'«), bniH 1 449 94, has 
a fine porrh and tomb of General von Winterfeld. 
The Micolaikirche has the tomb of Jacob Bilhme, 
or Behmen, the famoos dioenetor and Tentoidc 
phflosophcr, bom 167ft, at Alt-Ssldenbnrg, U mile 
distant, and whose house is In the Nelsservorstadt. 
Here he died, 1624, and is buried in the cemeterj'. 

The Kreuzklrcbe(Holy Cross), outside the town, 
was built by Burgomaster gmmerMi In 14M; and 
is remarkable for contslning a mtadatnre copy of 

the Holy Sepulchre, for which object the founder 
made two pilgrimages to Jemsalem. 

The Town Hall has a library contalnlnfr MS8. 
and old prints, and the shield of Matthias of 
Hungary. Fine prospect from the tower. 

The Vladvct over the Mdsse Is alfaiewotk,oii 
thlr^-fonr andies, 110 feet high, and a qoarter of 
a mile long. 

Excursions may hv made to Uc-nnersdorf ; to 
the Landttrone, 1,300 ft. high ; and to a monument 
at Kerfceredorf, to Dnroc and KtrdNfer, who wera 
kHled, 1813, by the same cannon ball. Another 
monument at Jakclsberf? marks the spot where 
General Yon Winterfeld was kUled, 17d7. A 
line from here to Kohlfnrt. 

Bu&zlau (St&t.), in Prussian Silesia. 
PoPUIATiov, 13,000. 

iimf.-~Kronprtna; I>entsdkee Hans. 

A well-built town, on the Bober, chiefly known 
j for its pottery manufacture, the ciny (or which li 
I found in the neighbouring pita, with specimens 
of jaspar, onyx, agate, and eORidlan. There are 
I three Chnrchee, 

Digitized by Go 

Route do.j 

In the markft iilace Is a ca^it Iron Obelisk^ by 
Schinkcl and Scbadow, to the RuMian Field- 
nmrahal Kutusoff, who died here in 181S. Opits, 
tiM poet, was bom la the market-place, U87. 

meieii a Royal Orphan Home and School. At 
the Umvrtmi colonr of €hMdmierv it an excellent 
school. The handsome railway viaduct over the 
Boberthal is on thirty-five arches, 74 feet high, 
1,600 feet long. 

Bosnian (Stat.) 
PoraLaviov* 8.800. 

A small town, the church of whi'-li hn-. a paintinfr 
of the ravapes coraniltted by the Hussites In 1428, 
when they destroyed this place. Kcor this the 
PniMiana defeated Malton*s dlviakii« 1818. 
. LnaillTKStot), hi Silesia. 

ForuiaTioVr M|88S. 

Ikns. — Rautenkranz ; Priiiz Hoinrich. 

A handsoino town, at the junction of Katzbach 
and Schwarzwasscr rirers, surrounded by moats 
and mmparts, now planted witbUmesaadchestnnta. 
It lenks next to Bredm. 

SS. Ptt«r and PauVs Churrh contains an exten- 
sive library. At St. John's Cliurch are paintings 
by Willinann, and tlte Fiirstencaiielle, with the 
aarcophagnsofthelaatofthePlastfamily; twmty- 
fonr of whom were kings of Poland, and 133 dukes 
of F.i''"^ii!tz and Bricg, betwpfn ST-'J and 1675. 
Their Catiie (except two brick towers dating from 
1415) has been rebuilt since the flie of 1884| and is 
now need as a Cknremment bnildhig and musevm. 
The Town Hall contains some iiUta of mall armour. 

On the Promenade, a Sleeplnf? Lion, by Ranch* 
in memory of the Francn-Gcrmati War. 

A Riding School was luuuded by the Eupcror 
Joseph I., in 1708. It ie a line bnlldlng like a 
palace, with a library and Hnaenm attached ; and 
under the name of the Ritter-Academie Is devoted 
to the education of the sons of nuhletuen, as 
designed in the tirst instance. Here are also a 
Theatre, and large breweries^ and many fruit and 
regetable gardens. 

Walllfltatt Convent, at a Uttle distance off, 
WAS built on the spot where a battle was fought 
1241, when the TartarK, under Genghiz Khan's 
snuidsoni were defeated by the'Oermana under 
Duke Frederick, who w«* killed tn the Bgbt. Its 



church has some good fresco pnlntlnprs. Between 
this and £ichholz is the battle-field, on the Katz- 
bach, where Bilicher's forces, in 1813, defeated the 
French under Maedonald and Ney with the butt 
end of their mu k and bayonets, trora which he 
derived his title of Prince Bliichcr of Wahlttatt 
(which signifies battle-field). A monument marks 
the spot. This victory gave rise to Moscn*a 
*'Tnraipeter," who^ while dying, lonsee himself 
and sounds "Victoria!" Frederick the Great 
defeated the Austrians under Marshal Landon, 
between Liegnitz and Pfaffendorf, 16th August, 
1760. In the cnirirons is Stmupits, where Raupach 
was born; and Panthen« with Its large model 
sheep farms. 

From Lieguitz it is 40 miles to BrOBlaa, as de- 
scribed shortly on page 59. The ch&tean of Usaa 
there mentioned, though near the rail, is not 

LtflMui to Brnidutt^ Rtodlaad, MidifiL- 
berg, mtaotdn, JoMiAftadt^ KfinlggrttU, 
Swdiibiti, and Vltiiiia. 

[Br,ru-h to Wama- 

Orottan eoe •ottOwattnoea 2H 

Kratzau ^ 31^ 

Reicheuberg m 38 

From ReldMnlmrg (as below) to 




L'"li.:lU t'^ 

Ober Cunnersdorf... 6 

Hermhut 9 

Oher Oderwitz^.... 14 
Zittau 21 







This route passes to the west of the Eieaengebirge 
monntaina, and traTcrses the scene of the battles of 


Leaving LObau (Stat.), we proceed to 
Herrnhnt (Stat.), in Fnisslan iMtaHa. 

Population, 1,120. 

Tills is the head-quarters of the iforartoa 
AreCAerAoed; who number about 90,000 members, 
in Germany and other countries. They are suc- 
cessors of the Hussites who left Moravia in the 
Thirty Years' War, and finally settled here, 1722, 
at the foot of the Rutberg; on the ^ate cf 
BetlMlsdorf, m Berchtoldsdoff, belonginf to the 
then Count of Zinxendorf. 

Digrtized by Google 

124 bradshaw'h 

The settlement wft» visited bj' Wesley, In the 
early part of his career, 1788, after paying his 
respeeto to Frederick the Great (then Crown 
Pfinoe) at Weimar. There it a resident Bishop. 

Here nre a Gemeindehaiis, for the Head of the 
United Brethren; the Hotel, or lodirint,' house 
(Gemciudclogis, where travel ierti are received); the 
ChorhlttMr, or aeparate bnlldlDgs for unmarried 
brothers and ilck^ widoirers, and wivea; and 
n Friedliof or cemetorj' ; with a musenmj and 
wareiiouse«i for the linen manufacture. 

Zittau (Stat.)» In Upper Lusatia, Saxony, 
/niur.— Sonne; Engel. 

A well-huilt towi, nnd seat of the linen and 
daninsk trade, on the Mandau, near the Neissc. 
Much cotton-:ipinning is also carri<;d on here. It 
was neariy destroyed hy the Anstrians, 1757, after 
the battle of KoUin, since wliich most of the 
honses have been rebnfU of stone, the old walls 
being turned into promenades. 

The new RatMutus, by Schramm, 1844, is a hand- 
tome 't^ctangnlar pile, with a line octapron tower, 
on the site of the •former tower. It has the 
town Hlirarr of 13.000 vols., the old Prison 
called Die Gans, containing the archives, and 
the tetters patent of 1608, granting freedom of 
worship to the Bohemians, the reroeatlon of 
which was one of the grioTances whidi led to the 
Thirty Years' War. 

There are five churches, one of which, St. John s, 
was botlt 18M, in the Oriental style. Another is 
attached to a rich foondation of St. James's Mos< 
j)ital. Here arc also n Theatre, n larfre Tli;,^! 
School, and a Custom House; with many linen 
and some woollen fketorics. 

In the neighbonrliood, from 6 to 8 mOes distant, 
are tbo Ojfito^ a conspleuoiis rock, 1,660 feet 
hlixli, marked hy thr rr.ins of a cnstlc and convent, 
founded i;>(;fi; and the Lausche. i\ niountahi rfdge 
2,610 fc-et hijs'h, on the border line of Saxony 
and. Bohemia, with an extensive view. On the 
Bohemian side is Reichstadt, from which Napoleon 
L's son. the Duke of Reiehstadt. derived his title. 

Rail to Oybiu, throug^h Bertsdorf, in 1 hour, 

[From Zittau a trip may be taken through the 
Isergebfarge moontalns, as follows:— 

nrst, to Hermsdorf and Petersdorf, on to Sehrel- 


I hershan, from whence an excursion can be made 
to the Hinterberg and the upper Qucissthal. 
Thence follow the course of the Qneiss to 

niHSberg, a small bathing-place, mostly used 
for diaeaset of women and for hypodiondzlaals, 
PopoLAnov, l,SOO. 

Diligence to Friedoberg (Stat.)p H mllea 

from Grelffenherp: on the direct line between 
Berlin and Hlrschberg (see Koute 37). It Is 10 

Lldbwerda. The nearest station is Raspenao, 
on the "Relchenbersr line. 


A bathing-place, in a charming- spot; havinjj 
the Castle of Count Clam-Qallas, tiie proprietor 
of this district; a good bathing house and 
Theatre, with waters like tttoee of FUnsberir «nd 

Spa. Two and a half mile'5 from It is Tafelfichte, 
the iiiprhest mountain of the Iserpebirfre, 3.778 feet 
high. A guide is necessary to ascend it. The 
view is very fine from the top. 'A* Mill betltf 

view is to be had from //ifii/';/'/'/- (3,772 feet) near 
Haindorf, beautifully situated. The Klostcrkirche, 
built 1772, contains the family vault of the Counts. 

Frtedland, in Bohemia. A station on the line 
between Odrlitx and Relchenberg', 

POPDLATtOir, 4,860. 

Inns.— Am Schloss; Ross; Adlcr. 

The Catholic Church, built 1255, has the monn- 
ment of Field Marshal von Redem, by Ileinrich 
of Breslan. The Castle of Connt Ciam-QaUaa, on 
a basalt roek, was once the property of TFitflen* 

sfnn. Dnke of Frieflland, upon whom the lord- 
sliip M as bestowed by his unpratefui <Miiperor, 
rrederick If., for his victory at Weisse Berg, 
near Pragae, 1618, and afterwards oonferred on 
Gallas. an ancestor of the ]>rescnt owner. There 
is a portr.'iit of the great duke and fiis wife, with 
some other relics, besides a collection of armour. 
There aio soma dungeons beneath the tower. 

At miffersdorf lived the learned Geradorf, who 
bequeathed his library of 12,000 volumes, and ool^ 
lections of paintings and engravings, toCMfrlitx. 

Hence tu Warmbrnuii, Ruute 37.] 

ReiChenbers is the first important station 
on the Bohemian side of the frontier mada 
by the Bieaenfebirye ihonntetM. IVom VMd* 

Digitized by Google 




the mil follows the scone of the groat battles of 
1866, which ended with the field of Konlggriitz, 
•nddMlded the euprenuu^of Proeeia tn Gennany. 

Tba atattooa hence towarda Pardnbita ea the 
Fraflrne and Tienim line are at follow;— 


Reichenberf to 

Reichcnau 10 



[Branch to Prague and 

Bisenbrod 83} 

IBranch to Tmmwald, 
18 kUs.] 
Alt-Paka............... 43| 

IBmnOi toTrautenan 
and Kiinigshaiuj. 


Falgendorf 46 

Koiiip-inhof ......... CtC> 

Jusephbtailt 1>U 

[Branch to 
Nachod ...... 11 

{Branehes to Chot- 
zcn and P rn Tin:ni.] 
ScliwaduwUz -^'J:^ 
Koiii-shftin 88 
Liobau......*t« 40f 

K6ntfrirrilts 80 

Parduhitz 94 

The grreat object uf Pru-ssia in ttu- war wan to 
get possession of the passes tlirough tho luuuulaius 
of AoatrUt, and so meet her when emerfrlng from 
them. On the 18tb June, 1866, the rrussinns 
entered Dresden, while the Saxons niartlicd «>ut to 
meet the Austrian anny. The Trus-sian forces con- 
sisted of two armies- the Western, or First amy, 
onder Prince Fkederick Charles; the Eastern* or 
8eeond army, under the Crown Prince. On the 2ind 
June, rrincc Frederifk Charles with the First, or 
Western army entered Bohemia from the south- 
east of Saxony* advancbig towards Belcbenherg. 
He droTe oat the Anatrian cavalry and artilleryfrom 

Llatoenait OSt&t.) on the S6th June; crossed 

TurnaU (Stat.) ; ^'nn rep ul sod on the 27th 
Jnne. at Fodolt. by the Austrians. who had raised 
barricades ; but tiually compelled them to retreat 
to Uttnchengrats after a second defeat on the 38th 
June, and then to retreat upon Qitschin, 6 miles 

from Falgendorf (Stat.) 

liail to Uiikov on the line to Prague. 

Population, 5,730. 
/nn.— Wetsser JJhre, 

A finely-situated town under the Kie^enc-olvir-e 
hills, where the Tiiple Allinnee was coticliKU-d by 
the Allies against France, \*M-}. It has an old 
Convent, boat by the Dnkes of Friedland, and the 
large Sddosa of Prfaice Trantmannedorf , which was 
blown up 1620, with 72 persnn-?. 

On the 29th June IR'^fi. it was taken by storm 
by the First Pniwian Army under Prince Frederick 

Charles, with a loss of 4,000 to the Austrians, and 
n considerable one to the Prussians; the latter 
niAintainlng the advantage they liadaoqiiired from 
the llrst, owhiff to the eaperlority of the needle-enn 
over the muzzlc-loadlnf pieces. The Khijr of 
Prussia joined the army on 2nd July. ISiiti, pre- 
paratory to the great fiual battle with the Aus- 
trians, who were now concentrated between /owiift- 
g(aM and KSniggrStt Stations. 

Meantime, the Second, or Eastern Army, had 

crojwed the monntains from the SUe5;ian 1uu<h r in 
three divisions, viz., by l^ndstrut, or Lantleshut, 
to Trautenau; from Brunuau toTrautcnau; and 
from GlaU to Kaehod— all concentrating towards 
Trautenau (Stat.) 

/fin.— Welsscs Koss, 

Between Schwadowitz( Stat. ) an d Falgendorf 
(Stat.), in the neighbourhood of the Adersbach 
Rocks (sea Boate and not far from the /abaa- 
nmad Springe, about 8,000 feet high, at the foot of 
the Sdmeekoppe. Here the Auatrians were agatai 
defeated, 21)th Jnne. 

Nachod (Stat.), in a pass, whore the Prussian 
corps luider General Sfcinmetz fell In with the 
Anstrlana on the 37th, and were repulsed in thdr 
attempt totate Skalicx. On the 28th Jnne, the two 
armies having about 00.000 men and 90 fnin* on 
eaeh side, the Austrians wore d. f. at( d and forced 
back on Josephstadt. At Nacliod.. loop rails run 
off north to WeOSelBlniXir (branch to 8tar- 
kotBchX Tlutst, Cbotzen, and Muth tonUb- 
stadt, Brannaii, '" i MittelBtoine. 
JosepllStadt (Stat.), and 

EONIGORATZ (Stat) The scene of the 
great deciding- battle of 3rd July, called also the 
battle of Sadowa, a Tillage (reached by rail), 
which dlTided the two anniea, nwnbeilng in all 
about 250,000 men, with 9,000 guns, and ox- 
tf'ndinfr aliont 1"> Tiiiles. The mnin body of the 
Austrians was at Lippai, under Marshal Bencdek,and 
their centre at C/Uum. The First Pmaskan Army 
marched, at fonr a.mM from Mflowtt» to Dnbs; 
began the attack at 7 30, and compelled the Aus- 
trians to retire towards Sadowa, overpowered by 
the needle-gun. The Austrians made a bayonet 
charge, so deadly that one Fmerian regiment, 8,000 

Digitized by Goo^U. 



[Sec. 2. 

stroiig, Willi w uflicers, ww reduced to 300 men 
and 9 oflteen; but their flnt line was gradnally 
broken, an4 a new line was formed at Uppa. Here 

their artillery played such a good part, ttiat by 
three o clock the Prussians bad made little progreat, 
and beg^n to be uneasy. 

liaanwfatle, tbe Cnrnn Prince, advandng from 
HOetln, to take the Anatriane In flank, iiad 
been forced to make a detonr, which detained 
him. But about 3-30 he suddenly nppearcd in 
the rear of Uenedek, at Lippa. Prince Charles 
Frederick reooauneneed tiie attaek« Sadowa was 
gained, and the Anitrlaaa began to fall back. Part 
took refuge in Konig^^ratz Station; the main body 
returned to Pardubitz, and crossed the Elbe. The 
batOe was over by aeven p4n. The leeM of the 
Anatrians were 4<l,€00 killed, wonnded, and 
prisoners. The Prussians lost 10,000. Marshal 
Benedek. who had distinguished himself in the 
Italian war, died in retirement, lUll. 

KSniggrite ia a atrong frontier poat on the Elbe, 
In a flat countrj-, which may be easily innndated, 
and is overlooked by the Weisser Thurm (White 
Tower). Populatioo, 6,600. Hotel, Lanira. It has 
a Cathedrat, and old Jesuits' College, with a 
ntieenm of Sdaveidan remalna. 

PardnUti (Stat), on the Prague and Tkmia 

BaUway. _ 

.. 87- 

to Hlrschberg, FrankexuiteUi, te, iB 
the Rlesengeblrge Mountains, 
This district, ou the border-laud of Bllesia and 

Bohemia, la approaebed by two or three lines of 

rail, as undenaentioned. 

L-KOHLFURT and HIRSrilBERG (Nleder- 
schlesiscbe-Markische Eiseubalin). 

Kohlfurt to Miles. 

Lauban t8| 

[Branch to 

Gijrlitz ......16i] 

Qreiaeuberg ......... S3| 

JUbiihan 80 

Rcibnit* (forWarm- 

brunn) S^ 

ilirschberg 46| 

fichildau (for 
/ Schmiedcberg ... 


Merzdorf .,„. ssf 

Ruhbank 63 

[Branch to Lande- 
shut, KdnlgshaiUi 

DIttersbach 75 

Waldcnburg 77^ 
Altwasser .....„,„,. 81 
iBnmeh to Brealao. 


From OorUtx or KMllftiri, aa In Roate U. 

Lattban, or Xuben (Stat.) 
PoputAiios, 11,000. /na.-Uirseh. 

An old town of Upper Lusatia, on the Queiss, 
anrrouuded with donblc walls, and having a Town 
HalU built 1560. 

GrelffenMK (Stat») Bail to PHedeberg and 

to Lowell Hfj-f?' 

L&wenberg (Stat.) 


/Mu.<~HoteI dn Bol; Weimae Roaa. 

A little town In a fine apot on the Bober, where. It 

is said. Napoleon rrrrivod the first news of the 
Austrian Alliance, hi IsH. They pretend tri 9hoy<r 
the glass he let fall at tbe intelligence. It has a 
(KMii maiket, and aome trade in minerala and eoale, 
with a Rathhaus of the fifteenth century. Tbe 
Pnlace of the Prince of HohenaoUem-Heeklngen 
is near at haiut. 

HiTBCllberg (Stat.;, in Pruiisian Uilpsla. 
P(MraLATtO», It^Wt. 

/raiM.— Deutaehea Hana; Weleaea Roaa; Orel 


An old town, still partly walled, in a beautiful 
valley at tlie foot of the Rieaengeblrge and the 
Schneelrappe, at the jnnetion of the River Zaeken 
with the Bober. 

The Evan^'elicfll Gnadenkirche is a flne building 
with fresco paintings by WiUmann. 

The market^plaee baa arsadea aronnd It. Here 
are sugar refinerlea, and champagne and eider 

Near the town arc the Kavalierberpr and Motint 
Heiikon, with fine views of the Rie&cngebirge 
Monntaina; . Ftadibaeh, a aeat belonging to Prince 
William of PmaUa; and Bnehwald, the realdenea 
of the Countess von Rhcden. 

This is a good centre for the Scbneekoppe, &c., 
in the Riesengebirge Mountains. There is a small 
HinMerg in Bohemia, called Dokiy In tlie 
native tongue. Rail to BclUDiedfllMflf (page 
129). Rail alao to Mandof through Warm- 



/n«*.^ Hotel de Prusse; Schwarzor Adier. 
Table d'HAtr at the Gesellscbaftsbaus. 
A watering- place, on the Zaeken, in a valley, 
tmder the Giant Monntaina, or Rieaengeblrge, 
belonging to Count SdiaOipftacIi, whoae ,p«tfc la 
It baa ejicellent warn alkaline and aniplittr 

Digitized by Google 

BoOte d7.J HAND-BOOK TO tiKl 

•pringa, HkR those of Aix. aiid mostly used for 
rheumatism, diseases of the skin, iic. Lodgingit 
at tlur Herreotunu and Ltiic«iilMii«. 

Thm ttf Catholic and Evangelical Churches, 
with a TlMatre and Utrarjr, and » glaia ntamfac- 


Hirxchbcrg is the best centra for vUdtfaig the 
RtetenfftMrge BUU, ••--the Kynast, Hemiadorf, 
8«hreibcrhau,theHo«bstGin,tbe Kochcland Zackel- 
falls, Joscphincn-hlittc, Stohnsdorf. Tntdelberg, 
and Strangenberg; to Prince WlUiam'a CaaUe, 
at Fiachhaeh ; to the iiiuuikapelle and tha Grahen- 
aMnfln; also overto SOtlan. 

The summit of tho 8dimdtepp9% tO the south. It 
«,320 fpPt hl.L'h. 

Currinu'rs, horses, nnd guides may be obtained 
at most of the villages— the latter are seldom 
neeessarsr, except in fofgy weathert as the paths 
are kept in very good order, and them are flnger- 
posts everywhere, 



This range (not to bo confounded with the Kle- 
sengcbirge on the Rhine) is a chain of granite 
lieli^its, en the borders of Lower Sllesle (Pmssla) 
and Bohemia (Atistria), chiedy between the Elbe 
end the Spree. They form the hij/hcst part of the 
Sode^m, or Sudetach chain wtiich runs in continu- 
alion of tiie Carpatldan Mcmntalns, towards the 
H.W. of Germany; altogether, abont ISO miles 
long. The average height Is 4,000 feet. The highest 
peaks are the Schin-eioppe (or .Sntjw Top), 5,;i-20 feet 
high; Grosse Rad, 4,960 feet bighi and bturm- 
hanbe,4^e70 feet high. 

They consist of granite, gneiss, porphyry, and 
other rocks, often broken and split in all directions; 
and are generally bare, with few lakes. Reindeer 
and other rare mosses are found. On the Silesian, 
or north side, they are somewhat steeps and over- 
look a broad ^dley ; bnt towards Bohemia tliey 
are more doping. 

The people outside the vlllapcs arc a finiplc, I 
honest race, who live in scattered huts, »hiitiug 
aboi|t aeoording to the season. In the summer they 
move up to the tops of the blUs; and descend to 
tl^e valleys in tlie winter. Snow Ilea here from 
October to June. 

tMANY. — UIA5T MOtJMAI>-8. 127 

Much picturesque scenery, of a fjuiot rharacter, 
is found. These hills are the haunt of Hiibc- 
zahl, the Tumip-ooonter, or Number Hip, a tricky 
I spirit, the subject of many legends* which have 
J been tran.slated Into Kiirli-^h, and -were ma<'1r' the 
basis of a Covent Ganl' n riintonunip It '»\ a'- hy 
the passes in these mountains that the Prussian 
armies descended into Bohemia In the memorable 
cainpftign of 1866. 

From May to AtipwHt is the u^vn] season for 
travellers, but September Is the best time for the 
upper ranges, as the clearer air affords the best 
dianee of good prospec ts . Guides itcArt 5 marks a 
day, and the traveller ustully pays for their food; 
on th# Bohemian ^ide a bargain must be made. 
Expenses at inns, for moderate accommodation, 
about C marks, but more at some of the best dass. 

Appuoaohis.— Est, the best apimMWh is on the 
north-west, by the beautiful valley of Hirsehberg, 
rtd the rail fn.-im T>rrs(lrTi to IJit'nn and G^rlitz, 

2nd, on the west, by rail from Lohau, Zittnu, and 
Reichcnbcrg. Thence across the hills to Uirsch- 

3rd, on the north and east, various stations on 
the line from GSrlitz to Rreislnu may be tnkf>n as 
starting points: asBuuzlau, Liegnitz, and Breslau. 
Vnm BunSlau by a road passing through LVwen- 
berg, with a irtew of the hills right before. IVom 
IJeprtitz and Rreslftu, by rail, to Waldenhurp-. 
I'hence through the fine pass of Landeshut to the 
Schneekoppe, Stc. . , 

Fram'Zittau to Waldenbnrg is a lWj> «/ otoMf 
Six Dayt, walking or riding according to circum- 
stances. Isti Zittau to Friedland. 2nd. Licbwerda, 
the Tafelfichte, .and Flinsborg. Srd. Hochstein, 
gadwmfaH, and; Hermsdocl. ith. Kynast, Heln- 
rlehsherg, Brdmaniisdorf. and Schmetdeberg. 
6th. The Schneekoppc and Grenzbaude* tth. 
Adersbacb Rocks am! Wnldcnburg. 

Commencing from Wurmbnmn, near Hirseh- 
berg, as abOTe, yon reach 

Hmmdorf^ nearthe castleof Count Schaffgotsch. 
Ju^t niMivc it cii !i trrnTiitP rock. 1,980 feet above 
sea level, are the ruins of Kf/natt Vcutie, built by 

Bolko I. in 19M, and deelroyed by lightning in 
1M7. The View from the tower Is very flue. li l^ 

the scene of our '^f Korner's poems, Albert Ol 
Thuringia and the Fair Kunlgnnde." 

Digitized by Google 


Further on is ■'^rhi-eiba-hau, among' abont 20 
glass-grinding houses ; and the large village of 
JosefhjnknuUtib (population, 2,600). 

A footway lead* to the neks of 

Koehd/aO^ and ito two bcccb-trecs, on whicb are 
to be eccn the names of the King of Prussia and 
Queen l.ouisa. with the date 1800. The Kochfl Is 
formed of the Great and Little Kochci, and runs 
to Zaoken. Furtber down is tho KiMgabad, tbe 
Schwarser Berg, and the Zuckcr»cliale, a Lngan- 
stnne. -wei<rhiii;.' '20 tons, whu h is balancod Oil a 
surface of Hcarceiy two feet square. 

Following the Kochcl wo reach tlic 

ladtmfM^ -wlSieh tumbloa down a hollow, 90 feet 
deep, under the Hcidcnbei:^* Passing the Betf- 
trager, 4.!)00 feet high, we come to tho 

Netie SclUe$i$che Baude, 3,900 feet high, with 
good views of the Zackentbal, Hochstein, Ac., at 
the Mmice of the RiTor Zaekau, aa intennittlng 
stream, whooe water* gometlmesceaae to flo|r for 
hours, and then commence again. 

Leaving tliis, wc pass Rabenstoin to the 

Elbwiese and Elbfall, at the source of the Elbt, 
which riae* ,Aear the Wieaenbeade, tihe higfaeet 
dweUIng on thle aide of the Alpi, being 4,S00 feet 
above the sea. Here the Elbe is a small stream, 
called Weisswasser, wliich, after tumbling over 
the tirnt cascade, or TcufcisfiUl, is joined by the 
SUIierwiMaer and aonie other itreama, and at Bib- 
wleae foima tiie beanttfnl eaaeade of Elbfall, In 

a wild romantic ppot. 

At Sc/meti^ubeit, about two miios farther, are 
two crater-shaped gulfs, about 1,500 feet deep, in 
which anow is alwaya to be seen. The "riew ia a 
fine one, hut a better is obt^ed from the 

jSToAs Rod, 4,700 feet high, which is ascended 
by an easy footpath cut in the rock. At the top 
the traveller commands a prospect over the 
mountains into Saxony and Bohemia, as far as 
Prague and Breslau. 

Further up, the road leads over the Qucrberg, 
by a steep way. to the f^rossi' TlvcJi, !\ lake in a 
crater, 1,800 feet long, 5C0 feet broad, and 77 feet 

A road behind the Klelne Teich leads in ooehour 
to the Neue Baude "V^oii^aus, at the foot of the 
8chneeknppe, where comfortable accommodation 
can b« had for the night. 

The Schneekoppe, or Rimnkoppe (Snow Head, 
or Giant's Head), the highest peak of theRicsen- 
gebirge, is 5,320 feet above the aea and is a 
steep granite cone, strewed with sparkling slate. 
At the top ii an inn^ where a bed feeing the 
cast, for the sunrise, should be ohtaintd. Tho i 
view of the rising and setting sun is indescribably 
beautiftil when the weather is clear, but mists 
are very frequent; otherwise the panorama em« 
braees an extent of M to 60 miles erery way, over 
Silesia and Bohemia, of wfalch tlUs point la on the 
boundary line. 

On the South, or Bohemian side, it is intersected 
by the Aupagmnd Olen, in which 1* the Aupen- 
fall. Here the ascent ts not ao steep aa on the 
other side, but it ia tooger, and there are fewer 
good views. ^ 
From the fldme^eppe a roond nmyhe taken by | 

Orflasau, Ti ^inil T^' fl tt Schmiedeberg, the Friesen" 

stein on the Landshutcr Berg, by £rmamtsdi>rf| 
Fischbach, and Stonsdorf. to Wamibrunn. 
Descend from the Schneekoppe to 
Lieban (Stat.), on the Bober. Thenee to 

Inn. — Deutsche Kaiser. 

A town (population, 1,900) in a forest of hig-h 
trees, in a narrow valley of the Katzbacb, near a 
fortress, bnilt, 1207, by Duke Henry the Bearded!, 
and destroyed in 142G, by the Hussites. In the | 
neighbourhood, the Weissgalle is 2,160 feet high, 
and the Landshutcrkamm 2,300 feet high; both 
commanding beautiful views, 
j To the Adersbeeh Boeks Is 10 miles due aoutb. 


n« ri is a remarkalilo group of tumbled sandstont 
Rocks, like those at Tuiiiiridge Wells and in Saxon 
Switzerland, in the shape of cones, pyramids, A:c., 
some a hundred feet high, and traversed by a brook, 
wliich forms a good waterfall. They cover n space 
two to three mUes long, and are only accessible T)y 
' a single narrow passage, with a locked door. Tho 
key and a guide are obtained at the Inn close by. 
Entrance, 60 kr. each and a trifle for guide. The 
rocks are many thousands in number, and there 
I is a chance of losirr mr c v iv (rf^od trout nre 
j to he had here. Weckelsdorf RockB, a similar 
' group 2 miles distant. Charges as ut Adersbacb. 

Digitized by Google 



From Schomberg in the opposite clirectloo, 
doficciid tbo Katzbacb to 

OHtoNw, » aappreated oonveni wltli « decayed 
cbnreh, eontaining Mine good iMlntlnga and eAgies 

of Bolko, Duke of Schweidnitz. 

LandshUt (Stat.), in Pnusian Silesia. 


Hotels.— Schwarzer Rabe ; Goldener Liiwe. 
A forUAed town on the Sober, at the foot of the 
Rfeieiigebtrge. It contalna a Lutheran Cbtudi, a 

Stntue of Count Stolbcrfr, nnd some linen manu- 
factories, and is near the Rabenberg, where the 
Prussians, under General Funqu^, were defeated 
by the Anstriani, to 17W. 
Rail to Llebau and Rnhbank. 

From here the road ascends past Leppersdorf, 
Br hrffhcndorf, and Hohcnwaldau to the top of 
the LandsJiuteriamm. ahotit '2,300 feet above the 
sea. From the cluster of rocks near this, called 
the Frieaenstein, about 2,M0 feet high, there is a 
fine proepeet. Hence It deicende to 

SctunlAdelMrC (Stat.), 9 mttea by rait from 

H irschberj?. 

PorcLATioN, 4,347. 

HoTBLS.— Schwarzes Ross; Oolrtner Stern. 

▲ mining and manufacturing town on the Eesels- 
baeh, among f nmaoee and mines. On the tower of 
the Catholic Church It a female sitting flgnre, 
wltl) vnrinu« fiuljlcms. supposed to be of the time 
of the Kiii^bt^ Templars. At the (iebaur'scbe 
Haus is a pavilion, from which is a flue view of 
the Rleaenkoppe. Near thli le 

AMJNrafd; the castle of Count too Roden t with 
an alibey, artificial rulna, watch tower, belvedere. 

XrdmaimBdorf , about 1,890 ft. above the Ma. 

Inn.— Zum Srhwcizer IIauf». 

Here in a Castle, which belonged to General 
Gneisenau, nuw the property of the King of Prussia. 
In the park la the Swiss House of the Prlncees 
Llegnitz; and near it are the cottages of the Protes- 
tant Tyrolcse, from tho Zillcrthal. who were 
settled here by the king when forced to emigrate 
by the Austrian Oovernmcut in IS3S. 

Fiwhbaeh, at the foot of the Falkenbeig, It the 
property of the pre^^nt^g, and has an old Ctittle 
of the Knights Templart tmong the trcca. 

BRESLAU (BredaU'Sehweldnlts-Frelburger^ 


At Konig'szclt tho four lines from Liegniti; 
Breslau, Waldenburg, and Frankenstein meet. 


[Frankenstein to 

Gnadenfrei 64 

Reichenbach ... 14 
Scbwcidnitx...... 3d 

KSnigss. June... SI 

8triegau 87 J 

Jaucr 47^ 

Llegnlts 90^] 


■\V:ilrI(->iihurg to 

Altwa&ser 8 

Freiburg 12 

IBrnMh to Salsbrunn] 
Konlmaelt Junction 19 

Mcttkaii 27.} 

tanth 34 i 

Breslau..*..;...... .. 46 j 

WUdMLbnrg (8tat.) 

Population, 12,100, 
Ink. — Schwarxes Rots. 

A thriving town on the Polsnitz, among rlrh 
coal mines, having n good town houseand porcelain 

and linen factories. Carriages to Adcrsbavh. 
a Bohemian villag-c, about twelve milesS.W. The 
road to It is up and down hlU, past Dittersdorf. 
Neuhaut Castle, Lang Waltersdorf, and Friedland ; 
beyond which yon cross the Austrian frontier, at 
-rkrl^r'ni-f l"hcre is a railway connection with 

Bitters bacn (Stat.)«fortheCtiaxlotteiibru]m 
(Stat). >o called from a tpa here, Meorode 
(BM), and OUttl (Ml), page IM. 
AttinWBer (BtaD, near a watering plaee. 

1,280 feet above the "e^. with five good chalybeate 
springs. In the ncij^Ubourhood are very important 
Coal Mines, Kynan Castle, and tbo Fucbsstollcn, 
more than a mile long. 
Freiburg (Stat.), in SUesbi. 

PortLATios, 8,850. 
In5.— Uirsck. 

A tmall numufaeturtng town, with a large itnen 
factory. It stands about 940 feet above sea level, 

in the ascent to a hilly country. In the neigh- 
bourhood is JMien-t't-iedberg, where Frederick II. 
defeated the Au8trian^ 1745, in the Second SUesian 
War. /«r«taMf«teOM(lt<8ehloesXtheseatofthe 
Prbiceof Pie8s,alargebulldlng,anda fiii wi<^dl«hrat 
restoration ht a beautifUl valley, the Fttrttcn^ 

stciner ( i I'uiut. 

Sal2brU£Jl iBtat.), eight miles from Freiburg, 
by rail to Fellhammer, Ae. 
PoprtATioy, 2,800. 
I Hotels. ^Krone; Sonne: Kurtaal. 

Digitized by Google 



{See. 3. 

Here are seven saHno Sprinm. jMnnothitig like the 
Mfltcrwnsscr, used for general weakness, Ac; with 
a theatre, and dub-house (Bllsenlialle). 

ExemtfoHS to WUlie1insh61ie, with a tUiw of the 
Rieaen^ebir^e HflUj the glass works at Kon- 
radsthal; the nick^ of Adorshnch. passlnf,' the 
mined Cnstlo <.f Neuhuus; also to the Zeisber^ 
ruins; atul th«- Sattelwald, 2,900 feet high, 

oui Komgszelt JuncUon, a branch nU (at 
abovs) runs to 
S^mreldilltl (Stat), in a ano part of SflMla. 
P0PUl.4mv, 44,701. 
Hotels.— Goldene Krone ; Stem. 
An old fortified town, on the Weistiitz, which 
was taken from Frederick the Great by Morslml 
Lottdon, 1761, and ttamuitlod by the Fnnoh 1807- 
It baali Oothle Chmxh of the fourteenth century, 
NHth a tower 327 feet high, tewi whioh la a good 
view of th(* >'llt>Kian hills. 

T!i ! s place is famous for beer, the faTourite kind 
being the Schwarxe 8cb6p«. 

The Cbrtto ta now* poor-house. At the Town- 
ball is a Taluable collection of archivt s. There is a 
pood tmde in gloves and gingerbread, with several 
distniiiik', brewijig, tan, and dye works. 
[About nine miles from here la the little tows of 
ao1»tiB» lying ftt the foot of the Zobtenberg, 
which la 9,910 feet aboTc the sea, with an old stone 
monnmcnt and chapel on tlie granite top, and 
ronnnands a wide prospect of the SUeaian platos 
and Moravum Hills. The weU-known nreeBand 
of Major TOR L1lt»ow was inaugurated lE Wi3 at 
the foot of the mountain. Hear it lies 

OOltell, a "VCT o^f' viUap-c in which U a large 
brewery, and a Castle wliich was once a convent. 
There is a diligence twice daUy to Zobten, from 
Mcttkau station, 18* rnOea f f om Brcstell.] 
There is a pleasant walk Ifcom SchweldnlU to 

jaoalirtterf (BteU » The next lUtion 
ii iMdMclc. 

RelcbenlMudi (Sta^) 

FOPUI.ATIOK, 7,250. 

IXK— Seliger. 

A amall town at the. foot of the Eulengebirge, 
with an old Castle, and extensive manufactures of 
woollen, cotton and Turkish yara. Hcje Frederick 
the Great defeated Laudon, 1762. 

Omnibus to Pettr»» iildau, theuoe on foot to the 
Eulengebirge, highest point, 2,940 feet 

Ball through LMI0Wlltf«lail(«l«V«viUs9e of 
about 14,000 people) to Ober- Langcnbiclau, 4 mflWi 

Frankenstein ^StlA.), in Fmsriaa Bitealn. 

Porrt.ATiON-. 7.WU. 

IxN^.— Uuduuff's Hotel; Deutscbea Hawa. 

▲ iMltodtown* on the Fnuaobaoh, with naold 
mined castle, and several churches, part of which 
were hnnit in 1858. Near this arc the villapres of 
Baunigartcn and Weigeisdorf, and the strous 
fortress of SUiMn-imy, partly out out of aoUd roek^ 
by Frederick the Oreat, to proiect the Bohomlnn 
frontier. At Relefie$uMm are Important «««nie 

mines, iTitin:n'rf »l with frold. 

Kamenz (Stat.). Here the line from Ureslau 
comes in (Route 14), and juuctiou is made with 
the Ihie to 2M«w (Bonte 88). 

WarUia (Btat.)» *^ plocc of pilgrimage to a 
miraculous statue of the Vir^'in on the top of the 
Warihaix rjr, 1,840 fret above the sea. There are 
many capital points of view roundabout. Hence to 

Caatl(8tftt), hiPmaslan SUetia; the PoUsh 

POPULATK^K. 14,000. 

Inns.— Wci^scs Lamm; NeuBreslau; StadtRom. 

The capital of the principality of CUnta (acquired 
1 748 by Fredertek the Great) and a walled town on 
the Nelase. 070 feet above sea level. It stands 
between two hills, crowned by fort.s. That on the 
SchSferberg, on the right bank, called the New 
Fortress, was almoit entirety hewn ont of the 
solid rock, by Frederick the Great. Atthetopls 
the statue of Bt. Hepotnuk. Baron Trenck waa 
confined here for a long time, and aftorwarda 
made his desperate leap from the dungeon tower. 

The old Gothic Church has a miraculona Imago 
oftheTlrghi. TheBoyalCaetlelanowaGovenw 
ment bnildhig. Splendid prospect from the tower. 
Ticket H at the Commandatur. 50 pf , and fee to guide. 

The Konlgshainor Spitzbcrg, the Sophicnfcls, 
and the Glatzer Gebirgc, arc all good points for 
mountain eseurakma. 

The rail waa extended. 1875, to MtlMMUto 
(Stat.), where it joins the Austrian lines. 

Wlthlii the distance of 16 or 2U miles from Glata 
are the mujcrftl Balhs of Reinorz (rail 12 J miles), 
I Kudowm,'Biid l<iiadock (daigenoe, l6 mUtt); tho 

Digitized by Goo^I 




Zabrze ... 

Mnrprcnroth .......... ilO 

[Branch to 


SchwicntOcMotHt* 112i 


[/?rn«f/ito Cracow] 

Myslowltz 128 

(Branch to Craoow] 

Neubcrun 184| 

Oswiociin 13"^ 

[Theuce to CracowJ 

Henflcbemr Rocks, 9,990 fMt high, remarkable for 
their beautifol shapes: Soefeldem Valley ; Sc/mee- 
berff, 4,660 feet : nntl Srht)eikopj)e. tlic highest of the 
Iliescngeblrge mountains, in this quarter, 6,320 feet 
abore sea (page 127.) 

Bawdaii, towax4s Oraoow aad Vtaniuu 

Ohenohlesisdie BtsenbahD. 

IJresIan to Miles. 

(Hilau Id 

Bripjf Junction 26 

Qi^rancA toKeisse.] 

Opirln 51 

{ ISmuch to Tarnowltz] 

<;«);rolin 64 

i'osel-Kandrain ... 74 
[braneh to Rati- 
Uorand f>dcrherpr.] 

Schlawentziitz 82 

Rudzinitz •••■•■•••••a* 86 

Gloiwitz 100| 

Leaving BreslaU we reaeb 


POPUXiATlOV, 4t»000. 

fx\'. —Adler. 

A small town on the Oder, which figured in the 
Thirty Years" War, and the war of the Bwnttei. 

The Chnreh of St. Blaislaa is a ^ne bnUdfaig. It 
contains also a Picture Gallery ; a Town-hall, with 
4i clock-tower ; aiid a toltiK-t n factory. 

A good deal of tobacco is grown lierc. 

Towards Brieg isMollwUz, where Frederick the 
•Qreat defeated the Anstrlana, lOtb April, 1741. 

BBIBO (ttftt), la Pmsaian SUeiia. 

"PoPatATlOK, 20,154. 

HoTRi.9. GoldcMie Krcuz; Hirsch. 

Rail to Ncisse, Breslau, &c 

A town on the Oder, and the old seat of the 
DAkeabf Briifi * I^*'^® remains, 

.•and Is worth a rlsft, though mnoh dilapidated. 

The fortittcations are now laid out as a pro- 
nicnade. The towu is well boUt, with good, 
straight streets, and stonda about 460 feet abote 
sea level. A wooden bridge crosses the rirer. 

The NlkolalUiche Is a fine Gothic biiihlin?, 
with ii jrood origan, an alUr-plcce by Rotlc, and a 
monument to Field-marshal von Gessler. Here 
*re six other chnrchea, a goTenunent salt faetory, 
A handsoinB puMJe a#ee; wtt^ wool and ctoth 

manufactories, a sugar refinery and cigar factory. 
From here a line runs pant Orottkau to Meisse. 

Brieg to Neiase. 
By rail (Nelsss-Brieser BiMiibahn) as lolloWSf 

BngUsh Entrli^h 
mUes. miies. 
Brieg to Fidkenan ■•••••eee< 

Orottkau 13 Neissc 

[Branch to Ziegenhals, Ratlbor, Ac.J 
NEISSfi (Btat). in Prussian Silesia. 
HoTBLa.— Stem; Boss. 

Railway to Brieg Station. Diligence to 6ril- 
fonl»^r^^ A strong fortress, surrounded by walls 
and deep moats, in a marshy valley, at the junc- 
tion of the Ndsse and Biel, about 570 feet abOTo 
sea level; founded 96$, In the territory of the 
Bishopric of Breslau. 

It is well built, the newest houses being at 
Friedrichsstadt, so called after Fred. II., who built 
Fort Preussen, which overlooks It* The stone 
was quarried in the neighbouring pits. Here are 
ten churches, Roman Catholic and Prote<itant ; in- 
cluding an ancient parli^h church and a handsome 
Bishop's Palace, in which Fred. II. aud Joseph II. 
met SSrd Augubt, 1769; with a gorernment f aetiHY 
for arms and powder. In 1600, forty-two women 
were burned here for witchcraft. 

Here the learned Emanuel Dentseh was bom* 
1829. of Jfwisli jiarcnts. 

From Neissu, the rail is carried to BiOflBlialS, 
on the border; where It makes a Junction with 
the line to Ballbori and with the lines towards 
Olmutz, Troppau. *c.. in Austria. Direct lines 
are al8<^ . pen to OlMr-GlOgaU aud Cosel; and to 
LeobflChutx, IUU.bor(p. 132); iu the directions of 
Cracow and BudarPest. 

Near Neisse is the Heiurichsbrunn iron spring. 
At Kapellenberg (9 mile*.) is an Obelisk tO those 
who fell in the war of Lilicrty, ISiy. 

About \6 miles south of this, uear Freiin* 
waldau Is 

CtoiUBOlMrs, on Austrian ground, where 

Vincent Priessnitz established the first Wafer Cure, 
or Hydropathic House; and where he died, 1861. 
His services are commenioraied by several tributes 
from gtutef ul patients. There is a similar house 
at Fteienifaldau. IMng la reasonable. From 

Digitized by Google 




th« GrSfoiiborK ii a fine pro»p«et of the Bictathal. 

The SelzdorfiT Cuvo is unutlier point of Interest 
From Brlcff the next larg^c station is 
Oppeln (Stat.), in Prussian Silesia ; the Sla- 

Tonic OppoUe. 
POPOLATIOSf, 19,000. 
Ixn. — Schwarzcr Adicr. 

An o\i\ wjtUi d town, on the Oder, in which is an 
island called Taftrhclie, or Wilhelmstbal, laid out 
AS a |Nirk, and jotned to boCIl baiilci by three 
brldjefl. Here are an old Catholle Chnrch, on the 

site of one founded by St. Adallicrt. ?>59; and a 
rr.jtcstant Church, which belonged to the 

The dttth Is a large old loat of the Dukes of 
SUesIa, ono of whom was Nleholaa II., beheaded 

at Neis-c. for bis cruolty. 

Poiinh l)«.coaies now the vernacular language. 

Ou tbo right bank of the Oder, close to the 
town, to the station the Obersehleslsefae rail- 
way; and in the nelghbonrhood are a steel and 

iron goods factory, at Kanigshuld ; and larpc Iron- 
foundrir-g and worksh tjw at M.ilapanc. From 
here a line is oi>en via Qross StXdlllitS to Blott- 

iiits» Mt, Polikf«twduuii<for01iiwttaX 

Beuthen, towards Cracow. Another line, opened 
1889, runs ihrAv,«?h Carlsruhc o ?^ to Namslau. 
A third line runs through Schiedlow to Noiflse 
(see preceding page). 

OOBOi, or XMl (Itat) 

PorauTioN, 3,80u. 

A small strongly-fortfftcd town, liavinf* a monu- 
ment to Gen. Neumann, who defended the place 
In 1807. Near it arc Annaberg, and a Pilgrim's 
ehapel; and the Castle of Sdilawendiltsbeloni^ig 
to Prinoe Hohcniuhc. Rail through Katibor to 
Annabor- mvI Oderberg (below). For the 
route to Cracow, via Glclwitz, sec also below. 

BATIBOB (Stat.), in Upper Silesia, English 
miles fron CoseU 

FoFlTLATioy, S0,7S$. 

IIOTBL.— Piinc Vfin Prenssen. 
A town on the left bank of the Oder, which here 
l)^^^^ nav!-:iidc. It eoiitalns seven churches, 

and an old r.-i'-fU . 

The stations on the line from Cosel to Oder'* 
berg, on the Vienna and Cracow line, arc as 


Annaberg ..*...,«*..• 38 

Oderbcrg M| 

Vlouoji.................. 201 


Cosel to 
Hammer .«...«...«.. II | 
Neudaa «•••••*•■••••.•■ 
Ratlbor 90 

This Is the direct rente from Dreslan to Vienna. 

At Batllwr JtmottflB are branohes cast and 

^rc8t. That to the west passes 

!i morwitz 10 ; Leobschata ............ ^ 

i hat to the east pastes 

Nieolal •••••»•*•»«.•• 49 
Kattowlts ............. ;i| 

Nendsa 5} 

CzcrnltJS ifi 

llyhnik 224 

at the junction of the lines to Cracow and Warsaw. 

COOlWltS (Stat), in Upper Slleebi. 

POFCLATIOK, 90,000. 

Inn. — Dcutschcs Haus. 

A well built town, on the Klodnitz. ontiinin? 
a church of the twelfth century, and iron found- 
ries. In the neighbourhood are large eoni mines, 
and veins calamine. A canal of 04 mll«s Joins 
the Klodnitz to the Oder, which forms the bovDdnry 
between Prussia anil Austria. 

An extension from here to Schvnentochlowitt 
was opened 1875. 

KOnlgOllUtte stands aiuuii^ large foundries, 
sbic works, and coal mhies. The bnUdUis of the 
foundries and the principal funiaees are iu the 
Gothic style. 

Xoar thp Myslowitz. at KattOWltZ, on th5 
Prussian side of the boundary, between Silc»ia 
and Austria, the rail parts oil to Cracow and War- 
saw; the former belonging to Austria, the latter 

Digitized by Goo^k 




Tlie capital of thp klnq^doiii of liuN ai la. 
rorLLATios.:M8,317, uk.mIv R -iu m Catholic. 
Hotels.— Grand Hotel Comuu ntal. Well situ- 
ated, ficlog UMimnUm Fftric. Lt/t El«ctrto 

Hotel dee Qnetre Beieoiis. 
Hotel do Bftvftro; boantirui sltoetlon on ttio 
PromciMdo Plats. 

Hotel Lchifcldor, well sltnntcl on MaximUlen 
gqtmrc, central for businew or p'casttre. 
Hotel Zum Achats. 


Very oomfoitablo and roeooiinended. 

Hotel duRhIn; Dom Hotel; Belle Vue. 
PtNsiosi.— Sec Bradthau'M Coniinetifal Oiiidf. 
OuNiBCBES from UoteU to the Station, 7 opt to 

DitoscuxK.— 1 or 2 iiereone qtiartcr-boar,M l>f. ; 
haJf-hour. 1 murk. Only room for 3 porsoti'* 

KtAKEU (or two-h«r»e carriage;— 1 to 4 persuns, 
fur i hour, Im.; i hour, 2iu. Kxtra at night. A 
|irinted tariff 1» to be ieen In all the carriage*. 

Valet de Plaob.— Uieful to ttrangora. Apply 
at the hotel. 

RKSTAURANTfi. — Mayer. See BraMuue's Con- 
Hnental Guide. 

Muntcb It tnit of Caf^s and beerhoatee. Ite 
btc r is celebrated. Hour far dinner, 12 o'clock. 

Post Ofkh-k. -Mux J<»*iophsplat«. 

TcLEQBAPR Office.— Balinbofsi^latz. 

Bxouan CmcmCK Sbrtick.— On Bnnday, moni^ 
iBff and afleraoon, In the Odeon, 

Rkkidekt PinrsiciAifa. ^ See AvMUtow^t CVm* 
tinmtQl Guide, 

EzHiamoai of Flue Arts, opposite the Glypto- 
tbek; idetnres for m!o. Adnliaion, 80 pf. 

TuKATBF.s.— Hof-Thcutcr for opera, MnximiUnn 
strasse: Uesidenz-Tboater; KUniglicbes Tiieatcr, 
in Gartner Piatz, 

CoxvxYAMCKS.— Ball to Augsburg, Bamberg^ 
Leipsic, Berlin, Dresden, Paasan, Prague, Inns- 
bruck, Salzliur?, Vienna, Stuttg-art. Frankfort, 
Ulm, Ha'^lc. &c. The station \h near CarNplrstr on 
the western side of the city. [See iiradshau$ 
CotUiiKittat Guide, For the BaTarlan Highlands, 
under the Tyrolese Alps, see Bontes 19, 49, and 51.] 

Principal Sights. Royal Palace (Fcst Saalbau), 
daily (except .Sunday); (ilyptothek, or sculptnre 
gallery, Mundtiytt, Wednesdays, and Fridays; Old 
nnaeothck, daily, except Saturday; New PInaco- 
tbek, Sundays, Tuesdays, Thursdays, Saturdays ; 
Bronze Foundry, daily; Bavarian Lloii, daily; 
Cathedral, ami St. Boniface, daily; Royal Library, 
dally, except Sunday. Sec the daily paper "Tagcs 
Ansetger for list of public exblbitlone, and times 
of opening. 

Hunicll, ill South Germany, the capital of the 
Bavarian kln^^doni. and of the province of Upper 
Bavaria, (stands un the left or west bank of the Isur, 
on a plain, about 1,680 feet above the sea. It haa 
a aomewhat cold (oceaakMially intensely oold* 
and c!imi'._'cahle cllrantc, hut the nlr Is pure, 
and at tiinesi clear enough to give a view of 
the distant Tyrolese Alps. Before the Dvkea 
of Bavaria settled here. In the middle of the 
thirteenth century, the site belonged to a monas- 
tery; hence thf GomiBn name. M^mchen, while 
a monk figures in the city arms. The klngUum 
of Bavaria, called Baterm In Gannan, and l^ing 
aontii of the Xahi, numbers a population of five Md 
a half millions, and occupies parts of Frnnconia 
and Swabla (8.), with the Upper Pfali (Palatinate 

Digrtized by Google 

I3i BRADftBAW'ft 

round Regensborff; and the Palatinate or Rh<?nbh 
navnria, a d« f ;v-bf>(i portkm on the VMl eideoitbo 
Rhine, of which ^plro" Is thf h«ad. 

Muuicli is a iiandsomc luoluug towu; iia^ing 
Mme old houses near the Uakn Flste, and sevenl 
good streets and squares tn the modem aeetloii. 
It is divided Into the Grnggenauer, Anger, Kreuz, 
and Hnkcn quartern, within the site of the old 
ramparts which were razeU in 1791; their place 
being marked bj six or seven Oatee. Beyond 
these« are the snbnrbs of Sciiltnfeld, Maximilian, 
Lndwijr, Tsfir-Vorsf ITaldhausen, and tho An. 
The last two fnrni n haiidsonic town of themselvei, 
on the east 8id(> of the river, and are Joined to the 
nuUii portion hf three Bridget, two of whteh tra* 
verse the Prater, a Ion; green Island In the stream. 

The BiiDOKt (BrOcken), are Lndwtgs Brttcke. 

nrar tho Cavalry liarracks; a »tnnc hrldg^e on five 
arches, feet loriT. huilt by Probst, and Klcnzc, 
1823-'i8. Tlie Reii henbach Bridge, of wood, 67-5 
feet long, in the south of the city, near the Aner- 
kir«he. Maximilian BrO^ across the Prater, 
from Maxlmltiau-straMe to the KaxImlUanettra. 

In an artiRtic point of viow Mi.nlt h is n iuuik- 
able for the exctdlcnco oj it^ puMic cniU ctlnns and 
boUdiags, many of which are due to its former 
sovereign, Ludwli? or Louis I., the ez-king, who 
abdicated 1^8 and died 1868. When Crown Prince, 
he hcK'an, itotli l>y lii^i cxatiii'l'' nvd purse, to stimu- 
late the arts of sculpturo, paintinfr, luid building, 
fresco work, and glass painting to 8uch a degree 
as to make this town the artistic school of Qennany , 
where the best masters In every branch are now 
to be ftmnd. Horc the mruloni works of ComeltttS, 
^chwanthuler, and Hc&se, can be studied. 

Ludwigs-strasse (Louis Street) is by far the 
finest iu Mufiich. It extends from the relUherru- 
halle (Halt of Field Marshals), near the Bestdcms 
or Palscc, to the Slogesthor Gate, and contains 
Home of the }u'M Intildin^'s, as the Odeon, Duko 
Max « Palace, the Public LUuary. Blind School, 
Ludwig's Church, tho University, ^c, all built on 
a fegttlarplan, and offering some striking eflfoets 
in the eveiMng lights^ from their harmuniouK forms 
and colours. These, with the Rcsidonz Thoatre 
the Grlyi>tothek, «pd I'iuacothek, and the uew 
Churehes are the most striking ohjecta In Monleh. 

The chief architect employed was Klenze, the 
builder of tho Olyptothek, War Office, Odeon, Pina- 
oothek, Ailorheiiigcn Cburdi, BazaAr and Arcades, 
the KOnlgsbau and Festban, Prince VmCb and the 
I«ea«bta8ibefg Psiaces, and the Post Office, besides 

smaller WOrk^ lii twopn 1816 nnd 1«34. Cnrtncr 
waR the architect of the Ludwip: Churcb. Public 
Librarj-, Blind School, Isar Gate, Georgianum, and 
the Damenstlft Instltitte, 1890-W. Fleeher built 
General Hoqdtal and the Theatre, 181 3 2r,. Zleb- 

Idtid built St. Church Anion?: 
the artists employed were Hchwunthaler.KUmlbach, 
Schnorr, Zimmermann^ and HesA. 

FMtm the MdsBn vrheie Ledwlg^straase endn, 
a newer street called MaxInUlian-strasse, was 

opened in 1854, down to the T-^ir, in the din rtii.n 
of the bridge over the Prater, and the Maximi- 
lianeum College beyond. This street contains the 
Oove mm ent BnlldfaigB (Begfermqpi'GeMiiide), 
f aeed by flalUg^s Statne of General Deroy, and 
Brupger's Statue of ScheMlng. 

Hquares akd MoxrMENTS. In Max Joseph's 
Piatt la the large eittiug bronze of KingMaximi- ' 
lian Joseph, by RIense and Bench, «ammenoed in 
19H, the twenty-fifth anniversary of his reign, and 
flnisbed in 1^^^>. He is represented as gmntinip the 
Constitution to liis people. 

in the Oikon Platz. — The equestrian statue of 
Kbig Lndwig I., by Widnmann (IMS), suiTomided 
by symbolical figures of relief Industry, poetry, 
and art. 

Carciinm tUttt.— Tho bronze ( )l)elisk,1>y KJeuze, 
ion feet high, to the ^>,0UO Bavarians who fell in 
the Ruiilan war. Erected 1888. 

MmieuSule (Marian PiUarX near the Rathbaua, 
a stntue of the Virgin, erected by the £lcctor 
Maxiiullian I., 1088. 

Wittehbach Piatt.— The equestrian statue of the 
Bleetor Maximilian L, by Thorwaldsen. Pol up, 
1839. Cast from cannon taken In the Oght at 

WeiSSe Berp'. 1^20. 

Proinenadin Platz. — Statue of KurfUrst Majt 
Emmanuel; Westeniieder. Glnck, by Schwan- 
thalcr, 1849. Orlando di Lasao (or Boland Lattre). 

the composer, who died at Munich, erected 
^><iS) Chancellor Kreltmayr, compiler of the 
Bavarian code, erected by Schwaiitbaicr. 1646. 
MaaekMUm m«.*«tatua ol Scblller. 

Digitized by Goo^I 


lie, an arcade in the atyf^ y^^|,hrt i 


tb« ttreets, which are decked with 

" ->r the last time. 




tS PWR thn.iif:li 
•RKliiuK the f»'et> 
e 1 1« rk»lcs Suul 
lar perforninnctf 



in Maximilian 
el, iiiiisheil 18CC, 
flourB. Here 
ce, nn<l other 
Srtun; iiuludini,' 
2a r veil ceilingt., 
toi)ostry, etc.. 
lift- and liistory 
days excepted; 
■3^ (tximHianeHm, 
f^tsn in the city, 
torical events of 
8. Wednesday 


feasors of the University in their robes, all the 
guild* and religious brotherhoods with their 
banners an«l flngB. take part in a grand procession 

Pol ace (Schloss) 
^w^'fi*»l<?nz, the new 
•tsiuilbau; parts 
iixx. Theatre, tba 
ten, Ac., and ex- 
^ ^-trr' '*' ««: I and the Post- 
•^s t rasse. 

1^ Itliiifr, about 500 

^ aulomed with 

'•^^t the modern 
Saalbati. It 
V IVtcr Candid 
Maxnillian I. 
the Kai^cr- 
'**»it»ibof Courts 
'^^''mzes. In the 
'^^> is a copy of 
^<-dusa'8 Head. 

the Brunueii 
^oii chain, 
^^to wall. These 
explains, of the 
• 'J'ho Rrunnen- 

hoi contains a staiuc o. uiuu ^Vitt.lsbaeh. bv 
P. Candid. Another C"urt, co.u«i,.j „ fountain, 
will. Neptune and other fig^^^^ ^^^^^^ 



wand BegeiMburg ; aiidth^ i diatiiuite or Rh enhh i The chief arghtt ant eumloved 

Rhine, of whioh Sjilr*- ' 

.Munich Is a hju. 
«oinp o!ff hoit«<f's nea: 
goud streets and tqi 
It is divided into the 
Md Haken qnarten 
r.impnrts which war 
hcin» marked by si 
thcjie, are the subiir 
Lndwlg', Isar-Vorsta 
The last tiro fomiil 

on the east side of tb ' ' 

lualn portion hy thr< 

verse the Prat*-)-, a lo * 

The BR1POK8 (Bi-U 
near tbe Cavalry burr 

archet, 280 feet loiigr« 

1823-28. The Relcbe 

ft-et long. In the soutti 
klrcUe. Maximilian 
from Maxlniillun-stri^* 

In an urtiHtic poli*^ 
Able for tbe excellcn 

balldings, many of ^ 
Boverelpi, I.udwlj* o** 
abdicati'il !S4S mid di*?** 

he begun, buih by hi» * 
late the arlR of aculp' 
fresco work, and glia^^ 

as to make th!*< toTcn t 
wh<TC the l>est inastf^i'*' 
to be found. Ueicih<?* 
8ohwantha)er, and Hcs* 

Lndwlgs-ilraase (l>o* 
finest In Knpleh. Itext 
hftlle (Hall of Field M^i 
or Palace, to lh« Slefe'* 
tone of the best builUiJ 
lUx's PnUse, tbe Fnbll 
Lodwlf's Church, tbr 
a regular i>lan, and 
In the evening lig' 
and colours. T^ 
the .aiyptothel^ 
Cburehea are tl 

[Sec. n. 

< ■ 


uoancciior Krcituiayr, compiler pf |b* 
Bararian eode, erected by flcbwantbaler. 
JTMrMiflNi M«.^atne ef Seblller. 

Digitized by Goo 

Jlonte ^9.] 



FtJdh' n^halle, nn arcndo in the stylo of the 
Loggia dti Laiizi, at Florence. Statues of Tilly 
Md Marshal Wrede. 

Bttlmmlmll*, and tbe eolOHsl AiMrte. 

GATM^-^egMthor (Giit« of Victory), a otopy of 
lie Arch of Const un tine, at the top of Ltt<l^gt> 

Isarthor, a (juthic pile. KarUtbor. 
Aasntbor. ]|«ztbor. 
8ondllng«rtlioB» mot the Infiniuufy > 

Prop}'Iroa. a Doric ^Mte, by Klenze, 1836. 

The Reitschuh\ or ^Inr'^tall for the royal stud, 
^ the Palace, is an Italian building, auo feet by 
Ofeet, ereetedl822. 

A little to the eeat of the Au Chorah ta the Kriti 
nren'An$Mt or Diitrlot Aqrlnn. 

The Oetreidehane, or Granary, is a long pile 
Jtween the Angerthor and Provision Markft. 
Among the manufactures here arc gold and sitrer 
|>rk, broiute articles; paper, since 1837; optical 
ktnmienta, at e factory estabtlshed by Franen- 
Ifer; ^cer nf Tsrlous kinds. The factory for 
a««« painting' Is the (rliisinalcroi Aiistalt, or 
Gained Olass Instituiion, near the (Jlyptotbek. 
Ithography was faiTented here by fleiinefeldcr, 
id la eaftled on a» it branch of art. 
Jiararian Bfer.—This is celebrated- There are 
trions iriads for the gratillcation of the con- 

The Munich Bockbier is sold at the Bockkeller, 
tittle Unns Straase, from 1st Hay until 
^ festival of Corpus Chrlsti. It contains few 

^ but plenty of malt. The SalvatorbJor \^ 
ink the lirst week in April, in the Zaclierkcller in 
isu^urb. Tulzcr Bier, and the white Gerstca- 
I (barley beer) ; with other yarietiea. 
)iST^ALa.-'The Carnival (FascMng) is observed 
\ with Its nppriipriate nninsements of drlnkiiig. 
»fng, and shuotlnfr,- the lf»<<t near the Karl«;thnr. 
tiring th*^ Carnivul court balls are given at the 
ee, which may be witnessed by qieeiators 
• a gallery. Tickets are obtained hy private 

1 Corpus Christi, the royal fnrailr. the pro- 
li^rs of the University in their robos, all the 
I^p4e and religious brotherhoods with their 
; and flass. talte part in a grand procession 

througli the streets, which are decked with 
dowors. Bofkltier is now drunk for the last time. 

Oii Maundy Tiiursduy tbe king goes througli 
the ceremony of Posewaeohnng (washing the feet) 
and feeding twelve old men in the Herlcales Seal 
at the Pahiee. in imitation (tf a stmllarperformanee 

at Rome by the Pope. 

Bavarian I^ationaj. Musuvk, in MaximiUaii 
Straase, a long building by RIetschel, finished 186tf» 
containing above 40 rooms in two floors. Here 
are Roman, Gothic, Renaissance, and other 
objects, like those at ^uth Kensington; including 
many casts, stoned wli^wa, carved oeOlogs, 
pottery, weapons, eostumee, tapeetry, etc, 
cspc t'ially illustrative of Bararionlifc and history 
Open daily (I mk.), 9 to 2, Mondays exf epte i; 
Thursday free. Beyond this, is the MaxitmUatunm^ 
one of ilM meat eonspicuom bnUdlage in the ctty, 
contaiahig M toMpalntUigs of historical event* of 
nil n^rcs, with portraits and btists. Wednesday 
and Saturday, 10 to 12, free. 

BoYAi. Palaces. — The Koyal Palace (.Scbioss) 
constats of three parts, the old Besldais, the new 
Realdens (Konigsbau), and the Festsaalbau ; parts 
of a vast pile, inclnduig the Residenz Theatre, the 
Allerheiligen Hofkirche, Hof Garten, Ac, and ex- 
tending from Max Josephs Flatz and the Fost- 
Ofllee to Odeon Flats and Ludwlgs^tnuse. 

The (HdRetident is a plahi building, abont COO 
feet long, with two Doric porticoes, ndoracd with 
bronze statues. It stands between the modern 
wings, or the New Reaideuz and the Saalba\i. It 
was begun In IttMt, from designs by Peter Condld. 
or Vasarl, and was finished 161G, for Maxmilian I. 
liebind arc three or fonr eoints. viz., the Kai«cr- 
hof, Ktichcnhof, Capclien, and Brunnenhof Courts, 
ornamented with fountains and bronxes. In the 
Grottrahof, on the right of the Capellenhof, 
containing a fanciful shell-prrotto, is a copy of 
B. Cellini's Perseus and tlie Merlusa 's Head. 
Under the arch of the gate, near tbe Brunueii 
court, a large stone hangs on an iron obaln, close 
to three large nails driven Into the wall. These 
are memoriaH. as an inscription explains, of the 
bodily stren^rt)i of former iirinccs. 'i'he Brunnen- 
hof contains a statue of Otho von Wittelsbuch, by 
P. Candid. Another eourt, containbig a foi)ntaif>» 
with Neptune and other llgnree, leadf to th^. 

Digitized by Goo 



[Sec, 3. 

Nibelutigen-SHle (■«« page l>7). Viiiton ammble 

In the HtTCules Sual. 

in itie upp«r storey «r« th« foUowliig room*— the 
lUlaerslmmer (Emperor^* Boom), vblefa the 
Kmperor Charles VII. inhnhitcd. and later, King 
Mnxlmlllon Joseph I. The Dlning-rooui. Stauini- 
bauoi, an Ante-Chamber, with family portraits. 
Audience Chamber, with twelve portnlta of 
Roman Emperor*. The Grane Qallerie (Ofeon 
Gallery) with painilnisa by Dutch and Italian 
master!! Bed-room, with its richly embroidered 
curtains, which cost 800,000 gulden. Splegelkabi- 
net (Mtmir Boom) with costly gold and ailver plate 
and candelabm. lUnlatnrenkabinet, containing 
A St. Jerome, by Albrecht DUrer. The Hficulos 
lioom, attd the Grecian Room adorned with Floren- 
tine mosaics. 

The SdMdmmur (TnaeuT) open Tuesdays 
and Friday!, 9 to 11 o*clock. Tickets, 1 martc. 
It contains several crowns of lii'-torifal note, and 
many jewels of great worth. Among them a blue 
diamond in the order of the Golden Fleece, weigh- 
ing 36 oamta, the famous Palatinate Pearl, half 
white, half black; and the small equestrian statue 
of St. George and the Dragon, consisting entirely 
of gold, pearls, diamonds, and agates. 

Hchime or Reiche Kapelle, — This richly adorned 
Chapel, founded ie07, by ItaxImQlan I., U open 
Monda.yiandThtursdnys,9totl o'clock, and is deco- 
rated throughont with omanientsand rcliraii n i^s 
in gold, silver, pcnrls, jasper, amethyst, and other 
precious stones of great valne. The ceiling is of 
lapis lasttll, the iloor of marble and verd antique ; 
the walls are entirely of Florentine mosaic. The 
:i!tnr 1^ by B. Cellini. Notice a portable altar 
which belonged to Queen Mary Stuart; and a wax 
relief by Michael Angelo, the Descent from the 
Urost. Tleketa at the Oberhofmelsteramt. 

The KosiosBAU, or the New Resident, built by 
Kinjr Lndwig, is a modern work, deigned by 
Kienze, begun 1826, and finished 1880. It form!) a 
southern wing to the old Palace, with a face to- 
wards Max Joeeph*a Plats, 406 feet long, fronted 
by the Post Office. It Is In the massive style of 
the PItti Palace at Floi*ence, in three storeys, 
marked by pilasters of different styles ; the base- 
ment flOOT la OB arohea, and there are paintings 
ever the middle. The aeulptvnw and pataithiga of 

the interior a'e all by mudeni artUls— Schnorr, 
Zlnmiermami, Kaulbach,Schw<inthaIur, Ac. During 
the presence <tf the court, aeeces to only permitted 
on certain days and hours, of which information 
must be oljtnlncd beforehand. Of late the iiermia> 
sion has been suspended altogether. 

Visitors generally assemble in the black chami>er 
(Schwarzer Sual) ; two marhieatatnaseslMd past 
the private apartments of the King and Queen to 
a hall adorned with allegorical figures of the eight 
Circles of the Kingdom, by Sthwanthaler. Here 
are certain public rooms, styled the King s and 
Qneen*a Apartmenta, contaiBlng severalnotloeable 
works as under mentioned. 

1. Kinit* ApaHmeHiU--^Xai\\Qi of Nemesis and 
[ Nik ' Apteros. The subjcctn are from Greek 

writers. In the first antc-rtK>m are the Argonautic 
Expedition, from designs by Sdiwanfhaler. The 
walls are scagliola. 

2nd Ante-room.— Reliefs in encaustic from the 
IK>ems of Hesiod, and the Shield of Hereulps from 
drawings by Schwantbaler. Service Zimmcr with 
palatini^ from Homer, by Schnorr, all over the 
walla and ceUing. Itls SSfeetaquare. Speiaesaal 
(Dining-room), thirty-four paintings from Ana- 
creon, by Zlnimermann ; It is behind the Throne- 
room. Throne-room, 58^ feet by 3^4 ; with friezes 
in plaster, on a gold ground, by Schwantbaler. The 
subjects are from Pindar. Various moutdlnga and 

Rt'ception-room — Twenty-four paintings from 
the tragedies of .<£iichylu!t, in encaustic and fresco, 
by Schwantbaler. Schtelbshnmer, Twenty-one 
subjects from Sophocles, by Schwantlialer; painted 
by Rockel and Hanson. 

Dressing-room.— Twenty-seven subjects from 
the comedies of Aristophanes, by Schwantbaler. 

Bedroom.— With picture* from Theocrltna, by 
SchulaeandBm^mann; partly from design* by 

2. Queen's A/.artnunts. The subjects of tlie 
frescoes are from German authors. 

1st Ante-room.->8oene* from the po«n* of Wnl- 
ther von der Vogelweide, in fresco, by Gasseii. 

2nd Ante-room.- Scenes from Parslval Ton Wol« 
fram, in fresco, by Herruiaim. 

Serrlcesfattmer.— Twenty encaustic palnting^a 
from Bttrger^s poems, by Ph. Folts. 

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ThronsRal.- Swncs from Klopstock's poems. In 
encaustic, by W. Knulbacb. 

Salon d«r KOidgin.— FrIesM from Wleland** 
Oberon, by Nottreuthcr. On tb« walla, subjects from 

Wieland'sMusnrion and Die Grazicn, In* Kaulbach. 

Bedroom. Thirty -six '^f'<"r?es froni Giictbc's 
|)Ocms, painted in fresco, by Kaulbacli. 

Seiifribximmer.— Twenty-two paintings, from 
8eblllflr*8 poems, by Ph. Foltx and Llndenschmidt. 

Library. — Paintings from Tleck's poems, by 

3. Ill the Upper Pavillion are:— 

The Ball-roatn—vi- iih encaustic paintbigs, by 
HUtensperger and Ansehtttx. It U 6S feet by 87, 
with ciren1«r ends. Next to tt, tbe Blumensaal or 
Flow r Room, C? feet long, opening on the oast 
' terrace. Convcrsatiouszimmcr, with landscapes, 
by Bottmon, and plMtor relief s, by Sciiwantbaler, 
relating to tbe mythology of Yeniis. 

Four or five rooms on the ground floor, called 
yibelitngiu Sale, contain scries of reprcscntatinns 
from the >ilbelungenlicd, an aixcicnt Germun 
I>ocni, painted in fresco, by Schnorr and bis 
pupils. In the small entrance room are Siegfried 
and Cbricmhilde or Kricmhilde, his wife, with 
other chief persona'^es of the story, lii the second 
r«ioui, the most important epochs of Siegfried's 
life. In the third, the betrayal nt Siegfried. In 
the fourth, Chriemhllde's Bevenge. In the fifth, 
the Nibelunpen Lament. 

The NibclungensHte and the Fesuaulbau arc 
open <m week-days at II ; 60 pfennig. 

The Saauav, or Fetttaalbmt^ » whig of the 
Talace deri^gncd to be used on fcstirc occa.sions, 
is 11 Ions' range, built by Kieiize, in the Iloiiuiii 
style of Pnlladio, extending about 800 feet in 
front of the iiofgtuten. At the ends are tbe old 
Tower, In which l>nke Christopher the Strong 
was couflncd, andthe now Ilall of the Fieid-)(ar- 
shals. In tbe middle is au Ionic Portieo on eiglit 
columns, adorned with figures of Victory, medal- 
lions, lions, and eight allegorical statnea for the 
•Ij^t provinoea of the kingdom, by Sdiwanthaler. 

Two statroasea lend through tbe ante-room into 
the reception room, and Iprpp Ball room, with 
reliefs by Schwanthaler. Two Cardrooms, cailed 
ZUnmer der Schiiaheiton, are adorned wiibpor- 
tnata of bemtlCU wcmMi, letidiiita at th« capital. 

S Y . — aii:S-ICU— PALAC E6. 1 37 

1 Next the Schlachten<uiRl (Hattle Room), with 
U oil paintings of battles, by F. Hess, Adaw, 
KobeJl, Monten, representing scents In the cam- 
pnigusof 1605-15. 

Three moms nrc styled Kmperor's Rooms, or 
Kaiscrprf!-" "I'he Saal Karlsde* Qroxifn bassix largo 
wail painuugb from tbe life of Ciiarlcmagno, and 
19 smaller ones In the frieze. The BaTbaro$$a 
SitaS^ dedicated to the Emperor Fred. II., con- 
tains six Will! paintings, from Frederick's life, and 
4 small ones of Bavarian history. The frieze, 
by Schwantlialur, represents the Emperor at the 

The Ht^pAurger Saal has four large wall paint- 
ings. In the frieze is the Triumph of Art, Science, 
and Coounerce, from 8chuorr's designs, executed 
by Schwind. 

Both aides of the Thron* Room, also called 
Ahnen Snul (Hall of Ancestors), which is 110 feet 
Ion?, arc lined with (galleries, supported by ten 
Corinthian pillars, between which are twelve gilt 
colossal statuea of the house of Wlttelabaoh, by 

In the six rooms on the gronnd floor are wall 
paintings from the Odyssey, each room containing 
four books, by Schwantlialer and Hiltenspcrgcr. 

The Odysseum Is dosed at present. 

The Hofgarten (Royal garden), north of the 
Residenz, is a quadrangle, 1,000 feet by 700 fct t. 
planted with trees, liaving open Arcades on the 
nurtii and west Hides, with several cafds. 

In the portal Is a BaToria, with four colossal 
Blver Gods, symbolical of the Danube, Rhine, Isar, 
and ?>TaiT-,, 1 y Kaull>ach. There arc sixteen frescoes, 
by .Siunner, Fiirster, Zimmcnuami, Schilgcn, 
descri|ttive of scenes from Bavarian campaigns. 
The Dasaar fnmt, facing the Odeon is In the 
lUlian style, with CorinthUin pilasters, by Klenze. 
Smaller frescoes, by Rottman. relative to Italian 
scenes. Another row of small subjects taken from 
the Greek war of Liberty, are by Hess. Here was 
the old Pictura GaUery, the contents of which 
have been removed to the Plnacolhek. 

The Ethnographical Jiuseujn, in the Arcndeu. — 
Sundays and Wednesdays. 9 to 1. This include* an 
ivory cabinet, of about 400 articles; the Brazilian 
collection, tha East Indian, Chineee^ and Japanese 
collaetioiMi tha BrasUiaa and MaxteaneoUectlona; 

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made by various trarellcrt auU baugtit by the king. 
Tbea^are dlBplAyediaMven mdom, ihi«Bgb which 
mnW* of woflleat and modirabvildiag*, and other 
work* of «rt are distributed. Entrance free. 

Among'thc irorr work is acrndfix, hyM.Anjrelo; 
another by l>iirer ; a St. Sebastian by Flamingo. 
Khrtile eopiM of M temple nUns, of Helddberg 
C*atle» 8aU«at'a Boue in Pompeii; vtu»l9 and 
ornaments from Etmacan grave!) ; Chinese and 
Indian ^'ods in luarljle, metal, ami i>orcelain. 
Chlaate palutiugs aiul portraiiSf spleudld ft^atlitii- 
onunwBtefreii BfaA,4ntkioi hnmt^Ut home by 
Cook and Knueutem to their yoyagea romid the 
world, ronmrkablo weapons. In tho hasrmcnt 
Btorey is 8teiger.vfi!f!'^ jj-!ass warohonse. witli the 
Baxaar, abopa, aud caies, which iuive two entraticct^. 
Here is also the AMMfvmwin (Art Union) or Exhi- 
bition of the works of llvlnit u^lsts; open dally, 
10 to fi, except Saturdiiys. Admission, oncf {rratls, 
on applicntion to the Secretary. Pour weeks' 
tickets, 2 marks. 

OnNMtte the Betaar, iti Odeon Plata, is the 
Boyal OdteM, ballt by Klenae, and opened 1828. 
The principal room is 124 feet by 71 feet, nnd 50 
feet hiph, and Is used for concerts, balls, and for 
English Church Service, on Sunday. The celling 
has f^esooes by Kanlbadi, Ansehflta, and Eberie ; 
In the orchestra are marble busts of great com- 
posers. The extor?r>r9 of the Odeon and of the 
Palace of the Duke of Leuchtenber^ opposite, pre- 
sent tm iMB&ome uniform facades, of two storeys, 
on a Dorie basement. The gronnd-Aoor of the 
Odeon Is Tfed hy the IJterary Verein (Union). 

In flic Udeon Piatz 8tan<ls Wledmann's eques- 
trian Statue o/K. Ludteig J. (18«2); supported by 

Religion, Poetry, Art, and Industry. 
The Palace of the Jhike tf Leu^tuAerg, hnllt by 

Klenzo, 1817-22, now baUmgs to Prince Lultpold. 
I'hc picture gallery and marbles have been trans- 
ferred to St. Petersburg. 

Following Lndwiga-strasseyon first arrlte on the 
left at the 

Palace of Dttke Max, of Bayevn nirkenfold, Imilt 
by Klenze, 1828; a solid pile in the Florentine 
style, 206 feet by duO feet, having a three-«rch i 
door and -Dorie portleo in the f^t. The rooms | 
are richly decorated, espeeially the null-room, 60 j 
feetby4ft. Among the frescoes are the Uythalogy [ 

f>f Hercules by Langer; Cupid aud Psydne, by 
Kanlbach; with the praaealien of SfMehha, by . 
8diwanthaler« in the auHtOk fii^M* 

Further on the riprht Is the 

Ki'Up* Minuter iuin (War office), built bgr KieiiKC« 
in the Florcutiue style, with a f ront in Ladwigs- 
itrasse 848 feet long; ond a longer one In SohSn* 
feU Straase, 868 feet long, consisting of a centre 
and two wings. Next to this is 

The H<if and Staati-Bibliothek und Reichsarchic- 
OeMude (Court and State Library and Ar 
chives), in the BysanUne-Florcntine style, built 
1832-43, by Gartner, on n rustic It forms a 
rectangle, 495 feet long, 200 feet deep, divided 
into two nearly equal courts, by a handsome gal- 
lery. There are serenty-two windows In the fii^ado, 
which is 87 feet high, and finely proportioned. 

It Cftntain'? a handsome reading room, resting on 
pillars, and nearly eighty rooms for the books, which 
number 1,300,000 volnmes, or about 500,000 worlu, ' 
including duplicates and pamphlets, of which there 
are n frreat quantity. It was founded 1550-79, by 
puke Albrecht V. The number of MSS. amounts 
|o about 80,000, Including Orsek, 550; Oriental, 
tM; Hebrew, 818; Latin, 14,000$ Gterman, 4,1100 ; 
and Egyptian, 242. In the Clmclicnsaal are 
kept the works of jrreat antiquity adorned with 
illuminations, &c., and bound in gold, silver, andi 
preeiotlft stones. Thereare above U,00OIiiennabnla, 
or works printed in the Infancy of the discofeiy ; 
of which 4.000 are without date, and R.WO down to - 
the year 1600 are chronologically arranged. 

The earliest typographical enriosity hCW waa 
printed in 1464, in the old Cologne dialedt, ana 
contains a somiiMma, **]fannng,** to hm againM 
the Turks. 

Among the Archive* are many rare and valuable 
doenments, eolleotod from chuMhao and conTenta, ; 

including 100 folio volumes of the Thirty Years' 
Wfir Wock-(»nv^ to 12. Fee, 'vo pf to 1 mark. 

Further up the Htreet arc Lud»wig.sklrche and 
several dther bnUdlnga deserving notice, standing • 
opposite to it— as the Battenetilla-6eballde(I«dfea . 
Foundation School), a Florentine pile, by GHrtner, 
4 :K) feet long; the Blind institution, by Uartner, 
built 1883-6, with a fa9ade of 214 feet, and Statuea 
by Bberhard and Bangtdnetti, in the three p<ntalsi 
and thv. ncAv Sait and Bergamt4'0tbaUd9 (Salt and 
Mine Oai«e>, the front of which if i{}iai4 wilh rea. 

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inA Uiie bricks. B«]rond tlMse is a larL' q n adraii- 
gxHtiT Platz, adorned with two handsome Fountains 
wJth mttrM'' basins, Iraltnted from St. Tetcr's, at 
Rome, and surrounded hy the University Build- 
infi on tlM one tldA, and tiie Priests* Seminary <or 
Georgianam), with the Erzichunfrn Institute for 
Nohle Ladies, founded by Maximilian, on the 
other, and all in a uniform style. This fine street 
is terminated by the 

aU9«$Aor (Gate of Yictorr), Imllt IS49-M, In tbe 
Roman stylo, by Olrlner, a copy of the Arch of 
Constantlne. The relicf<4 are by WajnuT- the 
symbolical Statue of Bavaria, in n triumphal car. 
drawn by four Lions, is also by Wa^er. Outside 
this gate ii the AJkadmk dcr MMMn fAwfs, a 
hnn l^ome Greek pile, for the use of students in 
painting and scnlpture. Dally, 9 to 12. 

The Vnivertity was founded by Duke Ludwlpr 
the Btch at Ingolstadt, UTS. It was removed to 
LandAut by Kln^ ICml Joseph I., and to Munieh 
in In 18S5 it was remfnlelled, and now 

number about 70 profossorB and 1.400 itudents. 
The present building was crecteil by Giirtnt r, 1885- 
1840; In the Bysantine-norenttee style. Around 
the irlndows are medallion portraits of od i r ited 
men f>f 'j-f^nlns. with the arms of In;?<»lsitn<lt, Lund- 
shut, and Munich. In the Aula, or Hull, are 
Statue of King Ludwig, Ac, by Stieler and 
Schwtnthater, besides medallions of Bavarian 
Princes. Tbe I4brary contains 800,000 TOlumes. 

The AJcadefnie der WismisrJui ftm (Acadomy of 
Science) occupies for the ]irr'srnt the f>ltl Jesuits' 
College, in Neuhanser- street, near St. Michael's. 
Here are a fine eoneetlon of fbssils, probably one 
of the best In Em ; also a good mlneraloglcal 
collection, and a Zoological Cabinet; with Castt 
of the works of great sculptors. The tapestry is 
after Raphael's pictures at tlie Vatlean. 

The ikMitet of Ceitm tmd MeOal*, founded by 
Albert v., contains 20.000 Greek specimens. 
Admission: Sundays, 10 to li', Wednesdays and 
Saturdays, 3 to 4, but strangers can always gain 
adpitssion In the moraing. 

toliid the OdeoB Plats Is the Wittelsbacher 
Platz, In which stands the bronze equestrian stattte 
of the Elector Maximilian I,, the chief of the 
Catholic League in the Thirty Years* War. It was 
designed byTtaorwaldsen,aiid bears theinseHption 

"Maximilian I, ChttrfUrst of ftttarlrt. Erected 
by Ludwig I., King of Havsirlji, 1^>th Oct., 18S9." 
Near this, at tlie comer of Maximilian's Piatjs, Ia 
If fi]Ier*s statue of BehUhr, put up in lt68. 

The WftUUbfuker Falatt^ in Brieimer fttrasse, is 
in th9 Gothic style of the fourteenth and Hfteentli 
oentailtB, ftiisbed by Gilrtner and Khunp. In 1S50. 
It was the residence of Ludwlfr I , the creotor of 
modern Munich, who abdicated lu 1848. It I* 
280 feet by 240 feet,and 109 feet high. *• Wlttels- 
baqh** is the name ojf the reigning family to which 
tbe dukedom was granted, 1180, l y the Kniperor 
Fredei ic Barharossa. in t'ftr«>lineji I'luiz (acirclu* 
u an obuliskr 105 feet high, by Klcnxc, cast 
from guns taken hi the war. It has this inscrip<> 
tion: "To the 30,000 Bavarians who fell in the 
Russian wm- Erecte*! by Ludwig. Kinprof Ravaria. 
Finished in Oct., X83a. They died for the freedom 
of the Fatherland. ' On the left of Konigs Plats, 
beyond this, near St. Boniface Chiireb« U the 

Ximtt Mtd fndiulrtMnMUOmtifhOMuat (Ezhl- 
biUon Building), with a facade like the 

Glyptothck opposite. Over thr yvoHb o of twelve 
Corinthian pillars are fifteen marble ligurts, repre- 
senting "Bftvari*," who stands between two lh)i)!*, 
and gives crowns to the other fifures^vla., a 
sculptor, a workman with a bust of the kiug, u 
bronze founder, a medMlli^it. ;irehitfct, iiulnter. ttc. 
It Is used for the Perinaneut Fine Arts Exhibition 
of tbe Munieh Artists' Association. Op^n daily; 
summer, • tp 6; winter, 9 to St admlmlw, Mpf. 
Ona «f iha mnt intertpting places in th$ city. It 
conlains all the new productions in the several 
brRHphps ( f ni t, aiul llie admission of any work 
i>cing sui>ject to the approval of a jury of 21 o{ th« 
first artists, it Afronls tba b«il opportunity l«r 
m<^kittff direct pnrehases. 

The new Propyhra, clo'^e by. Is a Dorle pate- 
way. Imllt In lH;i<;, on which are reliefs, by Hctiwon- 
thaler, of the Great War of Independence. 

CnuucuES. — Tho Archbishop's Cathedral (a»i 
older Cathedral befaig at Frelsing) Is the Awhm- 
Hrdi* (Ouir Lady's), near the Promenade, one of 
the oldest and larprest churches in tbe elty, 
built 1468.14.f>4, of homely red brick, in the old 
German styte, by George Gankoffen, at the cost 
of IHifceBlglsmund. It was restored IMff. It Is a 

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vro%n oiHi feet lonj;, 180 feet broaU, 110 r««t hitgh ; 
th« two west towert, tach 856 feet blfli, ending in 
pear-tluiped copper spires. Th« portal lia» many 
sculptures of the fifteenth century ; and a sun-dial, 
with frescoes, )>y Schraudolph. The interior is 
lighted by thirty windows, 70 feet high, withbaau- 
ttful sCafiiad plafls, of the Oftecntb and sixteentli 
ceiitttrios. Prince Maximilian's Monument of the 
Kmperor Ludtrv; (Loui-) -^f Kavaria, by !T. Kruni- 
pcr, erected 1603-12, is^splendid mausoleum of red 
marble, with Agnres and omaaientsof bnmte. One 
A^ure In high relief represents the Emperor Lnd- 
wl,' in his coronation rohcB. On the north niid 
* .uth sides are two colo-^sal StatucH of Albert V. and 
Wilbclm v.; and at the comers arc four men In 
annour, bearing the standarda of Charlemagne, 
I.udwig the Pious. CharUs the Fat, and Ludwi;? 
I v. I'liderneath lie buried the Bavarian Princcn. 
from 1295 till 1628. In the Choir are many busts, 
c;irvfd in wood. Paintljtgs by Peter Candid, 
Caravagglo, and others, at the High Altar. From 
a spot near Bidiop Gebsattet's tomb, under the 
(•r?an loft, not oiu' of the thirty lofty windows 
can be seen. Here is the large Uaiuier taken, 1688, 
by Max Emanuel, from the Turks. 

JSt, MkhaOU O^HrdU, lormerlx the Jesnltc* 
CbnMh, la a large cross in the Bonian style, SO* ft. 

by 122, built 158S-95, by Wolfganp Mlillei. for 
Duke William V., in N'euhauser Strasse, The 
tower fell down while it was being btiilt. In a 
nioho. In the facade towards Neubanser Strasse, is 
a bKNUe Btatae of Bt. Michael, by p. Candid. The 
Interior Is very heiiullful, the lioor l>eing marble 
and the roof a tine broad curve, unsupported by 
Itillars. At the High Altar U Christopher Bebwars's 
Fall of the Wicked Angela. Other palottegs by P. 
Candid, Vlriani and Hans von Aachen. I'uder 
the Choir arc two totnf's of the Princes. Thor- 
wftl.lHcii i monument of Eugene Beauharnoi^ iiuke 
u( Leucbtenberg, in Canara marble, la a cfriossal 
flgvre of the formar Viceroy of Italy, supported by 
Genii and the Muse of History on each side of tlie 
door, in which r^ppenrs the motto. "Honneur ct 
Fld^Ut^." It was erected by hi* widow. On 
Suodaya and great ftativats there Is a grand 
serviee of elaasleal music at 9 a.m. 

TiHnitf Chutxh, which belonged to a Cnnnelltc 
nunnery, was built 1704^14, and is a rotunda, on 


^ eightaen Corinthian columns, with an Ionic facade. 

The TUmUm Ofttttvft of St. Oi^fm, near tbo 
Palace, is U cross in the Doric and Ionic styles, 

imitated from St. Peter's, at Rome. '.'40 feet by 182 
feet, built by A. liorclla, a Bolo^ia artist, for the 
Elect rcss Adelaide. It has a cupola on pillars, and 
a facade of much later date, added 1767, by Con- 
Tillers, a Frenchman. The piece has portraits 
of the foundress ami iier husband, with tluit of a 
Baron Slmon^ (in a ii^panlsh dress), and a Pied- 
montcse physician, whom the Prhieess loaded with 
honours. The family tombs are below, includbig 
tliose of the i:mi>cror Charles VII., Empress Amalia, 
Kin;.' Maximilian Joseph (1826) and his wife, Qtieen 
Caroline. The monuments of Prince Maximilian 
and Princess Josepha MftTimiMMi^ (died 1821) are 
by C. Eberbard, from designs of Queen CaroUne. 
The ]inintinprs on the other twelve nltars are by 
Ci-pjani.'I'inloretto, Zanchl, Ac. In tl>e .sacriHty is a 
beautiful work by HelnrichHes8,theliurial of Christ. 

St, Fieier't is a curious old Church, the oldest tn 
the town; It contains, amongst otbera, six old 
German paintings, by Werth, and commands,* fine 
view of Munich from its tower. 

The OrkcJiitche AirchftOT Greek Church, formerly 
St. Salvator, in the Prorisicn Market, near HaxI* 
mllian's I'lotz, watt built 14M» and ttpOO the 
ex-kuig Otho having,' been clectctj Kinp of Greece, 
was givtn up for the use of the Cireeka residing 
here. The communion plate was a present from 
the Emperor Nicholas of Bussia. The pahttlaga 
are by a modern Greek artist. 

The AUirheUigtn Kirche (All Saints) is the new 
Chapi>l Uoyal, at the Residenz. one of tbe i hurehes 
erected at the cost of the ex-king Ludwig ; t)uilt, 
1928-37, by KleiMe. It la in the Romanesque, or 
Lombard style, 145 feet long, by 108 feat broad, 
.md f^l feet high; and i» richly adorned with a 
profusion of marble, mosaics, paintings, and f^rild- 
ings. It is divided into three aisles, by pillars of 
Salaburg marble with gilt capitals. Tbo waUa, 
ceiling, and niches are covered with frescoes by 
Hess, on a gold ground. On one s,i(le tin- snhjeL-tn 
are from the Old Teatament; un the other from th«» 
New; whUa tluMO round the altar riioir th« 
connection betwecB the two. The music on Sunday 
morning'R and on feast day<i i<; excellent. During 
service, entrance only from the Bruuucnhof. 

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Kotite 39.J 

Lvdwigtlein^ Is Another of King liOdwlg** 
ehaiehet, in tbe Ludwig-»tras8c, between the 
Royal Library nnd the University, built of linie- 
stono. 18 >9-42, by Gartner; a rich and beautiful 
ftructure in the Romanesque style, 245 feet by 
160 feet and 100 feet blgb; the two towen arc 
209 feet. In the fagade arc Schwnnthalcr's statues 
of Chrht, the Evangelists, nnd Sts. Petrr and 
Paul, with a rose window and arabesques. The 
interior contains freieoet 1>7 Coniellttf. Kotlce 
ce{»eei«]ly the LeM JnO^nemt^i the altar, one of the 
terpevf picture* in the world, nearly 70 feet hi?h 
and 40 hnml. Beautiful stained windows, .md j 
wood carvings of H»iutH, with frescoes, by Fortner. 
In the Kreus Gang, or Garden behind, are the 
fourteen etations or shrines for pilgrims. 

ThBJMHeao/St. Btmiface, in Karl's Strasse, is 
one of the richest churches in Munich, founded by 
King Ludwig, 1835, to celebrate his Silver Wed- 
ding, or 25th anniversary of his marriage. It is on 
the model of a Roman Basilica of the Ith and Oth 
eentiifles, and of the old church of St. Paul extra 
muroi, at Rome; the architect being Lieblaud, 
who fiuisbod it 1850. St. Booifaco, to whom it is 
dedicated, was a Devmisbire man, afterwards the 
Apostle of Germany and Archbishop of Hayenoe. 
The church is 280 feet long, by 130 feet broad and 
86 feet high, and has an eight-column portico with 
bronze doors. The interior consists of a nave and 
fonr aisles, cHvMed by sixty-six pillars of Tjrro- 
leae marble; the waUs are scagliola marble, the 
pavement la insirblc mosaic, and the timber roof 
is blue, with gold stars. There are thirty-four 
medallion portraits of Popes, from Julius III. to 
Gregory XVI. The frescoes represent seeneefrom 
the life of St. Boniface, with other subjects from 
the lives of saints and martyrs, all by Hess and his 
pupils, Schraudolph, «bc. One of tbe heat altar- 
pieces is the Martyrdom of St. Stephen, in the 
erjrpt are tbe grares of tbe Benedictine monks of 
theadjoining Seminary. The Refectory has a large 
fresco, the Last Supper, by Hess. This church 
contains the sarcophagus of Ladwlg I., who died 
3068, and off his queen, Theresa. 

Tbe Pr9te^mt ParM CStarol, near the Karls- 
thor, is an ova], 143 feet hy 57 fept ; besrun 1827, 
finished 1833, from designs by Pertsch. It ha? a 
s'iuarc tower, a painted ceiling by K. Herrmaa, of 


the Ascension. The altar-pleee, tbe Cruciflxlon, 

is a present from King Ludwig. 

The Maria-IWf-Kirthe (Our Lady of Help), 
or the Auer Churchy in the suburb of An, is a 
modern reprodnetlon of old German Gothic bvllt 
I8Sl*d9, from designs by OblmUller, and standing 
alone in the Platz, to which it trives tifiine. Tt l<» 
240 feet long, 85 feet brond, 90 fei t high, of grey 
sandstone, except the nsve, which is of red brick. 
It has three portals, and a rose window with a 
tower, 390 feet high, adorned with open filn?rree 
work. The mosaic work l-^ coTored with coloured 
glass lilies. The interior is a tine Hjieciiitcn of 
modern German art, especially as displayed In the 
nineteen $Mned Wir^omn each of which cost 
10,000 florins. They are filled with events in the 
life of the Virgin Mary, in pxceedin>,'ly liennliful 
designs, fui-nistied by ScItraudolpU, Fischer. Kuben. 
and Kockl, and executed by Afaimllller, under the 
directloii ni Hess. The earrings in wood at the 
altars are by Schiinlaub, and in the chancel by 
Entres. Jetrs' Si/natjogiie, built Ir^'itJ, liy Metivier. 

Th.9 OlyptotHek, or Sculpture Gallery, 
Faces the KUniga Plata, and Is open in summer on 
Mondays and Fridays, from eight to twelve and 
two to four; Wedncsdnys from eight to twelve 
only. In winter the heurs are shorter. 

it is a noble square pile, 220 feet each way. and 
was built .1614»-80. by Klenae, for the late King 
Ladwlg, to hold the splendid eelleotion of marbles, 
mostly Greek, which he had began to make at his 

own '-"-t >^ hen frown Prince. 

It is an imitation of Ionic Greek iu style, with a 
marble front, resting on three steps which stretch 
the whole extent of the bnilding. The portico 
rests on twelve Ionic columns, eight of which are 
in front. It Is adorned with richly cut cornices 
and sculptures let into the hollow pediment Paiias 
Ergane figures as patroness of the Arts around 
her, symbolised by marble figures, desi^-iud by 
Wagner, and executed by Schwanthaler, ILiiler, 
Ac, in 183G. Among them are the clay-modcUcr. 
the statuary, tbe painter, wood-carver, potter, *c. 
In the pinnacle ts the Bird of lUnervs, supported 
by Sphinxes and a gilt lyre. 
In the six niches below nre bronze figures of 
I Vulcan, by 8ch5pf ; Prometheus md Phid'as. by 
\ ScliaUer : Daedalus, by Lassarinl ; Perldes and 

Digitized by Googie 



[Sec. 3 

Hadrian, by Leeb. Other niches in the front con- 
tain statues of Ghibcrtl, Donatcllo, P. Vbcher, 
M. Attgelo, Oiovauni da Bologna, B. Cellini, 
Caaiova, Tborwaldseii, Rauch, Teneraoi, Glbmn, 
Mild Schwontbalcr. 
The Thirteen Rooms are in chrouologicttl order, 
arc varied by colour, shape, dimensions, and 
. appropriuu onunenta. They are lighted bjr 
InneUes from the Interior courts, except thfe 
rotundas at the coniors, which are lighted by 
domes. The whole structure U described in thfe 
architect's EntwUrfe." 

A lofty bronze door lead* Into the veetlbDle,and 
thence on the left hand, through the sncoeMlTe 
rooms, beginalng wtth 

1, As.ii/Hcin Room. — Casts and reliefs. 

2. Efppfian /?cx)m.-(Aeg^yptiiichcr 8aal). Two 
m.ilc H^hinxes, of basalt. Two priesis in black 
mafUe. An AntiiMiu In rMto-dnticd. Obelisk 
with lOmt^tnUM, 19 feet hlgik. Ial» and Heraa, 
of blaeic basalt. 

;|. IncvnmMln Saal, or Room for .spccimetts of the 
infancy or earliest stages of Greek irt. 

4. .««^JbDMd-8o isdled freoi the fiagmeAte 
«f two pediments from the ^anbelleninm, or 
Temple of Minerva; found in th? Islnnd r.f .Ev'tna, 
1811, and bought by Kiiif? Ludwig for £6,W9. 
The party who made the dlscoTery Inelvded twe 
Cngllah MRllletits, CoekeMll end Foetei* i ead aA 
agent was despatched to make the purchase od 
hohalf of tiie Eii^'Iifih Govpmmcnt for £8,000, 
but was too hdo.. Casts of these marbles are in the 
Royal Institution at Liverpool. Thev hftTO beeft 
pai^ reslofed by Thervnddsen, and are snppoeed 
to Mpresent a fight, or two fights, in the Trojan 
war; one Ix-ing led by Iclamnn, round tlu' body of 
Lrtomedon; the other by Ajax and Hector, over 
the body of Patfoelati Paltas with her helmel 
and speav stands In the midst. They are of the 
ag«^ just preceding that of Phldlas (480 it. f.), 
nnd are of Parian marble^ showing marks of 
hai-iog been jmt»<ed over. There arc fifteen figures 
III alL 

fi. ApoUo Room.So called from the colossal 
fi;rurr> of tht^ Hnr^i^rini Apotto^ playinyr on the harp, 
a beautiful statue of ^eutielio marble, aseribed to 
AgelMei, the iMtr eft FUttM nmm o^ 

6. Bacchus Room. 'YhU room and iU>^ next 
contain mostly works of the perfect period of 
Greek Knlptnre. Amoag these are the Arierflil 
Faun^ probably by Praxiteles; statue of Bllenna, 
of Parian marbk-; Flrene and IMutu«. sometimes 
called Leukothea or Ino witli younj,' Uacohus in 
her arms opposite Bilcnus with the lioy Bacchus ; 
Marriage of Bacchus and Ariadne; the beautlfnl 
Spotted Fawn; eoloaial bnst of Apbradlte (Venlu) 
of Parian marble ; and the Marriage of Neptnne 
and Amphltrlte, a large relief of Parian marble. 

7. yiobe Hoom.—3o called from N lobe's Chil- 
dren—the lUeneiis or kneelfaig Jfiobt (a beautlfnl 
torsoX and the dying Niobe, both of Parian 
marble, and of frreat valno. A Venus of Gnldits, 
Head of Midus.i. an«l a Clio. 

8. Gotter iktai (Room of the Gods).— This and 
the next roomf called the Fest Soal, are adorned 
with /^•e$eoety by Cornelius (1830-30), executed by 
himself, and hy Zimnicmiann and Schlotthaucr. 
Tho subjects treated are Orpheus and Eurydicp in 
the shades; Marriage of Neptune and Amphitritc; 
Hebe waiting on the Gods to Olympns; Mlneirn 
asd Prometheus ; Pandora and her Box, Ae. 

9. Trojan /lOom.— Scenes from the wars of the 
Greeks and Trojans, by Cornolius — as Achilles 
and Agamemnon disputing aUmt Brlsels ; Hector 
and AcblUes lighting over the corpse of Fatroelus ; 
and the Destmctlou of Troy. 

10. Heroes' Room. — 8tatu<? of Alexander tho 
Great, of Parian marble, supposed to be the best 
likeness extant. Statue of Jason. Bnatitf Eanni- 
bal. Bust of Soerates. Statue of Nero. Thla 
room shows the tran.sition from Greek to Romna 
art. There i^^ a descent froin it to the next, or 

11. Roman Room, the largc:t»t of all, and richly 
adorned, containing only works of Roman art. 
Busts of Oermanleus; Antoninus Plus; Uria, the 
daughter of Angtistus; Cicero; Seneca; Cato, and 
others. Ascend again from thh to the Baal dcr 
farblgeu Bildwerkc (in the south-caiit rotunda), or 

IS. Jtssm ^ CMoMrai Scaipturtt, eontaininsr 
beautiful mosaics and brcnMs. Among these are 
Ceres; an Athlete; and a draped statue of a 
Roman Lady spinning. Iktr head baa been ro- 
stored) by Thorw»lds<m. 

Theiasi Beamier 

Ui 4bMf dbr iWmm (Mmh SoulpCw aX cdn- 

Digitized by Goo 

.iK0«to39.] HAND-BOOK lO 6SRMAJIY. 

. ttibsivwlu tty modem artiste. Veaus and Parn, 
ty Oanova. Statue of A<loni8, ami Bust of 

Lndwijr I., hy ThoriraJdrnt. The !^nndal Binder, f 
and Iffiand tb« actor, by K. ^chudow. Cupid and • 
til* Mhws, by 0. BlMTluunl. Bast of Admlml { 
Van Tromp^ by Bauch; of WlnekcUlianns, hy | 

S. do Carli ; of Pfcffel, by (Tirlstcn ; Catherine 
II., by Bnach ; and Nnpoleoii. by Spalla. 

The Old Plxxacotliek, or Plcttire Gallery, j 

Is not far from the Glyptothck, and like it is a tine 
tnouunicnt of the tasto and mnnMcenoe of King 
Lttdwis. liltothatalao^ltwasenMstedbyKlenze, 
but on a different style and plan from his other 
^eat wcrk. The foundation was laid t»n Raphael's 
birthday, April 7, 1826, and it was Huishcdl836. 
Open daJIy (except Saturdays), from nine to three. 

It Is an Maped bnlldlng,49l feet long, running 
cast and west, near the Infantry Biu-nlck. The 
north nnd south fronts are alike, except that the 
south front, towards the street, haa arcades or 
lotfB^ divided into 95 compartments, adorned with 
arabesqnea, ftvscoea, by ZimneimAnn and Corne- 
lius, Illustrative of i>m- inogress of painting, and 
statues of twenty lour great painters, by Schwan- 
Ibaler; one half belonging to the Italian schools, 
the other to the German and VetfaerUmd schools. 
These are Yaa Eyck, Memlhig, DUrer, Holbein, 

. Rubt'iix, Vandyke, Vp1a?«qnex, Murillo, (Mnmle 
Lorriiijic. Poussin, F. Franuia, Fiesole, Mitsuccio, 
da Viucl, i'erugiiiOi Gbirlaadiijo, Michael Aiigelo, 
Bhphael, TIUAn, Oi Belllno, A. dd Sarto, Conrecr- 
glo, Domenichiuo. 

It contains twelve e>"''"t Rooms, or Halls, f«>r 
large paintings, ami twenty-throe Cabinets (for 

• similar ones) adjoining thorn; with orer 1,400 
palBlttige, ditpoied aoeoMfaig to the various 
schools, a re-arrangemcnt having been mndr in 
1885. Catalogue, in Rntrlish. 1 mark 50pf. iiic 
Cabinets should be taken individually, iu connec- 
tion wi|h tte riMi to ivhieh they beWnf . 

Monteh hM ptvtiably the largest collection of 
ffnbfns' paintings to be fnnnd rtntVr ftn*^ roof In 
Europe, there being 77 undoubtedly by his hand. 
There are also the cel^rated Boly FAhiily (di 
GanigH*), and th« M adeiinaa dl Teinpl an4 dtf 1* 
Tend a, by Raphael. ; 
'Yhv PnTcb, at thn «;oiith-t>at*t comer, is an Ionic ' 

-one, oil lutur columns, with two lilims. It loadi i 

-^MUNlCa — PLMACOIH£K. 143 

by two stairoasei to the Vestibule, and the 
Foun<k'rs* Room. Here are portraits of Alhrecht 
v., by whoui the coUoctiou was begun, and the 
Prinoea who meeeeded him. Among these are tiie 
Electors Maximilian I., John WUlIam, and Charlea 
Theodore, styled von der Pfalz (of tho Palatinate), 
but especially King Maximilian Joseph (dird 
1825), who incorporated with this Collection the 
galleries of Mannheim, Zweibruckoi, and DUssel- 
dorf; and the greatest benefactor of all. King 
Ludwig I. (died 1868), who. in 1827, bought the 
pictures of the Old (it nuun and Old Dutch 
schools from the collection made by the brothers 
Suli)la and Melchoir Boisserde, 1798, wbldi were 
formerly at Heidelberg and Stuttgart, and were 
dispersed by the Revolutionary wars, and that of 
Prince Wallorsteln, at u cost to his private purse 
of nearly i;aO,uuO. The reliefs on the frieze, by 
Schwanthaler, relate to scenes in Bavarian history. 
The visitor., most dictlngnish between Roomt and 
Cabinettt in the catalogoo and in the following 

Halls I. and It. Cabinets 1 to 3. 

• Eablt StjMoou ov vn Lownt 'Anvn. 
Meister Wilhelm of Cologne and his school, 
Vm to 1425.— No. 1, St. Veronica, Hall I. 
Stephen Lochner and his srhool, 1426 to 1461.— 
Nos. 9 to 18 are perhaps the most noteworthy, 
Han I. Master of the •» Lyversberg Phaston** 
and his school.— Mainly Scenes from the Life of 
the Virgin, chiefly in Hall I. Various Cologne 
Masters.— Principally in Hall II. ; the most re- 
markable being the Boisser^e St. Bartholomew, 
No. 48, and the Death of the Virgin, No. <5, also 
from the Boisserdc Collection. Nos. fis to 73, in 
Cal). ?, are of Bartholomew Bruya (1498-1*66) and 
hi:i school. 

EAKI.Y Dutch School. 
Rogler van der Wcydcn. 1400 fii.— Nos. lOO to 
103, St. Luke, Adoration of the Magi, In Hall II. 
Dierick Bouts, 1400-68.— Nos. 107, Ac, Adoration 
of the Magi aiid others, chiefly in Cab. 3. Hans 
Momlinfr, (?) 1410-f)4.— No. IT", Tfu- Spyon .Inys of 
Mary, in Cab. 8, a very tine work. Gerard David. 
14{r0^1528.'-No. 118, Adoration of the Magi, lit 
HaU U. Quentiti Mhsays, (»} 1460-1580.-^1^6. 184, 
rictk and others, chiefly in Hall II. Lucres vnn 
Loydefl. 1494-15S3.— Nos. 14S, 149, Virgin and 
Ititigdalen ; Annandatlohi Cab.- it 

Digitized by Google 



[Sec. 8. 

Hall in. Cabinets 4 and A. 

Uri'ER Gkbkax Schools. 
Martin Schongauer, 14*0-88.— No. 174, Nativity, 
Cab. 4. Benuird Btrigel, 14«MiM.— Kos. 188 to 

Holbein theEtder, (?) 14IO-1524.-No8. 193 to 211. 

The finest arr ?W St. ScbaMian, 2t0 St. Barbara, 
211 St. Elizabeth of Thuringia, all in Hall III. 
Holbein the Younger, 1497-1«4S.— No, 212, iKrich 
Bom, C*b. 4. Martin Bchaffner, 1808-41.— No. 
219, Peter Appinn, ( ah. 4. liana Burgkraalr, 
1473 -No. 220, M. SchoTiirauer, Cab. 4; No. 
22.>, iluviu Estbcr, III. M. Wohlgcmut, 

143t-1519.— No8. 229 tu 235, oil la Hall III. 

Alb«H Dttr«r, U71-16S8.— Nos. 938, 240^ 241, 247 
(SS. John and l»oter), 248 (SS. Paul and Mark), 
all in Hall III, and Nos. 237 and 243 (M. Wolge- 
uiut), in Cab. 4, are the b<\st. I.uca.H Crunach the 
Elder, 1492-t588.--No8. 270 to 280, chictiy In 
Cab. 4. A. Altdorfer, (?) MSO-im^-Nos. 288 and 
288 (a Susanna), 291 to 293, in Cab. 4 ; No. 290, 
Battle of Arbcia, a singular production, in Cab. 5. 

Hall IV. Cabinets 5 to U. ana 88. 

Dutch Schooi» 
Gerard r. Honthorst, 1590-IM6.— Mot. 808 and 
809, Prodigal Son, In Hall lY. Bart. r. d. Heist, 

(?) 1613-70. -Nos. 315 to 318. in Hall IV. 

Ucmbrantlt (Harnicns van Ryn), 1607-69. — Nos. 
3i6 to 33i, all excellent, in Cab. 8; Nos. 324, S25, 
882 (Abram's Saerifice), and 888 (Himself), In 
Hall IV. Ferd. Bol, 1611-8 ). -No. 338, Govaert 
Flinck and Ids wife, No. 3;;0, in Hall IV. Franz 

Hals, 158M66C No. 359, Group of Purtraits, in 

Hall IV. Tbowas de Keyaer, (?) 1695.1679. - No. 
881, Settling AeeountSf In Cab. 10. A. van 
Ostadc, 1610-85. - Nos. 369 to n75. in Cabs. 8 and 
9; the best is probably 371, Boors Qnarrollinpr, 
Cab. 9. Isaak van Ostade, 1621-49. Nus. il6 to 
881, in Cabs. 8, 8^ and 9. O. ter Boreh or Ter> 
burg, 1640-1702,— Nos. 388 and 869, both good. In 
Cab. 9. Gerard Dou, 1618-76.— Nos. 398 to 108. 
in Cabs. 8, 9, and 10; the best arc, 394, The 
Qnaek Doetor, Cab. 10, and 897, Himself, Cab. 9. 
Fr. van Micrls, 163^-81.— Nos. 409 to 423. chiefly 
in ( ah. 10; tho best are Nos. 414, 415, 417, 420, 
423. G. Metsu, 16dJ-67.— No. 424, Twelfth Might, 
Cab. 7. Piet. do Hoocb, 1882^1.-428, Duteb 
Interior, Cab. II, Adr. dtr W«rfl; IWMm, 

I —Nos 43rt to 4G7; flll but No. 461, A Magdalen 
(Hall IV.), are in Cab. 23. Paul Potter, 1625^. 
I — Kos. 471 and 472, la Cab. 8. Fb. Woavi«nian, 
1819-88.— Nos. 498 to 814, eblefly In Cab. 11 ; No. 

496, A Stag Hunt, Is perhaps the bc'^t. Jacob t. 
KuysdacI, 1G25-82.— Nos. 544 to 6il ; Nos. M8 
I (Cab. 7), o4d (Cab. 9), and 6&0 (Cab. 10) arc most 
1 worthy of notioe. Jan Wjnants, l80a>7ft.«^Noa. 
I m to 881 In Hall IV., and Cab& 9 and 10; No. 
582 In Cab. 11 (figures probably by A. v. d. Vcldc) 
is the best. Jan Both. lfilO-51 No. 68:1, An 
' Evening Landscape, in Cab. b. Jan Wecnix, 164»)- 
{ 1719. - Nos. 888 to 848, chiefly In Halt IV. Jan r. 
: Huysuui, 168.'-1749.— Nos. 851 to 858, in Cab. 11; 
I all good examples. 

HallB V. to VII. Cabinets la to 16. 

Flemish Scbool. 
Jan Brueghel the Elder, 1588-1825.— Nos. 88i 
to 705, in Cabs. 13 and 14. 

P. P. Rubens, 1677-1640. -Nos. 7?4 to 800, in 
Halls, V. and VI., and Cab. 12, the latter being 
exdasively devoted to liis paintings. The best 
probably are in Hall VL : Nos. 727, Castor and 
PoHun ; 71'), Christ Enthroned; 746, Christ nn d *he 
PcnitL-nt ."Sinners; 754, Silenus; 782, Hinii>cirand 
Wife; 784, Earl and Conntess of Arnndel; 797, 
Helena FOnrment; 798, Himself and Wife; 799, 
The Scholar; 800. Doctor van Thulden, and In 
Cab. 12; 732, Defeat of Sennacherib (the finest); 
733, Conversion of St. Paul; 788, The Last Judg. 
ment; 742, Battle of the Amasons; 182, St. Cbrla> 
tophcr. Jacob Jordaens, 1598-18781. — Noa 818, 
and S14, bcith pood oxaini)los. 

A. van Dyck, 1599-1641.— Nos. 822 to 863, in 
Hall VII. and Cab. 18; notice q)ecial]y in Hall 
VII.: No. 826, Madonna; 887, Ihiko of Pfals- 
Neubiirg; 8.^9 andSJO. (?) Burgomaster of Antwerp 
i and his Wife; 841, Charles, Duke of Croix; 844 
and 845, The Sculptor, Colyn de Nole, and his Wife ; 
849, Van Dyek*s Wife, Maria Bnthren, Cooateaa of 
Gowrie; No. 864, Jupiter and Antiopc, Is of 
doubtful authenticity. A. Rrouwer, 1605-1638. 
I — No. 679, Card Players Quarrelling, Cab. 16 ; 880, 
Barber Surgery, Cab. 16; 893, Dice Players, Cab. 
I IC. D. Tenlers the Younger, 1610-90.--Nos. 902 
j to 919, In Cabs. 14, 15, and 16 (exceptin- No. 
935, St. Luke's Fair at Florence, in Hall V.) ; 
tha best are 907 and 918, Tavern Scenes, in Cab. 
8. Frant Millet, 1842-79.^No,948, liallaa Land- 

Digitized by Goo^I 

ttAtrD«AOOfc TO OBRttAlir*«MtnrtCH-~PtKACO'rBB]C. 


■oapc, Ja Cab. M. F. Snyden, l&79-16£7.~Ko8. 
to MQ» eUffly in HaU V.« th« b«al being a 

Kitchen Interior, ^'o. 055. and a Boar Hunt, No. 
968, the latter in Hall VII. Paul de Vos. i:n2- 
1678.-K'08. 961 nnd 9«2, Aiiinml Subject!*, in Hull V. 

Halls VIIL to X. Cablnetg 17 to 20. 


(Most of the oldest examples are found in Cab. 17.) 

GiovRTini da Fiesole (Frw At.ct lico), 1887-145*. ] 
— Nos. &8» to 992 ; in Cab. li, i::j4rly Florentine, 
Nm. 9H to 1001. Sandio BottfeeUl, 1449-1610.^ 
Ko. 1010, The DoAd Christ, in Hall VIII. D. 
Ghirlandajo, 144y-l4t)4.- No.^. l<>n to 1013, in Hall 
VIU. ; notice lUll, Vir^iu and :S)imt8. Cima da 
Conegllaim, (?)lM6^1la.lOSSt Madonna, Magdalen, 
and St. Jerome, Hull VIII. Pictro Vannucci (Peru- 
gino), 1446-1624.— Nos. 1034. Vision of St. Bernard, ] 
and 1(135, Virgin and Chil.l, Hall VIII. Franc. 
Franela, 1460-1517.— Noa. I0S9, Madonna in the 
Roses, and 1040, ^Ifidotma and Child, Hall VUI. 

Raphael, 1483-1520.— No. 1049. The Cnnigianl 
Holy Family, in HaU VII. ; Nos. 1050 and 1051, The 
Madonna Tempi and Madonna deUaTenda, in Gab. 
19; No.1052, (?) Portraitof Bindo Ahloviti, In Hall 
VIII. Andrea del Sarto, 14871&31.— No. 1066, 
Holy Family, in Hall VIII. Lorenzo Lotto, 1480- 
15W.->>No. 1088, Marrlag« of St. Catherine, In Hall 
VIII. Correjrplo, 1494-1524. -No 1094, Satyr, 
Cab 10; No. 1095, Virgin nnd S, Ildefonso. Hnll 
Vlli. I'aloQa Vecchio, 1480-1628.— No. 1107, 
Himeelf ; Ho. 1108, Virgin md Child, with St. 
Koch, both in Hall IX. ; line specimens. 

Titian, 1477-1676.— Nos. 1109 to 1116, all in Hall 
IX ; notice specially, 1109, Virgin and Child, 
With St. ;rohn; HIS, Charles T.; 1114, Christ 
Crowned. Tinlfiretto, 1519-94.— No. 1127. An- 
dreas Vesalins, in Hall IX. Paolo Veronese, 1628- 
88.— Nos. 1133 to 1137, In Hall IX, which also con- 
tains nine pletnies of his school, Nos. 1188 to 1140. 

Gufdo Reni, 1675-1642.-1170, AHSuniptiun (the ' 
best) ; 1171 to 1176, all in Hall X. Cnm. Procnc- 
clni, )646-I62G.— No. 1211, Virgin and Child, &c., 
HsllX. Carlo Dolet, 1010^.— Hoe. 1SS4 to U80^ 
in Hall X. and Cab. 19. Salvator Boeat lOU-TS. 
—Nos. U42 t<. 1144, in Cab. 19. 

fi&UZI. CaUnetai. 

SpAVZSH 8CH00t~ 

TIm bait piotnret here are those of Mnrillo, 1617- 
82.— Noi. 130S to 1308; Nob 1804 nnd 1*00 M* 
Beggar Boys, the first a T«ry fine example. 

HaU ZU- Calftlnot 21. 
Fkevob School. 
Of these the best are certainly those of Claude 

I^rraine, 1600-8J.— Nos. l:!24 to 1527. The snme 
liall contains No. ia4u, P. dc Champaiguo'» For* 
trait <rf Marshal Tureuue. 
Hall XIL and Cab. 2S contain later Germaa 

PainterR, frnm the middle of the lOth to the com- 
mencement of the 18th centuries. 

The Cabinet 0/ £tigravingt (open Mondays, 
Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays, 9 to 13) 
contains about 170,000 prints, many of ^i*^ 
most beautiful specimens. Free. 

Cabinet of Draitincts (open Tue.«dny nnd Frulay, 
from 9 to i'i) numbers 22,000, including five by 
Raphael; several by Fra Bartolommeo; a latga 
portfolio of Bemlnandf S} and three by A. Dttrer. 

Citbint't of Grecian and Etruscan Vases (daily, 
except Wednesdays and Saturdays, 9 to 1), in throo 
rooms; 1,500 specimens, mostly from Italy and 
Sicily. Fee. 

The Hew FinacotlMlC in Theresiea Sttasse, 

behind the old one. is a rcctanpml.Tr pile, built by 
Voit, 1846-53; and is aiiti feet by 106 feet, and dH feet 
high, in two storeys. It contains exclusively Mo- 
dem PtttntHnffB of the present century (open Tnes- 
day, Thursday, Saturday, Sunday, 8 to II; 8 tod). 
There are twelve large and small rooms, nvj} four- 
teen cabinets. It is adorned with frescoes byKaul- 
bach and Hilson ; and portraits of Munich artists. 
At the entrance are models of 8diwaathaler*a 
Lions, at the Slegesthor. Paintings on porcelain 
occupy the ground floor. 

The most noticeable works are (the Nos. 
refer to the Booms)— £afV«i^o>n'' Kanlbadh, 
Ltidwigl. (II.)Alnmttller,Interlorsof Westminster 
Abbey; Schom, The Deluge; Plloty, Wallcn- 
stcin's Death. (III.)Kaulbach, Destruction of Jeru- 
salem. (IV.) Entrance of King Otho Into Athens. 
(V.)OTerbeek,Holy Family. (VI.)Bottniann,Qroelc 
Landsespes,e3icanstic.— Small Tibom.*: (I.)Klrchner, 
Heidelberp; F. Adam, Battle of Orleans. (iI.)I.< yK, 
Dutch Village; Feuerbach, Battle of the GiautiS. 
(III.) Kanlbacb, Designs for the freseees en the 
exterior; the figntes arc portraits. (I v.) A. Adam, 
Battles of Custozza andNovara: Wilkie, Rr^i lin^ 
the ill. — Cabinets: I, Scheiidel, Antwerp Market. 
J, Camphausen, Prisoners of War; A. L^er, oil 

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146 BHAMHAWi'] 

»ketchei taken in Pakttine, Ac. 3, ActieubAch, 
Storm at 8ea- 4, 9ti«ler, GK)ethe. «, HatMicto*t?» 
Tbt SunlMtSoii. 6, OaUatt, Monk MUiv the 
Poor. 1, AchonliMb, Sea Pieces. 8. Bttrkel, 
Village Street. 9. Adam, 14 small views in Munich. 
10 Sehllgon, Knpc of Helen. 11, A. Kauflfmann, 
Ludwig I., aged nine. 12, B. Strange, Funeral oT 
a DofO. 13, Peuerbaeh, Portrait. 14, Sqitindo, 
Batiivn to Vonainet. 

Private CotlecHom —nnt ov Yon Schaci't IfuMum 
contain* copies of the great Venetian and Spanish 
Uasters, also a complete series of modern paintings ; 
f to S; Trinkgold. MattUngir Art-BtMlorUal Ool- 
;ee<A)«f ftitboLandwehr Arsenal, in the Henmarkt, 
open Sunday, Tne^day, and Friday. 9 to 1, 
Illustrating the history of Mnuich. At the 
Schicanthaler JTiMM. Ill Schwtalhalar SUane, 
aro ca tt t of all htt wwko, boqucnthcd to the 
Aoadamj of Plartlc Arts. Open dally, "ry pf. 

QUupalMt {Cry<\\ Pilnco), in the Botanical 
Gardens, used fur the Annual and International 
exhibitions organised by the Munich Artists* 

InthoBraffiotierel Straaie li iho Bml Bronte 

and open daily, 1 till 6. Here bronze ornaments of 
all kinds may be obtained. The colossal »tatue of 
Bavaria, at the Ruhmoiballo, was cast horo. 

The JSaAiMsAalte (or Hall of Fame) Is about 
half an hour s walk outside the Sendllng-Thor. It 
was built 1844 50, In- KIcnzc, for Kinp Ludwig,of 
Untorsberg marble, and stands on a height over- 
looking the city, to tho south-west. It Is a colon- 
nade Ml 48 Doric pillars, about 250 feet long, in 
the fomi of a half rcctanfrlc, and contains 80 busts 
of rflebratcd Bavarians, with Schwantbaler's four 
FauiiUc« uf ihe Davariiui house, in the pediment. 
Open dally ; closed between 12 and 2. 

Ja front of tho Rahmeshalle is placed Schwan- 
thalcr's pljfantic figure of Bavaria and h(T Lion, 
cast In from guns taken at the battle of 

Mavarlno. It Is 69 feet high, including the marble 
pedestal, 40 feet. A broad Staircase leads up to 
the statue, and a spiral one to its head. In which 
i« room for five porson*^. Fee, 40pf. The view 
takes ui tue Tyrolcse Uiils. 

tVMermhiUU (south end of Ludwigstrasse), 
In the Flortntbio stylo. Is an Imltatioa of tho 

XLVrnxm [Sec. $. 

Loggia de Lanzi, consisUng of ffcfOO HMUd aidMO 
withnstalieioe,aBd two lions. Hon avobMnso 

statues of TUly, generalissimo of the Thirty Tears* 
War, and Fleld-Marshal Wrede (died 1888). 

In Max-Jo<ieph«i-P1ntz (the busiest centre of the 
city) is the bronze Monument of King MagtmtttM 
Jouph /., by Stljrlmater, from designs by Baneh, 
with reliefs of the chief events In his rcljrti. 

In front of the Old Residejiz Theatre is the new 

Ho/ Theater (Court Theatre) in Max-Josephs- 
Platz, ono of tho largest in Qonnany ; rebuilt aftor 
the fire of 1828, by Klenze, from the plans of 
VUrhfr. The front is 160 f<-pt high, and has 
an elght-colnmu Corinthian portico, in which are 
freseooB of Apollo and tho Mnsos, and Pognsos 
and the Horses, both by Schwanthaler. The 
buildinj; is S50 feet Ion?, and 205 feet broad : it 
will hold from 2,000 to 2,500 spectators, and can 
be viewed on three days at 2 p.m. Bntianoo, 
Maximlilanstr. Performances usually tako pinoo 
on Sundays. Tuesdays, Thursdfiy*. find Fridays. 
The usual time is 7 p.m. The Retidenz Theater 
commences about the same tiBO; perfonnaaoes on 
Svndaya, Tuesdays, and Saturdays. The Oariner- 
Platt Theater is devoted to comedies. The V^n s 
T7ieattT{Pcop\e't Theatn ) is in SenefelderStrassc. 

Polytechnic School, hy Neurcutbcr, In the Renais- 
sance style, near the Old Plnacothck, daily. 

The NmPwi'Office (Poot Oobattdo), facing the 
KSnlgsbau and Max^osephs-Platz, was bnUt by 
Klf'riz<\ \^'^'\. ^'v rnlrir^'hir the. old palace of Count 
Torring, of which rcmams in the Residenz 
Strasse. The principal front to In tho solid Floren- 
tfaie stylo, 290 foot long^ 66 feet high. The lower 
Is an arcade or loggia, on 14 Doric pillars. Th^, 
frescoes are by Hlltcnsberger. Telegraph and 
Telephony Office here. 

Tho AMMoms (Town Hall), in Marlenplatz, is a 
modern Gothic pile, opened 1874. The Old Rath- 
haus, close by the new building, was restored In 
1865. Underueath the tower, whi4^ Is omamontod 
with aomo good ilenoehromatloplitnroa, rana tho 
road leading to the broad street called thr Tha'. 
which terminates at the Itar-Thor. Corn market'* 
are held In the Marlenplatx. In the middle la the 
atatm 9f Me Flrf^fi, orocted by tho Eloetor 
Maximilian I., In memory of bis victory at Prague, 
1620, at thp Imttlo foutrhi on the White HUl ; it 
bears the pumung invocation to the Virgin (each 
word Incroasin; by a syllablo). **9om. Regent 

Digitized by Goo^I 

Roite $9.1 HAX]>-BOOK TO GERM 

Begimen, Kegioiiem, ReligionenOf conserva Ba> 
wit Virgo MMa tuli.** tn fhmt of the 
GoTernmcnt buildings, in the same Plats, It tht 
Fischbrimneji, into which hntr^hcrs' apprentices, 
wrapped in hides, were formerly made to Jumn 
At the vai of their term of service. This was 
etlltdthe "Mettffenpruiiff/' 

The itarthor (Imt Gate), an did Gorman Gothle 
pile, with thrpo towf-r-?, w.ts ornamented with 
fresco paiiitin^rs, by Kin^' Ludwig. The suT)jcct is 
the entrance of the Emperor Ludwig, uf Bavaria, 
after tbe battle of Anpltng, ISM. On the two 
side gatea are the arms of the nobility and of 
the towns which fought for Ludwig in this battle. 
They were done by Gartner, 1833. The Statues 
of 9t. George and Bt. Hlcbacl, by Eberiiard. 

In front of the StndtUtiftrther it the ilfffaiwlaei 
Krankenhatu (General Hospital), built 1818, by 
King Max Josoph, from Fischer s dosl ns. It fs a 
large quadrangle, 140 paces long, 175 broad, and is 
wdl arranged, oontahdns^fti wsrda, for abontMO 
|iattent«, baaidea SI cbambera for teiwrate pattenta 
and the officials, chapel and other requitdtes. 
Behind the Hospital is a Convent for Si-itfi-'! of 
Mercy, who nurse the sick, witli a chapel built 
18S7. The Anatomle'Saal, or Diaiectbig Room, is 
n detached bnlldlng, in Sendilngerwitraaae. 

The <8lMilll«ni Cbaiefcnr (Oottetacker), or Frledhof , 
is lij the old suburbs, on tbf ^ Mithcrn isfile. At 
Its entrance is St. Stephen's Church, built in the 
time of Albrecht V. Among the Monuuients is one 
erected 18S1, for thoae who fell in defence of their 
country at Sendling, and with this inscription : " To 
thotie who on Christmas Day, 25th December, 1704, 
fell in battle for Prinioe and Fatherland, in Upper 
Ba-rnrla;" and an Obellak to General Bastool, who 
dted At Mnnfeh after the battle of Hobenllnden. 
Here also are monuments to F. H. Jacobi; Frauen- 
hofcr, the optician ; and Sonnefelder, the discoverer 
of ItUho^raphy, Ac. At the end is a circular arcade 
or ereaeent, witb * ^npel in tha nlddle, and n 
TOOBB In whloh eorptea are traced for Identtflcatlon. 
On All Saints' and All Souls' Days, thousands, both 
Catholics and Protestants, visit the cemetery to 
deck the graves of tlieir dead friends. A nuw 
grnvc-yard (LtlebenfeldX with a Tettlbule bi tbe 
middle age Lombard atyle, is sltnaled behind It. 
Sere la the iDoannient <rf GUrtner. 


The Scbmerzbafte Capelle (D lorons Chapel) 
was built, 1705, "hi honour of the Passion of 
Chrittandof hiiMetber." About three-quarters 
of a mile dlttant it the Jewa* Cemeter)', with « 

monument tn rhr- port, ^richnel Beer. 

Eavlrona of Munich.— Onc of the most fre- 
quented is the Engiifcher Garten (Knglish Garden), a 
beautiful park, more than three miles long from tbe 
end of the Hofgartcn. It contains some charmlnv 
I groups of tall trees and plants, brid;?P, statuct, 
waterfalls, &c., and was lirst laid out by the Elector 
Karl Tbeodor, from the plans of Count Rumford, 
an Ameriean loyallat, named Thompson, who, after 
being knighted in England, entered the Bavarian 
service, and, in the pursuit of studies on heat, 
invented an economic plan of cooking food for tbe 
poor. He aaalated in founding the Royal Institu- 
tion in London, and died at Paris. 

To thr Irft nf the entrance is tbe Palace of Prince 
Cbarics; from which a row of villas stretches from 
Kiinigta-strasse to tlic lioy a i Veterinary School . To 
the right the road leads to the Park, In the middle of 
which is a Chinese Pagoda. Acireular building or 
Monopteros, by Kknze, on twelve Doric pillars, 
was dedicated, lfi3:t, to Karl Theodor, the founder 
of tl»e Park. Itt capitals, Ac, arc coloured In the 
polychrome style, fai imitation of the old Groek 
style. There are several eofTee houses and favourite 
spots near the F-n;,'lish Curdcn, such as Tivoll, 
Ptu-adiesgartcn, Scbwabmg, the Aumeister, Hir- 
scbau, and the Isar-Anlagcn. A bridge leads 
aeroM the Isar to Dogcnhausen. The O&Mrrafory 
at nogcnhnuRcu is near Qasteig hill, and a walk in 
this direction is rocomniendefl for !«njis< t efTeets. 

To Unter Sendiing, through the SendJinj: Cute, 
where the parish church displays a large fresco, 
pidnted ISSl, by Undensehmlt, of the Iiattie fought 
here, 1704, between the Anstrians and the country 
people. Hence to Grosi-UeseHohi'. three miles 
distant, a pleasant spot on the Isur, which belonged 
to Qcneral D*Erlon, who lived here as Baron 
Sdimld. It can be reaebed by rail. 

Ngmphenburg is a royal pleasure Castle, three 
miles from Munich, built b\ Princess Adelheld, 
1663. It has a large fuuutoui 90 feut high, and the 
poreelain factory, once rt*yal property. In the gar^ 
den It the Magdolcnenkapelle, near a miraculout 
tprlng and Charles V.'a bunttai; lodge. 

Digitized by Googk 


fSec. ^. 

. ' jScM«toMm U «iioth«r royal Lutt-Schloss 

(Pleasure CasUe), 6 miles from Munich, built 
1684-1700, by KurfUrst Max Emanuel, but now 
neglected. A model farm and stud are placed 
here. Moit of tlw pictitt«i lor irhloh It was 
.cetebmted lutTO boon tfansferredto the FliMOOtbek, 
but a few, chiefly Dutch, remain. 

One of the popular oxcursions from Munich Is 
to Starnbcrg, and Us Luke, or Wurmsee, aU"Ut 18 
mUoB dlttani (see below, Boiite 89a). 

iftttiiftfi to Stamberg, and the WiimiBee, 
Tatelng, PeiiBberg, and Welllieim, 
Fdssen, Holiencsliwangaii , and InnB- 
ttraekt—tHroviEli the Ovarian Hlgn- 

By Rail (Baj-cri^che StMtt Eifl«ab«faii)f the 
Stations arc as follow :— 

Brandt to llJlee. 

Bcmrled 29* 

Bceshaupt ...... 32 

Fenzberg: ....... SS^] 

Wilzhofeii *.M«««M...30i 
AVcilhelm •*...«..*•«**■ 

Mttnleb to 

Paalnsr - 5i 

Kanegg H> 

Stamberg I'i 

Possenhofeu 20^ 

Tntslng 9i 

Praa PelMcnberg by road, as wider: — 

German German 
miles. mtleit. 

P( U!njT 2i FttMCn ........ .... H 

ftteingadeu IJ 

Tbb, aa far as the Btambergeneo, Is a farourite 
axcnrslon from the Capital. The remainder of the 
Route pcnctr.itos the BnTarlan Highlands or Alp?, 
on the north slope of the Tyrolcse Mountuiiis. 

- mfflnlftli (as til Ronte SBl the rail passes Paslng 
(Stat.) (from which there Is a rail tn BucMoe, 
part of tlie direct line to Liiidau— see Rout© 
Thrn to Planegg (Btat.), nnd 

Starnberg (Stat.), and its beautlfnl Lake, or 
Wllrmtee, 14 miles looff; skirted by the rail and 
traversed by a small steamer to Beeshaupt Ca sta- 
tion on the Totaing and Fenzberg .Hue), at the 
upper end. 

PoBsenHofni (SUt), on Its banks, near a 
Castle belonging to Duke Uax, facing the royal 
hunting seat of Berg, on the east shore. At the 
month of the WUrm, near the Petersbrunn Bath, 
begins the beantlfol Milhtthal or vaUey of the 
Wtbl. At Betsmftble, Charlemagne Is said to have 
been born; the ruins of Karlsbug CastlO CTOWB 
heights above. 

TutSing (Stat.)— /nn, Zum See- near the 
Hirachbcrg (2,200 feet hi?b) and the Ammer»e« 
behind It. Braucii lo Poiuberg, wMnee thO 
raad to Xunabmek passes by BeMdhsthettem, (aae 


Welllielin (Stat.) ^ . 

PopoLATio», a,ooo. iMKa.— Post; Tranbe. 
A small town on th« Anuner, near PoUlnff 
Convent The line goes on to MUEIIlillt n«>t 

page. Branch to 

Peissenberg 48tat.), under the llohe Peit- 
senbtrg, 3,230 feet high, the " RIgl " of Bavaria. It 
is about U n>fi« to the top, from whenee a splendid 

Tiew in obtained of thcTyrolesc ra'i'/-, from Sf-ntli 
to Gross>,'lockucr, especially at sunnso and sunset. 

The road hence to Fussen, through PoMilg, 
leads to the convent of 8telngaden« the Ife^Csciken 
Ltons orer the door. Beautiful paintings In the 
church, and n very uLdBysantine Kotvnda. 

Fiissen (Stat.) 

PorULATlON, 2,000. 

iNira-'Post; Bonne. 

A small town in a romantic spot at the foot of the 
Tyrolesc Alps, at a gorge of the Lech, calb-d the 
Schllindcn or throat, corresponding to the Fauet* 
Julix of the Romans. Here la an old castle or 
Burg of the former Prtaiee Bishops of Augsburg, 
buUt 1 822, on a rock ; al^o tlie ancient convent of St. 
MauK, formerly a l$enedU tine Abbey, founded in 
the seventh century, and St. Magnus church, it 
contains many good puintings, a Danco of Death, 
and tombe of Ponlkau and other noUo families 
resident here. Rail to Oberdorf. 

Before Fiissen, from Bucbfngr, you can strike 
into the road to the scat of the Queen Dowager of 

SdllOSB Hohensdlinillinor adwanslein, an 

old Ca%iJe, 3 miles from FHsscn. most romantically 
situated between high mountains, 2,830 feet above 
the sea, and restovsd by King Maximilian* under 
the direction of the arohlteet, Domhlle Qnngllo, 
tn the medittval style. The frescoes are hy I.orcnz 
Qnajylio, Llndenscbmlt, Neher, Giinck, and the 
Schwanthalers. Two knights over the gate by 
Bcbwanthaler. In the court of the eaa«lc we 
three fonnUlna, reapeeliTely ornamented by a 
Madonna, by Qllnck; four Llnno by Schwan- 
thaler; atid Swan, by Schaller. The Ldon 
fountain is aa iuUVation of the Albambm. The 

Digitized by Google 

Bouto 30a.] ha»d-book to gebmamx. 

Ml todMonted with kalgbts in armour, coaU of 

anns, hnpleinortt of the chase, and stained ^vin(low8, 
On the Queens Storey arc— the Schwaiuit- 
tersaal, with four frescoes of the legend of the 
Knight of the Swm« bjr Adam; the SyrenenstMl* 
with frescoes from Bavarian histoiT, by Linden- 
schniit ; the Oricntalischc Zimmer, with the 
Remcrabranccs from tho East, by Scbeuchzcr; 
History of Ilohenscbwaugau, by LiudenachBolt in 
the fonrth Seal; Bertha Ztmmer, hy GUnek, from 
flchwind't designs of the History of the Parents of 
Charlemagnp; Dnmcn Zlmmcr (Women's Room) 
with Scenes from Gorman female life in the middle 
agesjby Schneider. In the King's Storey— the Held- 
ensul (Heroes* Boom), with Scenes from the Nlbel- 
QBgenlled by Adam. Glinck. Giessman, and Ncher. 
The Hohonj^taufciiifaal six fre^cocR by Liiulcn- 
schniit. Tassoziiiinu'r, sul)i<'' t« fromthe Jerusalem 
Delivered (Kinaldo and Aruiicia), after Scbwind, by 
Glinek. We]fensli»mer(Gtte1phBmin),byLinden- 
schmit; Antharlszimmer (Autliaris, Kins of the 
I.omlinrds), after Schwind, by Glinck and Adam. 
Ritterzlmmer (Kniglitn" Room),- frescoes from 
8chwiiid*s designs, by Neher, Glinck, end Hllson. 
In the thlid storey ere eight domestic pletnres, 
from designs by Bubcns. 

1. For Innsbruck. From Weilheim (pag*^ 148) 
there is a short line (I4mil«^-^, in U hour) past the 
Lakes of Kieg aud StafFel tu MUTUau (population, 
liMO)« t the foot ef the hffls, where feather onur 
ments are made. The distances from MulUkU 
are as follow;— > 


llittenwAld ............. 35f 

Innsbruck .....«*..n....M*i*w»»»»*« 29| 

The rail is now prolonged to Qannlsi^Puteil- 

klnheii, Okrongh OtMCin, wheme there Is a 

diligence to Ot>erammergau, up the beautiful 

YFiTlov of the AniPienran. aninng the Kofel and 
other peaks. VV»^ud ami ivory toys are made here. 

At Otoerammergau (diligence from Mumsu 
in 4| hours), every ten years, the Ptudan J^ay is 
performed by the natfires, attended by crowds of 

people from all quarters, besides many forolirn 
Visitors; in a Tlieatre rontainlti^r 100 rows of CO 
each. It has been acted since 1633, when the 
village was doIlTored from the plague ; and the 
performance was In A^Hl 1i4^ paraons 


take part In the play, which lastj^ the whole day, 
{See Rev. M. MToll's Gitid^ to the Passion Play.) 

The round convent of Et(al was founded by 
King Ludwig, on his coronation, 1808, and has 
some f reseoes by Tyrolcse artists. 

Hence, b P. ; tonkircljen and the Eibtee, the 
highest lake in Bavaria, to Mittemmhl. and over 
the Karwcndcl «iiige, to Schamitx, in Tyrol, on 
the way to Innabrack. 

Vart«]iklxclieiL (Stat) 

Inns.- Post; Stem. 

A former Roman station, and a favourite report, 
in the heart of the Bavarian Highlands, noted for 
its romantic scenery. Among the lofty limestone 
peaks here vldbte or worth ascending an WeUtt' 
Sinn, D.OOO feet high, and Zuff^pttxe^ the highest of 
all, i>,7 1 feet above the sea. The people here play 
on the zither, the same as the ghittem or guitar . 
The route over the pass was first made by the 
Romans, and was formerly guarded by the Porta 
Claudia, a fortress built by the Archdnehoss 
Claudia of Medici, and blown up by Noy, 1805, 

Another road is by way of the following- 

MiloH. I Mlies 

Munlcli by rail tn Wnlchensne 28 

Wolfrathshausen .,. 22| 
Konit^^dorf............ 8| 

Benedietbeuem ... 16| 

The line passes from the Thalkirchcn Statlont 
through Gross Hessclhohe and Ebcnhansen, to 
Wolfirathshausen (Stat), at the junction of 

the Lolsnch with the Isar, among picturesque 
scenery, often painted by Claude When living at 
Harlachbigen. Thence by road to 

ftmn<B4»tt>wyM*, so called from the Benedictine 
Abbey, now turned into a glass factory. A short 
distance from it is 

SrMehdo)-/. under the Benedietemcand. a steep 
jioint of view, about 6,900 feet high. Hence the 
road winds over the Kmetberih which last com* 
mands proepeets of great extent. 

Valoll6llLIMi ITolforsM, a lake In the midal 

of a thick forest. The vUlape Is noted for renrhen, 
the name of an oxcelletH fresh water Hsb caugbt 


ParoirAtiox, 9,«io, 

' MUtenwald »»i 

fnnsbra^ ............ M 

Digitized by Goo .'k 



A town, «t a high elevatiuii, where musical 
Initmmento and coarse silk poma at« made. 

Hcuce past the source of the IbMtr, and omrtlie 
Karwendel hills, on the Tyroleae botmdaiy, to 
Sccfcld, ZoU, aud 

fnaMbnm Station, on the Ittn.~S«e £rad- 
*htm'9 iW.2lMly to TVrpr m»d to SttUwerlMtA 

Hmioli to SMiitli» la tkft Bawlaa mgb- 


By rail, on thn Snizhnrj line, as follows— 

Munich to M llos. 

OrosshosRcIIoho 7 

Saaerlach 10 

Holzktrchen.. 23 

Thalham 30 

At Ho'zklrcheiL (Stat.) a branch turns off 
for Ttfla a* follows :~ 


»..•«-... 34 

HauHhaui „..,«„,„,^ 87 
SebliorMo ............... 88 


Holzkirchcn 23 

Ohorwamyau 27 

Schaftlach rjO 


Roigersbauem 324 

T»la 36 

Branch line from Schaftlach to CinMin l 4 mllnp. 
Omnibus from Qmuzid dally for Kreutll antl 
the Achensee, and to ttlesbach. 
Beyond Sauerladi (Stat^) an the rainatos of 

a Roman entrenclimi nt. called Pevirs Wall. 

From Gmuud Station there isan omnibas 4 times 
dally to 

HoTKi^.— Ouggremoos ; Tegemseehof; Stetonets. 

A village on Laie Tt'ijem, a picturesque and deep 
•Jieet of water under the Bavarian Alpfs, f our miles 
toniTi «ie and a quarter brood, with wooded 
mountains all round, eommaadinir fine views, 
cspoclally from the Waldbeisr and Letsberg. Hera 
was a Benedictine Abbey, founded 772, by the 
AjfUolfingers, and restored 979,aftcr its destruction 
by the Hongarlans. It was converted by King Max 
Joseph Into a handsome conntiy seat for his Queen, 
Carol iiic, and still belongs to the Royal Family. 
There nro «jcvcrnl ^illiT? aronnd. Tho rostorod 
C/*«rcA has some good painting's. Good jHJints of 
▼lew at Rottadi, the Westerhof, the Paraplui. just 
behind the vlllai^e; from the NeunltpBerg, and 
8chwai,'h.if. ^^-h^i■h Itris n ^'ood sulphur spring. 
Excursiuus to ScWiersee (Stat ), six miles, over 
the Gindclalpc, and the narrow pass of Kaiser 
KIsuse. naw eaUed Valepp; by the Wendelstcin to 
Obsrandorf : and to tho Ach?nset. 

n^tUSTRATED [gec. 3. 

KTeuth Is reached hy tbo hoautlful valley of 
the Weissach, and has an excellent sulphur spa, 
called WUdbad, nearly 2,730 feet above the sea, at 
the bottom of a pletnresqao monntaia hollow. 
Thorc arc douche and steam baths as well as 
miiiornl, with ofhor appllnnros for visitors, In the 
midst of pare air and fine scenery 

BXGCnsiOSfa.— At the Planberg a remarkable 
panorama Is obtained of the tine of glaelera from 
Zugspitz to the Gross-Iockner, and ow tho 
BavarJa plain, as far as Munich. There are fino 
walks through the Achenthal, past Achenkircheii, 
op to the AdtmMty into Tyrol ; and to the Dam nt 
the Kaiser Klause. The KHnlgsalpe. eight miles 
sonth-wcst of Kreuth, has a splendid riew. 
Excellent variesrnted marble U fonrd thi,* 
quarter; with naphtha, here called 8t. Quirlnus's 
Oil, after a holy man of that name. 

Mnntch to Regensburg tRatlalxm^. the 
WaUialla, and Numberg ^Nuremberg). 

By rail (Uayorbjche Ostbahn>; staUoas as 

Munich to Miles. [To Eger. r«i Schwan- 

FrelHin? .....20 dorf, W miles.] 

Landshut 45J Mile 

Neufahrn, by Krgols- EIcTiofeu ^„ Wi ' 

"ach 60 Parsbcrs ....,.....„...1«8 

[Rraneh to Btranblnjr] Ncumarltt-in-Obpf.l*H 

EggmUhl .60| Nttmberg ,«,.„..„.l« 

Kegensbnrg ............85 

(The Walhaila. about C 
English miles distant.] 

FrMilllg (Stat), in Upper Bavaria. 


Ikn.— Pfiug. 

An old cathedral town, the Sec of tho Arch- 
bishop of Hunich, on the Isar, in a pleasant 
country. The Bomanesque Dom^ built 1160-1220, 
but altered in 1738, has two towers and a 
remarkable old Cript, on the short thick piUaia of 
which, dividing It into four aisles, are carved 
monsters. Welhenstophan Abbey, on a blil. 
now a brewery and model lann. Near the hlj^h 
rond is a Monument to Graf TOn Avensburg, 
killed in single Gombat, UW, by Dtthe Chrlstoph 
of Bavaria. 

MOOBbUrg (Stat,), a desolate spot, beyond 
Firelsing. It has a Boomiesqiia Cbnfcli, bnUt m % 

Digitized by Go 


Bout6 40.] 

Fovmnw, 18,870. Ikks.— Kronprinz; Post. 

An old town, owcc fortified, in a beautiful part 
of the Isar, whicli is liere divided into two arms, 
fonning an island, lu wbidi the suburb in situated. 
It U briok IraUt, and has • Brtdg«, a Palace, called 
the Neii-Baii, and three brldi Chnrchea, all Gothic. 

St*Miirtit$\\t^gunliiO, is famous for a fine altar, 
and tin ei^'ht-sidod tower, 4(12 ft. high, from which 
there is a splendid view over the Bavarian plain; 
only Cologne, Rouen, Hamburg, andStranburg are 
higher. The atalned windows deeerre notice. 

Uoty Ohort Chttfch, btttlt 1407, of brick, Ilka the 

other two. The Old Post Office (Oberi)Ostanit«- 
Gcbiiude) has some interesting restored fresco- 
iwriraits of the Bavarian Dukies. There was 
fonncriy an University here, which was trans- 
ferred frooi Ingolstadt. 1800, and was removed In 
1826 to Munich; since which Landshnt hn«? lost 
much of its Importance. The way past the Botanical 
Gardens leads up a bill to the old Castle of 
TroHmUty the former reddence of the dnkes, many 
of whom are buried in the Seligenthal convent 
chapel, closo hy. It contains fine mural paintings, 
dccviratiuns, and panelled ceilings. Conrad, of 
the bouse of Hohcnstaufen, was bom here, m2. 
There is a monnmmt to Lndwig the Blch, erected 
by the ex-klng. 

Kails to Uundail (pace 178) and to Ncamarkt- 

Lggmiihl (8t8tb), or Eckmtthl, 18 miles from 
Battsbon, noted for the Tietory which Marshal 
Davoust fjalnod hrro over the Austrtans, 1808^ 
with t!ir title rif Prinrc nf Eckuiulil. 

R£a£NSBURG or RATISBON (Stat.), 
the capital of the circle or pruvinuu uf Oberfpulz 
(Upper Palatinate); in Bayaria, on the Danube. 
PojPVL&TKM, 87,567. 

Hotels. -CMdenes Kreur. (G<>idcn Cross), where 
Charles Y. lod8<id; Griiuer Kranz. 

CoxT»rAM(Wi.^BaU to Munich, Vienna, Nn- 
remberg (for the direct line, see p. UO), Pragne, Ac. 

Station on the south side of the town. Rail to 
Kelheini. Ing^olstadt, Landshut, <tc. Steamers in 
summer, to L>onauwortb (or by rail). Omnibuses 

I'SO marits. Or by rail to Waihallasttassa (six 

minutes), and thence by foot in 1 hour Carriage 
and horse, there and back, 7 marks, with stay of 
\\ hour; two horses, 10 marks to 18 marks. 

This very old town stands In a fertile valley, on 
the south side of the Dannba, opposite the month 
of the little river Rcgen, and in the circle of Regcn. 
There was a Roman town here in the second cen- 
tury, called Rtgina^ RegiOy Rt^inum^ afterwards 
/Zo/iidoiut ; a remnant of which Is perhaps the 
Ruracrthurm, near the Herzcgshof (In the Korn- 
markt), the old scat of the Agil 'lfineror«, or Dukes 
of Bojoarlen (Bavaria), till Charlemagne made the 
place a free city. St. Boniface founded a bishopric 
here about 740. In nsedlssTal times It became a 
populous mart for trade; and from 1G63 to the 
destruction of the Empire, 1806, it w as the seat of 
the Genmit sixty-two meetings of which were 
held at the old Rathhans. Here a league against 
the Protestants was formed, 1024. At the peace of 
Lunoville, It w is transferred to the rriiH-c Primate, 
Charles Dalbcrg, and in 1810 to Bavaria, after 
Napoleon had, in 1809, defeated the Austrians in a 
bloody battle of Htc days under its walls. He was 
slightly wounded In this battle. 

A Bridge^ 1,100 feet long, 23 feet broad, buUt 
1135-40, crosses the river to the suburb of Stadt- 
am-llof, on the north side, passing between the 
islands of ObcrerWShrd and Unterer WlOurd, in 
the midst of the stream, near the St. Catherine 
beerhouse. The old town ramparts are tnmed 
into gardens. 

It bears all the marks uf a niedifO^'al city, in its 
high stone gable houses and narrow croolECd streets. 
Maximtltan Strasse is modem, and built with some 
regularity. In the Gesandten Strn.ssc (Ambassadors 
Street), the houses still bear the arms of the coun- 
tries whose envoys resided here, us the Imperial 
Eagle, Lkm of St. Mark, Ac. The Mocklenbnrg 
envoy continued to live here after the break up of 
the ancient empire, and died just before 1848. 
About 20 Renaissance fortified Tower$ and beacons 
are also seen, among which Is the Gkddan TOwer, 
la Walleivstraseo; that of the Hans Zum QoUath, 
with Its fresco of David and Goliath, near the 
bridge, and another nt the Golden Crois Hotel. At 
this last was boru i>(>u John of Austria, 1547, a 

to tl»« WVkfBu (fi milo), In If hour; rctiurn ffurci, I e^n ol Charles V., bv the;>rettv Barbara Wg0 

Digitized by Google 



Near tlie Osten or £a«t Gate, 1» the Ring*! VUta, 
ft nnftll Qotbic house, on a bastion. 

The large old Rathhaus, in which the Oennan 
Diet met, is of the fourteenth centurj', with a later 
lidditiou mndc 1660. It has a carved portal and 
•tnirctM leadftisr vp tbe large RettAuaal, where tbe 
members of the Diet used to assemble. It contains 
jw»rtrait8 and cliairs. ^vith a number of models hy 
Kcgensburg artists. Here is the Town ^ffrfory, with i 
n collection of 20,000 maps. The subterranean 
prisons below were need down to 1784. Here are 
the Bloekkammcrn— narrow vaults, In which you 
cannot stand upriglit; lower down, n Torture 
chamber, with all tbe implements of torture in 
good preserratlofi; next 1« the grated room in 
which the judges sat. Tickets at the guardroom 
f Wachtl^aiy, 60 pf. Opposite the Rathhaus is tlie 
house of the Dolllnper family, noted for two ' 
paintinf^s of the right between Hans Dollingerand 
the giant, Krako, which may be Jnqieeted. 
' f n a house near htm are the coIleetUms of the 
Historical Society, tlic Zoolngical and Mineral- ; 
ogieal CJociety, and tlie Botanical Society. [ 

The fine restored Cathedral or Dom of St. Peter, 
Imnt ItTUiSO, Is a ilne Gothto stone pile, m feet 
long, and Itt feet broad, with some excellent 
carved worlc in the fine west front. The towers, 
htill unfinished, are 230 feet high. The nare 5s 
attout 120 feet high. The stained glass whidowe» 
haye been coni|deted sfaice 1886, in a style of great 
ix-nuty. The high altar, of pore sUrer, was made 
1781. by Prlnce>Bishop Fngger. A good apse 

' Among tile MunumenU are Margaret Tacherin 
of Nttmberg <188I)— « bronze relief of Jesns at 
Bethany, by Peter Vischer ; the handsome bronze 
»!afnc of Cardinal Bishop Philip Wilhelm, Duke of 
Bavaria (1608); Prince Bishop I'ount Herbcrtstein ; 
• stone carving of Christ feeding the Five Thou- 
sand; a marble statue of Prince Primate Karl 
Dalberg (1817) from Canova's designs, byLuigi. 
Zendemenephl ; also the late Bishops of Sailer, 
Wittmann. and Schwiibl, the last by Eberhard. i 
' ' In the cloisters outside are many old tombs and 
'Roman remains found in tbe neighbottriiood ; also | 
remains of the two ancient elwpels 6f All Saints 
i»nd Little St. Stephen's. Tho Aw^' Tower, or i 
KseUthurui, is so called because of a winding ji<»th ' 

to tbe battlements, for the donkeys carrying brieka 

and mortar. Near tbe Dom is the old deserted 
Bitthof$ho f. nr Fpi<?rr>pnl Pnlaea, fn which the Km- 
peror Maximilian II. died, 1676. The Roman 
Tower adjoins it. 

M. IBImlm (St. Blaise), formerly the Donitdeta 
Church, is a large, light, Gothic building, having 
an altar-piece, the Fall of the Angola, by Rubens ; 
and the chapel of Albertus Magnus, containing his 
portrait and pulpit. 

The large JVl0tfsrmllfi«r<r Church was attached 
to a noble ecdoiiistical establishment for ladies, 
founded 960.!?7ti, liy Judith Gisela, widow of Duke 
Henry of Saxony, who entered the convent herself 
with twelve Conntmses. It has been med as a 
residence of the Bishop. The churen has been 
restored and modernised, and contains tombs of 
the Ktnperor Otto II., and his mother Adelheid, 
and of tiic founder. 

The Chureh St. IXonys (Dionystns or Denis), at 
OSermfiiwfer, was partof another ecclesiastical house 
for noble ladles fl»'d has graves of the fomi dress. 
Hemma, wife of King Ludwip of the Germans 
(died S76), and of Duke Henry I. uf iUvaria ; with 
some beautiful monuments In the Vorlmlle or front 
court. The Abbesses of this house and of Ober* 
miinstcr had seats in the Diet. 

St. Jncofi's or the Bchottenkircht, belontrintr tt» the 
old convent of Scotch Benedictines, noyr a Seminary 
for priests, Is a Bysantlne structure of tlie 19th 
century, with a good porch, ornamented with 
some quaint carvings, and fronted hy a Gothic 
cross of the fifteenth rcntury, restored IsriS. 

The Gothic Minorittn Kirche^ in the Minorite 
Place, it now nsed as a military store-houae. 

The Church of St. AegSdUn (St. Giles), attached 
to the Hospital of a Omna!! rf^liirions Order, is an 
clcprnnt old Cenuan Iniildiiig of 1890, with tomb* 
of tlie Knights of the Order. 

The DreidiiigttfUt Kird^ (Trinity Chureh), built 
1627-31, belongs to thcLuthcnins. Here lathe frrave 
of fount Uhrlch f^eh i»^'j-nt-eh, beheaded 16Sft^'en 
the lluidplatz, as Wallen^tein's accomplice. ' 

St. EmmeranC$ Gftiirrik, in the upper part of the 
town, was part of one of the oldest Benedictine 
Abbeys in Bavaria, founded 652-07. hy ]>iiks 
Thei'dor. to atone for the murder of St. Emmcrani 
by iiis so|i. The Abbot hud n seat io th* P4vt. 

Digitized by Google 

Koiite 40,] HAND-BOOK to gbbmas 

pns-^^siinns were Required 1808, by the Prince of 
Tburn and Taxis, whose P&lace is cl<Me by. The 
B«ll To««r li A deUkehed pile, ballt ISW. Anong 
tli« momuneiita Is the bait of ATOntinc, th« his- 
torical writer, who wrote a work on Finger-nnm- 
bering. in consequence of some Romnn taMof s he 
discovered here. It stands in the Vorhallc, with 
• •toneebiir, oeoapled by the Emperor H«liirich 
der Heilig«r at th« opening of the ehnrdi. St. 
Rupert's old chapel has been restored. Other 
chnpels are dedicated to St. F.tnmcram, whoso 
slU'cr shrine (1428) is here; to several of the earliest 
hlahoiw of Begensbofg, including St. Wolfgang (in 
the ancient vrypt) ; totbeEnperor Amnlf, hit son, 
Ludwip Kind ''the child); Dnke TIenrich der 
Zanlcer (Wnmpler); Dulcc Arnold, and others. 
Bishop Sailer's statue faces the church. 

In th« old Abboy bvlldiugs at the Palace, the 
Prince of Thurn and Tazto has added some new 

ones; including the Picture Gallery of works by 
Adnm. Achent>ach, Fries, and other Munich artists; 
with a modem Gothic family chapel, in the By xan- 
ttna CSotaCen, bunt vp^midsofelevBiieenMiiles ago. 
*Fbe Chapel has painted windows by Sauerieute; 
Dnnneckcr'a celebrated Status of Christ: and the 
family vault resting on sliort pillars, round which 
Is the inscription, 'Gotten Friedv mit Euch Allen" 
fThe Peace of God be with you all). Here dso 
arc a library, Armoury, Observatory, and Bolar 
nlcal Gardens; Stahles with marble mangers, and 
Riding Houso, adorned by .^Jchwanthaler. The 
Prince's Qordens are now clo.«ied. He was heredi- 
tary Pcstdnaster to the German Confedwatioo, till 
hie rights were porobased ont In 1M7. 

A new Theatre wa^; built, The Zfringw is 

a prison near the Danube. 

Near St. Peter's Gate in the AUee or promenade, 
which goes round the town, on the site of the ram- 
parts, ie an Obelbk to Prince Karl Anselm who 
lirst planted It; also a monument of the astronomer 
Kepler or Kcpjtler (died 16.%). in the form of a 
Doric Kolunilu, built 1808, with a bust, by Diill, 
tmA an excellent bas-relief, by Dannecker; the 
monuments of Geoerel von ZoUer (Iffill), of Baron 
von Gleichen, and of Count von Gortz. The great 
excursion from Regeiisburg is to the Walhalla, 
which may be done by rail, by private <K)ovey- 
anco (as «bovp), or by 8«)NWllwi)gci) (|i»ily i^t twO. 


I Crossitig the bridge, past St. Catherine's breweryt 
I on the i<^hinfi nlxmt half-way, or taking rail tnm 

Walhftllii: t r:i«!9e Stfttion, we reach 

StacLt-am-2lor (Stat.), opposite Regensburg. 
ft the Influx of the Regcn, on the north side of the 
Danube. Pofu&atiov, 9,000. 

The greater part was burnt in the Austrian re- 
treat, IftOO. At Stelnwog, close hy. 1- the Drrifnt- 
tigkcits Kirche (Trinity Church), in a i>eantiful 5pot 
j on a hill, oraunanding a fine view of the old city 
I and the valleys of the Danube and the Begen. It 
I was liuilt 1713, as a memorial of the plague, and in 
18;i7 wasenhirL'^^d hy a Byzantine ro-nrt and tower. 
The road snd rail hence towards the WalluUla 
lead to 

DOOftlUrtailf (f tat), 0 mUes distant. 

Hotel.- -Zur Walhalla. 

On the Danube (crossed by a wooden bridge), 
close to the country seat of the Prince of Tbnrn 
and Taxis, in a beautiful park. It is so called from 
the old fortress of Stanf on the hill above, destroyed 
by the Swedes in the Thirty Years* War (1834). 
The piljrriiiis' church of St. .«?aIvator, restored, 184t, 
is on anutlier lieight; and close to it, ahont 880 
feet above the Danube, is the new Temple of the 
German Elect, or 


A memorial of remarkable Germans, of all agc.^ 

stan'linc' on a declivity on the north side of the 
rivor. facing the south, with a view which takes in 
the Bavuriau plains and the Tyrolese uiountaius. 
It was projected by the late Khig Ludwlg I., de* 
signed by Klonzc, «nd bttllt between 1880 and 1842. 
Tiic foundation and the opening in both years took 
place on l.Stli OctoliOr, the anniversary of the 
battle of lx>ipHic. The cost in ustimutcd at eight 
mUlion florins. It is a magnificent reproducUoa 
of the Parthenon at Athens, of white marUe, In 
the Doric style without, and the Ionic within. 

It stands at the top of a lofty pyramidal hnse- 
uient, 1S8 feet high, ascended by a tlighi ui 2!iO 

Steps, divided at intervals In three tenaees, which 

run ronnd three sides of the building. At the 

second terrace is a bronze door to a crypt, called 
the Hall of Expectation, where the Itust'^ of living 
worthies are put before death calls them tu the 
Wqlhelis, >^ bprc the arrnnt'vmuits for heallAg 

Digitized by Goi^gle 



the bnildtiij? nre cflrried on. The marble Temple 
itself is exteriiAlly 225 feet by 104 feet, torroDnded 
by 52 columns, eacbtf fMt high, of wtaAdi adoiM« 
row of M ooliiiiiiia forma the portloou Tlio pedi- 
UMiit is 12 feet hlgber, making the whole hcigrht 
from the bottom of the steps, 195 feet. Some of 
the marble blocks are 18 feet long. 

In the south pediment Is a group of lo figures, 
•mblcmatical of tbo Qonnui Wtr of Liberatloo, 
IBll, designed by BeiudK and cerrad by SehwMi* 
ibalor. The North pediment is filled up by 

Schwanthaler's Teutoberp-er Amiinsschlacht, or 
Victory of Aruiiuius over the Roiiiun legions in 
the Teatobnrg Foroat. Two greet bronse folAog 
doors open Into the richly decorated HaU, which 
is in the Ionic style, 50 ftet brond, 175 feet long, 
iiichrdhi? the recess at the furilier end, and 57 feet 
high to the iron ro*if tree (Uachstuhl). It hilt no 
celling, and no aldo wtudowa, being lighted by 
akyllghts of ground glu^s in the roof above. Thi.s 
is made of plates '^f '-ril? bronze, spotted with stars, 
on an azure gruuiul. aixl iulorned with arabesques, 
in gold and variouii culaurs. The floor, of marble 
mosaic, has Its length along the walls, broken up 
by three projecting masses of pillars, and bears 
three hiscriptlons. nearest the door is 
"Bcschlosscn (determined on) 1807;" in the 
middle " Bcgonnon (begun) 18th October, 1830; " 
further nv% "Vollcndet (ended) 18th October, 
1882." The walls are lined with marble, and 
supported by colossal Caryatides in the form ol 
coloured Walkyrcn or Valkyries, the Amazons of 
the northern mythology; eight on each aide, by 
Sehwanthaler. The/Wese estenda S80 feet round 
the Hall, and is filled by bas-reliefs, deslji^ipd by 
Wagner, illustrative of the German people b«fore 
the preaching of Christianity by St. Uuaiiucc. 

Tworowsof pedestalaand eonsoles support tUe 
JlMsft (not statues) men and women of German 

origin, who have become distinguished tince the 
Christian epoch and are considered deserving of a 
place here. They are scpfiratcd into groups, 
between which are marble seats, candelabras, and 
elie winged goddesses of Victory, by Riuch. The 
list, compri-viii^ heroes, «tate = nir.n, poets, div^rr^^. 
writers, artists, dec , as first chosen by the Romau 
Oatholic ex-Khii;, esdnded Lather, whose bust 
did not appear till after the hlng^a ^bdlMtlon in 

[See. 3. 

184S. It runs chronologically from Hclnrich der 
Finkler, the earliest authentic bust, 986, down to 
08«th^ Humbddt, and Badetaky. Amtmg tbuaa 
are Quttenbnrg, WallenoteiB, A. DSrer, llarki 

Thcrnsrr. Frederick IT , Lessinir. >fo7art, Bl&OlMr^ 
Kant, Schiller, and other represoiitativc men. 

A row of gold tablets on the wails contains 
64 namea of WalhallaF-genoaaen, men entilled to « 
memorial, but of whom no certain likeness ezlata. 
This Includes Charlemainie and Alfred. 

The subjects in the Frieze are as follow: — 
Emigration of the original people of Germany from 
Caneasus to Europe; Common and domeaUe life 
among the old Germans, their sacrifieei, armed 
dances. Ae.; Public life of the old Germans, tlicfr 
popular meetings and employment. Passage of 
the ClmbK over the Alps, b.c. 118. Battle of 
N4n<da. Battle on the Bhine, under Clandiuu 
Civilis. Battle of Hndrianoplc. Sack of Bome, by 
Alaric. Tiie rest arc Scandinavian subjects, rela- 
ting to Odin, Thor, &c. 

The direct line from Regeusbnrg ti Niiniberg, 
opened 1878, passes BbdlhoMlv VVOMMSM^^A- 
der-Siil2, Feucht. Ac, and completes the direct 

line between Frankfort and Vienna. 

From Regeusbnrg to Augsburg, as follows:— 

ingoistadt (aee 
Route 41) ......... 48 

Dasing 78 


Sinzing 8| 

IBranch to Alling.J 
Saal i5| 

[Br. toKelheim,6.] 

Ncustftdt 28| 

Augsburg (see 
Route 41) 140| 

At Keilieim i,Stat.)— population, 3,000— where 
the Ludwig'a Canal jolna the Danube, near u fin« 

defile of the river, is the BefttHutgihalle, a handsoan 

Rutunda on tlie M kliaelsbcrg, opened 1668, to < 
memorate the War of Liberation. 

Munlflili to AvgHnnVi nolBftU, Ifuwi- 
iMtg. Baabos; Hot and BotUn. 

By rail— Stations aa under, Wa Augsburg aqdvlii 
Nuremberg direct. 


Munich to 

Passing 5 

Maisach 15j 

Angst ui ' no 

[Branch to Lindau.J 

OoBauwprth 68 

[Bratu'h to 


Harburg (Tunnel • 

454 feet) 71 

I7fidlingeii..„...„M. 83 

Digitized by Google 



Oettinsfen ............ 91 

OmneiiMiiNn •**...107| 



[Arondlef to Wnrz> 

btipg. and to 
iroldstndt. and 
Munich, as below.] 
Ptefaifdd — 1» 

[Brmtehto Miles. 

WfllHmbnrg 91 

Elllnjren 93i 

Ple!nf«ld 97 

Roth lOS 

ScliwAtmeh .........11''> 

Nnremberg 124^ 

FUrth 129 

Eriansren (Tpnnel 
1.015 feet) .........199 

Fovchheim ............149 

RamticrK 1<M 

[Drnnrh t<> 

Lichteufcla...... 184 

{BraiKk to GobQirr] 


(^ulinbnch 2U2| 

[Dranch to 
Bay rent h ] 

Kenenmaflct 910 

Oherkotziiu -MU 

Hof 2i t 

Direct line from Mniileh 
t (> Plciaf«ld(«ee Route 

Dachav ............... Hi 

Pf^ershanaen 99 

Pfnffenhofen »H 

Reichertshofcn 4't| 

Inzoltttadt -iS 

Gaitnenhelm......... 66^ 

KfehMldt «7| 

Pappoiiholm fiJ 

Treacbtlingt>n 85^ 

[From Hof to BerUii, sec Route»84and47.] 

MnnlCll, as In Ronte 98a, thence to 


POPCLATtOV, 79,593. 

HoTEU.— Three Moon: BayrfacherHof; Wiift> 

tcmborp:: GoMi-ne Traubc ; OrlinerRof; Swabla. 
The first Hotel. Ih-ei Mohrtn, certainly one of the 
oldest hotels in Germany, was so called in 
reeorda 500 yean b«ek. It adjoined part of the 
Fagyers* home, and had Ao room in whleh Charles 
V. was entertained by Connt Antony Fitirtrer 
when he cancelled the horuli? for the Kmpf>rnr"s 
debts to him, by throwing thom intoncinnam(»n lire. 
The vUdten* book cootahied the antographs of 
Napoleon, Wcllbigton, and many other celcbrltlea. 
It bns been almost entirely rebntlt. 

This ancient fmporLil city staml« rni n fertile 
eminence, l,4G>)ft'et iilxivc tli ■ s« u, iit the junetion 
of the rivers Lech and Wcrtnch. the Vindas and 
Zfevt of the RonuuiR, who founded a eettlonuoit 
here in the time of August u<^. 12 B.C.. by the name 
of Augusta Vindf liiofiiin. The rrost of tlic city is 
the Roman Pine. It is the (ildoH town in Oavaria, 
and one of tho oldestln Germany ; and though fallen 
from its mcdteval importance is stUl the seat of an 
active trade. Fmir ra'I<< and several roads meet 
here. It on^ist* of an I'pper. Middle, and Lower 
ToTrni OI10C shut in by old walls Aud bastions, 

with ten gates. The glacis Is planted for a promo- 
nade. The suburb of St. James Isoothe east tide. 

T ike other old pl.icos Aii},'8bur;?' is made np of 
narrow, crooked street"? whieli are generally paved 
with flint ; but there arc luuiiy good squares and 
bnlldinga, especially In the Karolinen and MaxI* 
miltan Streets, which strike from north to south, 
between the Cathedral and St. Ulrich's Church. It 
is traversed by four canals, crossed by about 220 
sbmrt bridges, and la woU sappUed with water by 
a hydranllc system of Tcry early date, which 
feeds the street reservoirs. Many of the houses 
arc striped with prrcpn, rcti, yellow, and white 
bauds, and adorned with frescoes of Bible subjects, 
painted hi the Uth century, by Ileelur, Holaar. 
BlegiiHr, and other artists of the day. The old 
Fuggerhaufy near the Drei Moliren, helon^rhjff ti» 
Prince Fu^'gcr, is thus onm.ucutcd, and has some 
modem frescoes. 

After bebi? under the rule of the Franks and the 
Dukes of Swabia, it became a free city, 1271?. In 
the l.'.th and Kith eenturh-* it was the head of the 
Swabian connnerciai confederation, and the ntaplc 
for the overland trado between the Levant, Italy, 
and South Qennsny; a position It retained till 
eclipsed by the rise of Frankfort. Its merchants, 
in cxjnsequcnce, frrew rich and powerful. 

rinliltpiiia Welser, the beautiful daughter of an 
Augsburg citizen, married Ferdhtand, the son of 
the Bmperor Fstdhiand I. Olara de Detten mar- 
ried Frederick tho Bleetor Palathie. The Fu-r-er 
fnmily whi> were woollen-weavers at first, obtained 
a pre-tiDiincnce here as merchants and bankers, 
which lasted for three or four ceutvriea. They 
lent Utfgasttms to Charles V.and also to Philip II. to 
carry on his wars in tho Netherlands; held a 
monopoly of the spice trade and the mines of Bpahi. 
and spent tholr gains liberally in works of charity, 
and in favonring llteratare and art. The head of 
the family was created a Countof the Rmpirc : one 
became Prince Fusr^rer-Bftbcnhausen ; another died 
a Cardinal. 1 7i 5. A district called the Fuggerei, in 
the St. James's suburb, containing 107 houses In 
three streets, was endowed 1519, for the benefit cf 
poor dttsens, #ho pay a nominal rent 

Augsburg was annexed tn Bavaria in 180fi. Here 
the ccle'irated Confusion o/Augtburg was presented 
\ at the Interim," 25th Jane, \o the Enporor 

Digitized by Google 




[Sec. 3. 

Chnrlrs V ami Diet, slttni^j; nt tlie ilmhop's 
Palace, ia tbc Karuiinen Tiatz, near the Dom, 
wh«re LqUmt had held hU dispute with the Legate 
C'fljptnn in 1518. This Confession of the Lutheran 
Church was drawn up by Melanchthon, asuistcd by 
Luther, who was staying at Coburg. (^'hnrles V. 
was the guert of the Fuggcrs (sec page liS). It 
was signed hy the Elector of flexony, the Marqnte 
of Brandenburg, the Duke of Luneburg, the Land- 
prrnrc of Hoase, and others; nnd resulted, In 1555, 
in granting complete toleration to the Protestants. 

The JEetfMtttM, In MaxfanllUm Strasse, Is one of 
the finest structures here; built, 16iO, by Holl, in 
the Italian style. It has tho City Piiip-Cone in front, 
And busts of Roman Emperors in the ball. On the 
second storey is the Ooldene iSaal, a handsome room 
lighted by three rows of windows, one oTor tho 
other— 110 feet lonf, 58 feet Ittoad, and 52 feet 
hlffh. The ceilings and walls are painted with 
frescoes, by Rottenhammer, and Kagcr, who was 
afterwards bnrfiHnast^. At the oomcrs are 
Fttrstenslninier, or roomsonee oeenpled hy thefonr 
Bleeten, 1658. Near the Knthhnn<! a cloclc 
tower, called the Pcrlachthurm (built 1058), with 
SOU steps to the top, and the statue of Cisa, a 
tutelar goddess of Augsburg, 5 feet high, for a 
weatberooek. In front of ft ts Gerard^s old Bmnse 
Fountain and Statue, dedicatcfl to the Emperor 
Aii<mstus (l.WO). Opposite the Ratlihaus arc the 
new Police buiidhigs, and the ExcKattgt (liiirse), 
with a fine view from the loof. The new n#aire, 
tn the Renaisaance style, is in Fngger Strasse. 

The Dom, or Catfwdml on thp Prxrnde Platz, 
occnpieit the site of a Hasilicaof the tenth century, 
and was rebuilt after its destruction by the Hnna, 
chiefly In the fourteenth and fifteenth eentnxles, 
n 321-1 (?11). It is an irrc-ular Gothic pile, about 
"iO f»M t IniiL-, w5l!i ;i Miia ile aisle 45 feet broad. 
It has two stone door.s to the choir, and an ancient 
brania door on the sonth side, dated 10A8, 
enrlonsly oarvedj M side ohapds; stained win- 
dows; paintings by old Germnn artlirts (!*lc{re of 
Vi'Miua, 1088); and many monuments and portraits 
of isishops down to 17A0- some of which go ImicIk 

to we. 

There are fourteen otlier Chnnsbea, of whieh 
flvo arc Protestant. 

The Catholic Church of SL L'irkhand i<i. Afra, i 
H tlie ni4 of Mi|Kim|lii|ii Street ¥«e hoijt 1467- i 

1500, an<l i'^ olS fcft li'iig, by'.Hfrot broad, and 100 
feet high. The tail ateeple is <i6u feet high (tme 
proq>eet). Itoontalnsallnealtarbroiiseof Cbrlst 
on the Crosa, at the Arise of Cymbcrt, orSinriMrt; 
the Fufrprr Chapel; and a painting of Maximilian 
1. and the Diet laying xhr ]nst ^tone. Here a con- 
clave was called by Ferdinand IV. and Joseph I. 
An ETingellcal church of the same name is joined 
to it. 

The church of .S'/. Ar.nn (formerly the Carmelite 
Church) hnt a carved oak chancel, paintinfr?? by 
Lucas Kranach, and other old Augsburg artists, as 
Bnrelanalr and the elder Holbein^ and portralta of 
Luther, and the Eleetor of Basony. 

SI. Morilz (St. Maurice), fonnded 1^1 9, by Bishop 
Bruno, contains several pood monuments, with 
paintings by Hcihs, Rottenhammer, Steudiiu, and 
sonlptnres by Fold. A bronse Fonntain stands 
near it. 

iS/. C«>rf7(?'« was bnllt by Bishop Walther. IHS, 
and has a handsome choir, and paintings worth 

nie parish cbnrch of 8i. MaxniUkm was 

founded by the Fuggers, 1609. 

Tlw llarflisser Church (formerly the Carmelite), 
now used by the Protestants, contains a very good 
organ, and many ]>nintings by old German masters. 

The.^t>«eniri (Zeughaus), hnOt 1607, lias a group 
hi broiuta by Von Bain, of St. Michael the Arch- 
angel over coming War. It contains many old 
cannons, with ornaments and inscriptions. The 
Royal Ordnance Foundry here is the most con- 
dderable in BaTaria; to visit It permissitm must 
he obtained from an artillery eOoer. 

Water Horifcj. — The old aqueduct and water 
towers for supplying water should he noticed. 
Besides the Augustusbrunnen (ur Fountain) above 
mentioned, with its statue of Augustas, there are 
others deserving of attention for their worimum- 
ship. The Herculetbrunnen, near the site of the 
Drei Mohren. by De Vrii s (irtOO), is a proup of 
Hercules and the Hydra, with the ]S'alad». The 
Xeptunfyrmmm is In the Fkhmarket. The Jf^rw 
ewiutbrumen^ with De Vries*s Meronry, is at St. 
Mrturloo's Church; and tho Georgsbrunnfn, noar 
St. (ieorpe'b. Another excellent bronze group, in 
the Schatzlcrlschcngartcn, w^s ^opo by Gerard, 
l^, (or Fiu'ifrr, 

Digitized by Goo^k 

Uotite 4}.] 


The Bakm*, Butchers', uid Weaven' OuildhaUt 

«tm remain. At the last one (Webfrhaus) they 
show ft piece of cloth made by the tirst Fu^r^er. 

The house in which Philipptnu ]\'tl4er, wife of 
the Archduke Ferdinand, was honi is in the WeUer- 
siramt n«8rtotbalofJ^ifenMnMr,th« barber's 
daughter, wbo uMtrled Albert III. of BaverU. 

Clow by is the Maximaiatu-JIfuMum^ with the 
mUections of the HUtorieal aad the Ketural His- 
tory Societies. 

The PolytechnieSeJiool^iovmded 1883, is in the oid 
conrcnt of St. Catherine, opposite the ancient 
J^aM<AiraR«,orToU-honM. It has coUectkms of 
natural history, teehnkal apparatus, models, a 
l«l)oiit<wy, Ae. 

Bovai Picture OcUUry. now at the old moMastory 
of St. Catiiarinc. ccntiiina ^rood siiecimeujs oi early 
Germau paiutin^j^s ; catalogue, 2 marks. It occu- 
pies three large rooms and flre eabfatets, au a 
contains about 700 paintings, divided into— 1st, 
the Swabian Gertnan school; 2nd, Dutch and 
FlcLuish ; 8rd, Italian and bpaiiiah. 

Among the»e ore Peter and the Transfiguration 
by Bolbein the elder; twoby the younger Holbein, 
who came to England; L. Cranach's Samson and 
DoHIuh; B Zei'Mnnm s History of St. Valentine; 
A. Diirer's Maximilian I.; Uurckkmair'g Christ and 
• the Virgin; and his Crucifixion; Kraga's Last 
Judgment ; Vandyok's (or Kn«Uler*s) Henrietta of 
Orleans; Rubens's Fight of Crocodiles; Titiai^s 
Venus and Cupid: Guido'8 Sleeping Infant; Mu- 
rlllo ? .Savoyard ; Zurbaran's St. Francis. There 
art alao models from the antique. 

The Library (Stadtbibliothck) in St. Annenbof, 
has 180,000 books, Including Latin Bibles, dated 

from 1466 ; with many MSS., especially Greek, 
4rc., bequeathed by Ulrlch Fuggcr. In the front 
part of the building Is the Antiquaritm Romanwn. 

At Coftii't Printing Office, the well-known 
Allgetiunie Ziitung '^Universal Gazette) was for- 
merly printed and puUlsbed, but its bead-quarters 
mra transferred a few years ago to the offioe of 
this firm in Mttnicb. 

Ontlia west side of the town, near the railw&y 
station, are the newer streets, containing several 
handsome buildings. The Jacobl-strasse, on the 

' 6pposUe side, one of the finest ^peclmcni of an old 
medieval street In Europe, offers a complete cou* 
i trast to the newer part. 

There are sereral large factories here, the spin- 
ning and weaving mlUs employing large numbers 
of hands. 

Among its manufactures are gold and siWcr 
plate, jeweller}', paper (first made from rugs here, 
1880), parebment, hangings, carpets, optical Instrn- 
ments, type, sugar (from beetroot). 

The cider Ilolholii, and Holl. the artlft<i. wort* 
natives of Augsburg. The first tulip in Europe 
was brought here, 1551, by Heerwart, a Ihitch- 
man, from C<MistantlnopIe. The town Is noted for 
its wealthy charitable eiulowtiients, their Ineonio 
belnpT reckoned at thn c f|riart« r<^ of a niillinu 
sterling. The Waiscnnaus (Ui-phau School), 
Savings Bank, and Industrial Borne, were founded 
by BehXtaler, 1838. Also an ezoeUeni Asylum in 
an old Dominican Friary. 

Excursion H to the Lech/tlde^ a large plain be- 
tween the Lech and the Wertach, where Otho 
the Gnat defeated the Huns, 9M. About fourteen 
miles from Augsburg towards Begensburg, lies the 
gin:il! t' wn of Aichach, near the ruins of the 
CasUe of Witwlsbach^ the original beat of the pre- 
sent Bavarian family. An Obdisk was «l«eted 
in 1881 to eommemofute this fact. 
Dourawttrtli (Stat) 

Population, 3,900. IHN.—Krebs. 
Rati to Nuremberg, Ulm, Angsbturg, Batisbon, 
Munich, &c. 

Formerly a free Imperii city, now a small pto- 
Ylncial town on the Danube, where the steam 
navigation begins. The stone briJprc Is 550 feet 
long. Its parish Church has a statu© of the 
Virgin, said to hare been brought from the East 
in the time of the Crusades. 

In consequence of a dispute between the Pro* 
testants and Catholics, in 1607. the town was 
pliictMl muicr ban, and Its religious liberties were 
abolLihed. This gave rise to the Protestant and 
CathoHo Union, and the Thirty Tears' War. 

The large and beautiful Abbey of ffHUffodtrmu 
(Holy Cross) belongs to the Prince of Oettln^cn- 
Wallei steiii. It has the tomb of the unfortunate 
Maria of Brabant, who was beheaded by her 
husband, Ludwlg Y., Duke of Bavarlai Im u It of 

Digitized by GoQgle 


wifoundeil jealousy. Jbrom here a branch rail, 
opened 1874, goet off to Ingolttadt, d««c«iding the 

Danube. Another line ascends the rlw to Clm. 

Near It is Srfifi'eTibtrg, where. In the SpauUh 
War of Succession, the French, under Tallard, 
fttffered a heavy defeat from Marli-oiough, 1701. 
before tbe battle of Blenheim. Bleil]ielm<Blind- 
heitn) and Hochgl&dt (Stat.), near tho alteof tbe 
battle of IGth Augrust. are on the line to Ncu- 
Offingren, a station on the Ulm-Augsburg rail. 

Harburg (Skat) 

PovcLanoir, 1,800 (chiefly Jews). Belongs to 

the Prince of Oettinsren-W«llentetu, Anmh wliose 

Cast/e above It there is a fine prospect. 

Nordllngen (Stat.) 

Population, 7,800. Isss.— Krune; Hutel Wiiut. 
An old Imperial city, shut in by walls, in the 
pleasant ratlej of tlie Rlesfan, anxmg' boantlAil 
sccneiy. It is noted for its carpet and rug weav- 
ing', and for its '/fvc and sansagres. A famous 
battle wfts foufrht hue in the Thirty Years" War, 
on the 23rd and 24th August, 16^H, when the 
Swedes under Von Weiner and Marshal Horn 
were defeated with great slaughter by the 
Imperial tr<><»ps. Actions were foug-ht here be- 
tween the French and Anstrlans, in 1798 and Ism. 

The Mangp^tinke 1* a handsome Gotlilo Cathe- 
dral, bnilt 1497«llf00^ wtth a tower S80 feet high ; a 
head of Christ, by Mich n el Anprclo; l>eR!de8 abore 
SO excellent paintings by Hcrlen, and by Hnns 
hcbiiufelcm (A. Durer's pupil), restored in 1648; 
and many good monuments. Some other works 
bjrHerlen are contained in St. Salrator's church; 
and at the Rathhaut is a large fresco I'utiiting by 
Mciiaufelein (The Siege of DcthuHu), successfully 
restored, 184i>, by Eicbner. The "riew from the 
Cathedral embraces about 100 plncesln the Riesgan. 
Kali to Dombiihl (page IHO) 34 miles. 

to Stutfgurt through Aalen and Gmnnd. 
OottlUj^en (Stat.), the seat of the Princes of 

PoroLATxoK, 8,000, indndhig many Jews, who 
have a synagogue here. The Ca<t!e and St. 
jjaniea's Church, with its high tower, deserve notice. 

Kroillielin (Stat.) Hero is a Castle sur- 
rounded with a deep ditch and hsTlnff four towers. 

OniimllMltBll (Btel), where the Wursburg 
line loins with a branch tQ Trswohtlbi^. 


P0PUI.AT10S, 2,700. 

An old walled town on the Altmlitil, wiUch is 
eroseed by a hildge. It la the blrtta^laee of an 
historian of the Rcfovmation, known as <MMa>, 

, whose Tiarric was Hosmann. Here is a Roman 
camp, with remains of the Teufelsmauer (Devil's 
Wall), built by Probus, in the third coutury, to 
guard the frontier agahist the Germans. 

At flainftM (Stat.), a small town on the 
Swabhin Reset, fAe Mrtti Um Jlram MMA to 

Nuremberg comes in by T^-ny of Ingolntadt, BMh 
stiidt, Weis^enberg, and Ellingen, as below. 

[I31g0iatadt (Stat.), in upper Bavaria. 

PoPUtATlON, 17,539. I.MK.— Goldner .\dler. 

Tramway from the station to the town. 

A forti^ piaoe on the Danube, contabiing a 
royal palace, and a church (one of seven), in which 
Tilly was buried, 1R32, when Gustarns Adolphu=? 
laid siege to tho town. Urban Ilegius or Faustus 
was at the famous University, founded here 1472, 
but afterwards moved to Lan^nt. From here 
the rail is open up and down the Danube to Donatt- 
worth and Ilegensburg, Page 1/5T. 

Eichstadt (Stat.), in Bavarian Froiiconia. 

Population, 7,600. • 

l3r»8.~ Bayrlscher Ilof ; Traubci Post. 

An old wulied town in the deep valley of the 
Altmiifal, and head of a Principality, which, in 
1817, was bestowed upon JBSngene Beanliamals, 
Duke of Leiu-litonberg, stcp-Ron of Napoleon, and 
son-in-law of Kin;r Max of Bavaria. It Itao four 
bridges and five churches; and takes name trum 
the* oaks which ocenpied the place of the first 
church, built here by St. Wlllbald, on the site of 
the present Cathedral, or 

Dom, a Gothic building (built 104?-14t><;>, r.»n- 
taining many good raouumeuta of the bishups; 
the statue of St. Wlllbald; and some lieoutlfu] old 
stahied glass. Another statue of the patron saint 
Is In tbe market place. 

The Chut eh of S(. Wcxfpurgis has the saint's 
bones, from which the miraculous Walpnrgis oil 
springs every Mayday. 

At the Dnoal Sebloes (Castle), once the residenee 
of the Bishops, are mony portraits of the time of 
the Ruiplre ; a Llbntry and Mnwom | and a cabinet 

Digitized by Goo^k 



at Nattinl Hlitory, collected in Brazil, by the late 
FMbm Avffniliu of LmuhtcniMig, tlM baOuni of 
Maria da Gloria, the late QaMB of FOrtngal, wbo 

died at Lisbon. There Is a nmnofial of Bogene 
Beauhanmis at the Altmiihlwnld. 

The Bishop's Fortress, in the Wilibaldsborfr, 
•bovotbe town, Is tho site of the Roman Aureatum, 
and bM been lately rertorod. It wai bedeged 
and taken by Dcsaix, 1796, after a smart defence 
made by its Governor and a party of invalids. 

About nine miles from Eichstadt to the west lies 
tbevmegeof i8oAfenAo/«n, or Solnho/m, in the valley 
of the Altmttbl, remarkable for Its quarry of stone 
for Utbogrqihy, once worked by the Romans. 
Large quantft'es of fossils of a peculiar and In- 
teresting type have been foand here, inelndlng 
the arehsBopteryx, now at Berlin. 

WflliMiilNiif am Btiid (Stat) 

A town on the Rezat, near qoarrlea of beantlfnl 
marble ; and the mountain fortress of Wifzbtirg, 
Which contains a little arsenal, bastions, deep foss, 
and a well MO feet deep. At the parish church are 
tome old German palnttngi. Oood beer la made 
here. In the neighbouring oak foreet of Paradlai, 
as well as all around are Roman mementoea. 

EUlngen (Stat.) 

The seat of Prince Wrede, granted by the king 
of SaTarla, to hie father, Fleld-Manhal Wrede, 
who died 1888.} 

From PleinfUd (above) the line to Nurem- 
berg runs 12 miles past Georgenamttnd, where is 
a short branch to Smdt| to 

KotlL (Stat.) 

A nnall town, with 9,000 taihabitante, and an 

oM Schloas. built 1835. 

Scliwabach (Stat.) 

POKL LATION, 7,300. 

Ihms.— Goldner Engel; Rose. 

A manufacturing town, un a river of the same 
nanaa, whare needles and pins, gold and earerlace, 
and paper and tobacco are made. 

The parish Church has paintings by Wohlgemuth 
and Schiin at the high altar. A handeome Fountain 
stands in the market piuce. 

Before readiing Httnberg, the rail evoaief the 
Lndwigs-eanal, nnlttng the Rhine and Dannba. 
<8ee Erlangen, page 188.) 

NUREBIBERO. Oerman, MttraUXS. 
PoriaATiox, 142,403, 

HovBta.— Do Bavibre; Golden Eagle; Hotel 
WUrttemberg, flrst-class hotel, Tcry well iltnatcdr 

facing the station. Sec Advt. 

Hotel Zum Strauss (Ostrich Hotel).— Excellent 
Hotel; oentrallyeitaated; fUmishodthnmghontln 
the best style. 

Rothc^5 Ross Hotel.— O'd-establlshed house. 
Hotel Deutscherhof ; Wlttelsbacherhof j Cofd 

Tr.imwat.— Through the city to railway station, 

and to Fiirth. 

Cabs.— To and from stations; 1 person, AO pf.; 
2 persons, 1 m.; trunks, 30 to 40 pf.; i hour, 1 per- 
son. 60 1^.; to 4 persons, Im. 

Rmi,.- To Anjrsburg, Munich, Regensburg (see 
p. 150), Wurzhurg, Weldon, Mngpendorf (for Fran- 
conian Switzerland), Prague, Leipsic, &,c. N.B. — 
The oldest railway hi Gennany was opened from 
here to Fiirth 1836. 

This old and pictnroaquo Gorman city stands 
on a plain about 1,100 feet above the sea, on both 
sides of the Pegnita; which iMSm It Into the 
Sebalder flelte (sIdeX to the north, and the 
Lorcnzer (I.^wre!ico) side, to the south. Between 
them are three isLands, joined to the mainland by 
seven stone and nine wooden bridges, and a sue- 
penskm bndge(Ketten-brlldke), bvilt 18M, ene of 
the first of Its kind in Germany. 

The Bridges arc short, the most noticeable being 
the Flelschbriickc (near the Hauptmarkt), on the 
plan of the Rialto, and the CarlsbrUcke, on which 
•re two obelisks, with the dove and eagle, built as 
memorials of the visit of the Kmpcror Charles VI. 

It is still partially enclosed by old walls, eleven 
gates, and a brood dry moat. Many square 
andronndtowersromainonttawalla. Threeofthe 
dtetat or towers, the Cksnenthor (near the station), 
Spittelerthor, and Lanferthor, were designed by 
A. Durer, 1555-68. 

Nuremberg is first mentioned in 1050, when it 
was a place of trade, with the privilege of holding 
fairs ; and, like Angsburg, it grew In prosperity 
from boiiig on the lin*- of the ovorhmd traffic 
from Italy and the Levant. It was made a free 
Imperial city, 1219, by Frederick IJarbarossa. 

From 1859 it became the real capital of Qt 
wharo orery now aoforor bOI^Jilf 

igitized by Google 

iHUHflBAwV IttVitllAVllD 

[Sec. 1 

where tk« r«giiUa w«rw k#pt. Tiu £ii4>0ror was its , 
Mlc protector. It ratod ovtr a tMet of MO square 
mltoi, wliteb in IMH w«< AiiiMxed to B«TMrfai by 

Hmpoleon. It nided with the Reformation^ and 
with On<;tftvn<i Adolphus against WaUdutoln, in 
1632, in the Tliirty Years' War. 

It was the birth>plac« of Afbert Mrer^ ffam AMikt, 
Behalni* md iMhora* who ended their lives here 
and arc Imrlcd In St. John's Chnrchyard. A statue 
to Hans Sachs, by the late Ilorr Krnusger, was 
erected in 1874, in presence of many trade proees- 
•loneoftliedlflereDtguadt. Amongr contemporary 
mm eminent in art and eetenoe who have eon* 
iHhuted to adnrn the city worf^ M. Wolilfrcrauth, 
Sf hnutTfIt in p, Vischer, Vtit Stoss. tlie wood 
cat N < r, iUid i i i rschvogcl, ttu- painti r on ^'la^fl. 

Ucru watches, called ":NUmt)ergerKicr" (eggs), 
were flret InveBted by Pater Hde; air suns by 
Ijobeiiifer) bnaa metal, by Eboert f lobes, by 
Behalm ; and clarionets, by C. Denner. The first 
pApor mill in Germany was opened licre, 1890. 
Printing began here 1S70; and here Luther 
priucad Ua Qermmn Bible, MM. About 1M7 it 
was full of masons, eopimrsmlths, brasien, wood- 

pnpT»vcr«, iirinters, potters, pn1d'»nnth«', spnlptors. 
painters, «Sfc., all employed in multiplying works 
of art. It is still noted fur its manulactnres uf 
luwiwareiaad worlEB In brasa, iraA, and Oilier BMtala, 
looking glasses, musical instruments, paper, colours, 
watches, but especially ft r the tnnKTr, lead pcnclK 
dolls, and cheap toys, culled " Dutch Toys," made 
by the ootmtry people in the uuighbotiring forests 
•r FnuMOida and Thorin^ and exported to all 
liarte of the world. Hence the old rliyme, 
•'Nttrnherg:'s Hand jjreht in ulles Land." 

The proHpority of the l ity declined after the 
Thirty Years' War, during which it suffered 
ievoraly; bat ifnee Hie tneorporatton of tlie elty 
wltli Bavaria in 1M6 it has steadily prospered, 

and Ifl now rhr rn"«1 rnr<;ii!ornh!f* [>1 Ac e fOT trade 
and raanufacinre in Southern Germany. 

The town stands on several low Ulls, the old fort 
Of Any being OD the hlgbeet, and baa a thorooffhi y 
Gennan and medinval appearanee* Tho streets 
are Irrcfrulf^'' ' hrnndcr thun ufltia!; and the 
old-fa.shSunt '1 ^.'iiblo houses, with their narrow 
fronts, and projecting bey windows and baleonies 
ofl«» HfetOh thtoocli tiM mtm b«kM. 

Among bouMs r«ittarltabi« for styis and appear* 
ance, are Wlu'* Amim, a Clothic buUdingy u<«ar itM 
Batbbant, restored by Helditoff IMf t ftMOfTs 

in Theresion-Ktnigsc, and Petersen's, in Panlor 
Plat/, both (jilted )r,W; and Ey^ser'a, fomorly 
Peller's, no«r St. Giles's, dated 1605. 

A. Durtr'* House^ at the comer of Albrccht 
Diier^traaee, It an old red linlldifift not far ftan 
the Burg, and the Thiergiirtner Gate. Close to tt, 
in the Albrecht Diirer Platz, is a inodom Statue of 
tbe artist, erected 1840, from a design by Uauch. 
His Hercules killing the Lion has been successfully 
restored. His pnpUa, the brothers Behaim, Penas, 
or Poncz, Ac, were styled the Little Masters. 

Jfant Sttchs' Jlotue, in the Mell Gasse, has boon 
rebuilt. P, Viscfter's House is near the Theatre. 
The house of Bebaim, the navigator, Is also 
shown. Near St. Sebaldua Chnrdi, is tlie Iwnea 
of Palm, the patriotic bookseller, who waa shot by 
Napoleon, ISW. 

FoUKTAlMg.— There sire •'*>v(^r:il wortli n"tire, of 
which the most remarkable in tUe Hchdne Brunnen 
Beantlfnl Fonntahi}, hi the Xarfceti^laee, opposite 
the FranenUrobe. It is a handsome Gothis obelisk, 
6G feet high, in three dlrisions, erected by Ilcinr. 
Behaini der IJalier, 1385; and is fuii of carvings 
and oniameuts, many of which were added at its 
restoration, in 1894. In the lower division ate the 
seven Ktirfiirsten (Electors of tbe Empire), thtOO 
Christian, three Jewish, and throe henthen men ol 
renown (Charlemagne, Godfrey de Bouillon, Clovia 
of France; Judas Maccabeus, Joshua, and David ; 
Cttsar, Alexander, and Bector); in the upper 
division, Moses and seven Prophets. On the Iron 
railin^r Is xhc movable ring, the orost of Nttm- 
berg; as the rhyme runs— 

Der Sditf ne Brann lit aehfin wid Ibst, 
Nnr eln Rlnff der eich rUhren llest.** 
At the Loren: Plats Fountain the water flown 
from the breast!^ of several female Virtue-i, in 
bronze, by Wurzelbauer, 1609. The Oamenumachtn 
Fountain, lidilnd the PnmcaUrche, ie a bMMae 
agoN, by P. Labanwelf, of a eottntryman 
carrying two geese under his arm, the water 
flowintr from their bills. A. IHtrer't Fntmfatn, on 
the Promenade, has medallion busts of iiiirer and 
Plrkhrimar. ThoFouitaliiiii JAwMtfilaabniin 
ttiedlqr a Triton. 

Digitized by Goo^k 


UA2iA>-l»0OK TO G£ltMAM\ — KUiLMilJiiK;, 


Tbe Gostenhof Fouiitalii bag a statue of Ficld- 
Marsbal Scbwcppcrtimnn. ]n Adler-alrass) is a 

Honumentiil Vicfnnj (for 1870-1). 

Public Boiluincs — ilie Jiathhaus, opposite 
Sebaldus Churcb, is a buUdbis In tbo Italian 
stylOt built laid, '278 feet Ion;,', wtthalarge room, 
coiitHniin;? wall-paiiithif?sby A. Diirer. rej)n'f;ontiiig 
a Ti iuiuptiiil Procession in tiunour of the Kinpcror 
Maximilian. Tlicrc arc otljcr murul paintings, a 
ceiling itt stucco with figures of a tournament 
lield In 144A, portraits of Bavarian kings, &c. In 
the court is a hrniij^o fountain, hy V. I.aluinvDlf. 
Underground ways and dungeons e.xist below. 
The new Law Court$ arc at tho comer uf 

The Burff, or fkhloss, or Reich feste, on the steep 
Iiill, close to the T!ilcrtrHrf lu r (iatc, within tho 
boundary waU», is au untouched spcciiucu uf a 
medisval fortress, datbig as far bnclc as 1030. It 
was oeeupied by Conrad I., and its former Burg- 
graves, ancestors of the HohenzoUerns. Tho <nitpr 
g-ate, cnllc'l Hiinnu-l.stbur fOatc of llcnvcii). Ifads 
into a fore court surrounded by the Ilcidcnthurm 
(Pagan's Tower), and two ancient Romanesque 
ebapels, 8t Margaret and St. Ottmar, one orer the 
other. The second court contains a lime tree, 
iibout eight centuries old. planted by the EmiiroHK 
Kuiiigundc. The Picture Cialler>', of the old 
Oerroan sdiool, has now been mostly fomoved to 
tbe German National Museum; It included pic- 
tures by Albert Diirer, Hnlbcbi, AV<>bl;ri'niuth, 
Schauflekin. Biirckiiiaior, and L. Kranach; por- 
traits of Gustavus Adolphus ami Wallenstcin, of 
Friedrieb der Weise, by L. Kranacbt Ac. In tbe 
eliapol ere wood carvlnga, by Veit Btoss, of tbe 
Life of Christ and Crowniii t he Virgin . A bronze 
statue, belonglnpr orifrinally to a fountain. Is by 
Teter Vischcr. Another stulue is that of General 
Blausdorf, who was killed here in tbe Thirty Yean* 
War. Two towers, called Nero's and Luegln's 
I.and, arc of the fourteenth centnrj*. or earlier. 

Nearly even,- German Kmpcror in succession has 
Uikcn up his quarters at tho Castle, on visitiug the 
city. In 18M it was giren to tbe town by King 

CHuacHKs.— There are ten left here, of which 
eight arc Protestant. 

Sobald, is a fine bnlbllng of tlio thirteenth and 
fourteontTi ccnturii s, including bt. i'cter's Ghapcl, 
which dates back to the tenth century. It faces 
the Katbhaus. Outside it Is a carving of the 
Entombment, by Kralft (1492), with another of 
Christ's Passion, in the north door or Brautfbor 
(Rridc's Porch); nlso tbe ancient tomb of Conrad 
Ncuraarkt. Within are statues by Krafft; tbo 
Jlargrave Frederick's window, by Hhrscbvligel, 
and the fine Jbmft nfSOaldiu^ entirely of bronae. a 
master-piece of Peter Vi.scher and his live sons, 
l.-iOG-lO. It includes the Twelve Apostles, in 
niches, nearly two feet high ; over which stand 
twelve Fathcrsof tbe Church ; with about seventy- 
five figures of men and animals. Near the attar is 
a small staitue of the artist himself, with liis apron 
and chisel. At tho new high altar, in the Gothic 
style, is Velt8toss*s fine Crucifixion, with statues, 
inwood, of tho Virgin and St . John. Tlie Burial of 
Christ is a painting by A. Diirer. At the Holzscbuher 
monument, near tbe diancel, the Creation of tbo 
World la by Krcuafeldcr. On the Tuciier altar is a 
pain t Ing by Hans von K ul mbach ( 1 5 1 3) . 1 rom designs 
by A. Diirer. Jioticoalsotlietinely stalued windows, 
and the old font in tbe Peterskapelle, In which the 
Emperor W«isel (Wcuceabis) was bai iised 1^61, 
The Parsona-e was once occupied by Melchior 
IMinziiig, the poet. Near this Church is St. 
Maurice's Chapel, dating from MW. 

The Ijwenxkirthg (8t. Lawrence), at the end of, the finest in the city, is a beautiful 
and reprnbir Giitliic Church, of red sandstone, re- 
store«l 1H24. Tlic nave andnortlt tower were built 
1283; the south tower was added 1400; theebolr 
1499-77. Tho towers are 290 feet higli. Between 
them is a richly-carved relief of the Judgment, 
with a fine rose M7»cfo«f, and a sun-dial made 
by J. Stabius, 1352. The interior has splendid 
WinOom of stained glass, espsciaUy the Genealogy 
of Christ, in tbe Volkamer windows, and the 
Emperor William windov.-. Tae fine Cihorinm, 
or Sattraments-Hauslcln, contafaiUig tho Pyx, 
is a slender carved towcr» 64 feet high, tho 
worlc of Kiulft, 14W-1500^ reprosentlng scenes 
from the life of Christ, with several stntues and 
bas-reliefs. In the choir hangs a beautiful wood 

carving of the Annunciation, by Vcit Stoss, rc- 

stored, 1826, by the . Brothers Botennundt. The 

Thc"isI&^d!«iwi <Fwtestan St. 1 high altar, .chaiicol, and oratory baTo also been 


Digitized by Google 



restored Hy H( idelofT. A t<imb was erected 1649 
to the Margrraviijc, Sopliia of Brandenburg. There 
tre many old pAintlngs itiid two did iUnminfttcd 
mlssala in the SMrlMy. Behind tbe Church is the 
Parsoiiafre in the old Carman stjio, with a hand 
some balcony; also a Latin School. Near it are 
the Nassau Hou»e, built 1350; and the Statue uf 
the Emperor Adolphns of Neuau; with Wnnel- 
b«iier*s Fomitaiii ot the Yirtnee (TutrendbnniiNn). 

Th» Jacobskirche (St. James's) was built in 1212, 
enlarjjed 1500, aiul re-t'Tori 1825, by Heidelolf, 
when the old EglofTsteiu Chapel was rebuilt. It 
contains aeulptures, from Heideloif's designs, by 
Bnrgwchmied and Botermuudt; and a new large 
altar, with canringa and fine paintings. 

The St. Clara Chtitxh contains some stained glass 
as old as 1278. That called the IJoip Ghost, in Spittal 
Platas, is a large pile, where the regalia were kept. 

The Aefftdteaiirt^ (St. Giles's) Is an Italian 
thnrch, rebuilt 1717«18, and restored 1884. At 
the high altar i'^ the Virgin and dead Christ, hy 
Vandyck. It Iims bronze and stone reliefs by 
P. Vischer and Kraffl. Near it is the Gymnasium, 
or High School, transformed 1S26 hj MtXmAthon (fj 
Irom a former convent school, and faced hy his 
Statue, erected 1826. 

The Franenkh'ch" (Our Lady), in the Haupt 
Markt, is a small but rich Gothic Church, built 
1891. It has a fine front adorned by SeUhihoTer; 
an Ingenious dodc (nnflnisbed) ; beautiful altars 
and painted glass; carvln?*s by Kraffl; paintings 
by Wohlgemuth, DUrer, and tiurgkraai«'r. including 
' a fine Crucifixion at the high altar. The 8chone 
fnd CHtnse Foontatns are before and behtaid it. 

0V. JckmnUkir^ stands in the Cemetery, 
outside the Thlcr;iiirlner Thor, which was for 
centuries tlie burial place of tho loadinfr faiuilios 
ef Nuremberg. Here lie Hans Hachs, Albrecht 
Sttrer, Firkhelmer, Veit Stoes. Along the road 
from this gate are the Seven Stationi for pilgrims, 
marked by pillnrs with high rellpfs, by Adam 
Kratft; with a good Entombment at the Hols- 
•ehuher chapel. 

The new Central Cemetery Is In the Johannis 

ThP Ccmotc -y ^1 Rochus. the next larppst • 
'^nremberg, has the tomb of Peter Titeher, and \ 

See. 3.] ' 

the imhoff Chapel, with beantifvl patntinga byj 


Uallekies A.ND M i fiiKUMS.— The Uoyal Bilder- 
Mttl (Picture Gallery), formerly kept in the old 
chapel of m, Maurice, la now in the National 
Mn«onm, Thponilcction (about UO) included works 
of \'an Eyck. A. DUrer. McniHn,?, Heemskork. 
Burekiuaier, Holbcm tho elder, Kulmhach, Zeit- 
blom, Ac. This Mttseumhasbeenrecently enlarged 
and enrlebed. 

The QjKBUAN National Mcsbuh in the old Car- 
thusian r..nv. nt, near the South Wall and the Com 
Marki;t, cuntuins collection.s of hooks, pictures, 
sculptures, coins, &c., relatUig to the past history 
of Germany. Prince Sullcowslcy's magnifioent 
collection of anas was acquired in 1889, and coat 
C18,00o. There are several portraits (some from 
the Rathhaus), one, by A. DUrer, of Burgomaster 
Holxschttber. Ithasa frewoby iCaulbach, painted 
18^9. of OthoIII.openlngCharlemagne's Tomb; and 
has hocn restored. Free, Wednesday and Sunday; 
other iiii> s 1 mark, companies of 3 to 3 marks, 
catalogues, .>Opf . 

At the ScJtool of Design and Indusli ial At% 
Kunstauatellnng, in the ZomdoiMr Ceneeni, a>« 

about 20O paintings of the Gorman and Flemish 
Schools, Including Sandrart's Banquet at the Peace 
of Westphalia (full of iwrtraita), besides busts, 
reUefs, and casts. The Chapei is a beautiful Gothic 

There is a Bavarian Gewerbe Museum (Iiidna~ 

! trial) in the Konigs-strasso. 

The town Lihrary, in the Dominican Convent, 
at the foot of the Burg, cuutaius about 50,000 
Tolumes, many of them rare printed books, besides 
MSS., Mtssala, Attt<^phs, and the Municipal 


A relief by Krafft (1497) may l)o noticed on the 
Stadtwage (Weigh House), neai- A. Diirer's liouse. 

EnVBom.— TheiCasenmt, on the west side of the 
town, and the StaOlpark^ on the north, are f aroarlte 
resorts. Near Hummelstcin is the old Castle of 
Liehtenhof. sometimes oeonpicd hy Gustavu? A<ini- 
phus during tho Thirty Years' War, and afterwards 
by his dhughter, Qnhen Chriillmi. A Beformatory 
Deaconess Institution, at llflll^Ottflitell, on a 
hMltky ^hin. 

Digitized by Google 

Beate 4L} sakd-book to geuiany.^: 

FtomKnremlier^, by the oldest rail tn Geroumy^ 
yoa reach, in Hvc mflcx, 
Ftirth (Stat.) 

Poia'LATiON, 42,f>69, of whom 4,000 are Jews. 
Hotel.- Kational. 

This manufacturing town was called Foiihum, 

and belonged to the Margrave of An»bach. tJU 
annexed to Bavaria, 1803. It lip'i at the junction 
of the Kegnitz and Pe^iltz, and has two bridges 
andanaw Bathfaaoai with a prosperous tnde In 
looklngwgiasaea, chandeliers, aealtng^wax, pencils, 
nccdlts. timicry. clock*!, jcwollcrr, and other 
Nurcmi lor? ^varcs. One of its productions is sham 
gold leaf, or Leon gold. 

The UlchaellsUrebe is an old buUdln? of the 
fourtoonth century; with a good ciborium. 

The Jetcs' Sijnfif!Off}n> wns rebuilt 1834, in a 
handsome Gothic style. Here are Hebrew print- 
ing-offices ; a fine Hospital, Courts of Law and a 
Talmud school, or College, for training Jewish 
rabbis. They settled here in old times when Ibr- 
bidden to -cttlc \v. Nuremberg. 

[At SiegelSdorf (StatXdi English miles from 
Sttmberg, past Fttrth, on the line to Wunsburg, a 
diort braneh was opened, 1872. to LangeaiOIUL 

From Neustadt-an-der-Alsch, noarSlegela- 

dorf. a short line rnii<5 fo Windslielin.] 

About two miles, by rail, from Fiirth is the old 
fortrcs.s of 

Xfy-ndorf^ where Waltenstefai was latrenehed 

Scptcmlior. and sustained for t!ie sixth time 

the attack of ( Justavus Adolphu.% wlio was obliged 
to retreat. The head-quurlcrs of the Swedish 
king were at Fllrth, at the Grttnen Banm Inn, In 
the street now nainod after him. 

Irlangen (Stat.) 

roruLATiON, 17,iiC3. 

/ttiM^Walfisch; Bteue Glocke. 

A walled town, with seven gates, in a sandy 

plain, .at the junction of thf Schwnb.nch ,uid 
Regnitz. The New Towii was regularly built by 
ChrlHtiau, Margrave of Bayreutb, 168G, wlicn the 
French Hugwmots settled here; and ts sometimes 
called Christian**; F.rlangen. 

The Schhss. liolon^nn;? tn th** Mar^.Tavt', was 
rebuilt, after a Ore, 1814, and appropriated lo the 
Protestant UntTerslty (the only one hi Bavaria), 
foundedhereby the Margrave Alexander. 1740. It 
has a gallery of portraits hi the Aula; lai^ 


leeture^rooms; a library of 100,000 volumes; 
caUnets of nntuml history and art, with a mu- 
seum and anatomical tlicafrc ill tlip orangery .nnd 
garden, which are ornanK'nted wilh many st.T!ne!i. 
Sehwanthalcr's bronze of Friedrith Alexander, 
the founder, stands in Ifront of the building. 
Here are Fischer's Iooktng*glass factoryj and 
large breweries and jrlove manufai.-torles. 

Under the Wel^'i'ichc finrtcii. mid at tlio foot Ot 

the Bur^dicr^r, tlic nioiiuiH<-iit of the 

Ludtcuj s Canal, wiiich unites the Danube, Main, 
and Rhine. It is a fine composition in the Gre- 
cian style. The pcdehtal i.s 44 feet long, bearing 
reliefs. On one side Ss a ntdd.^r, Hound ab<nU 
with a chaplct of pinewood, and on the other ^'u\v 
Neptune, with his trident. Th« figures on the 
pedestal are qnnbolical of the Danube and Main, 
holding hands, supported i Trade, and Naviga- 
tion, and inscribed, "The Uanubo and Jiain, 
united for Navigation. A work attempted by 
Charlemagne: begun and finished by Ludwig I., 
King of Bavaria." It follows the Altmilbl from 
the Danube, jifisses Neumarkt, Nurenjberir. 
Erlangen, Forchhcini, and enters the Hcgnitz (near 
Bamberg), which is navigable to the Main, 
Length, about 110 mllesi breadth, 96 ft.; depth, 5ft. 

[Short line from Erlangen to GrSfenberg, 17| 
Forchlieiin fStat.) 

PoruLATio.s, 4,400. 

Intu — Bayrischcr Hof ; Goldener Schwan. 

A small fortified town at tho juuetiou of the 

Wieseut Avith tlie Regnitz, which waa besieged 

several times duruig the Thirty Years' and the 
.Seven Years' Wars. At the Church are twelve 
paintings by "Wohlgemuth, 

Bail to EbermaimsUdt (page 172). 

From Forehhelm, as well as froni Bayersdorf 
(Stalk), 4 miles off, roads lead to Mnggendorf, In 
Franoonian Switzerland. (See Route 40). 

BAHBEBa (Stat.), in Bavarhin Fnincoitia. 

roiTT-ATlOX, 3r»,248. 

Inn.— Bamberger Hof. Buffet and Table d'HOte 
at the statiuu. 

DiLIOBircsa.— See Brad»Ha»*i Contiiuntal Guide. 

An ancient areblepiscopal city, in a fertile spot ^ 
among orchards and kitchen gardens, on the Lnd- 

Digitized by Googk 


\vi^' Canal and the Reguils, 3 miles from its jnnc- 
tlon with the Main. 

The Regukz divides into two anus, and Is 
croiwd by aeTeral bridge*. Tiie principal is a 
anspendon 1»1dg«. Another, the Obere BrOcke, 
built 1456, rnns acron to the ialaiid on which the 
Rathhuns etaiuls. 

Tho town IS built on five or six low hills, nud 
was siuronncted by old ramparts, now turned into 
walks and gardens. The main streets and the 
Steinwcg sulntrb arc M'ell built. 

Bamberg is a great place for beer (lmvin<,' aUout 
sixty breweries), hops, liquorice, an<l seedn uf oil 
kinds, which are raised by the Gardmers' Cor- 

It was fountlc'l !)y thcSnxons abnxjt 909, find be- 
cmie tho scat of n bi-,hop. -who ruled hei*c from lOOtt 
till it was annexed to Bavuria, in 1801. 

The RetUmu or Schloss, near the Cathedral, is 
an wiflnlshed pile, three storeys high, in the 
Italian style, begun 1702, by Prince-lHshnp Lofhar 
Franz, of Schiinbom ,upon giving up the old l*alaee. 
It has some frescoes by Stcidel, in the Kaiscrsaal, 
and the aremTos of Bamberg, Bayrenth, Ac. It 
was Napoleon's head-quarters, 1806. and 
occn|)ied hy Marslial Bcrthior, at his deatli, ISl-'i. 
Looicing out of a window for the Russian army, 
which was approaching, he orerbalaneed himself, 
and was killed on the spot, now marked by a cross. 

The picturesque remains of the former Palace, 
called the "Alte Hnfhaltuii-" built ISTl. nn> on 
the opposite side of the Platz. Near this ii^ the 
mouamcDt of Bishop Von Erthal, erected 1885. 

The Dom or Osi/ksdraf, in Carolinen Plats, oppo- 
site the Residenr, is a fine Chnrch, in a mixed 
style, with four sqtinro towors, and was founded 
by the Emperor, Henry IL, or tho Pious and his 
wife, Kunlgnnde. It stands on Bt. Peter's Htll, 
and Is abont 860 feet long by lOS feet Imiad. The 
cast, or oldest end, is in the Romanesque or By?:an- 
tine style ; the other end, in the early pointed 
style, must be two centuries later. The two west 
towers, built about m4, resemble those of T4Mn, 
in Franco. The whole bundinjr was restored by 
Hcldeloff, for Kinj,' Lvidwip. in 1828-37, when 
several unsuitable raonumentB were transferred 
to St. Michael's. 

The north poreh Is the best ef the four entrances. 

[Sec. 3. 

It has a double choir, with two crypts below, in 
which the prelates were buried. Among the paint- 
ings are works by Tintoretto, Sandrart, Merian, 
and Selilotthaner. A line bronse Christ on the 
Cross was designed by Schwanthaler $ twenty-two 
saints In the Genri^c choir arc by Schonlanb. 
Anion^ra jrreat n>aiiy .l/tin«m«nf<, distributed about, 
are P. V'iacher'ii tombs of Bishops Gross and Bbiier; 
the marble saroophagus of Po|ie Clement IL, who 
was Bishop of Wurzbur^, and died 1017; and 
Bishop Fedenhach. tho last Prince-Bishop, who 
died 1808. But the must striiiiiig monument con- 
sists <rf the Ejflffiejt of the founders^ Henry II. and 
his wife, life else, by RleinenschneidOT, of "Wurx- 
burg, 1499-151", with reliefs of the chief events In 
their lives round the sides. One event, which 
Kuniguude went through, wns the trial by ordeal 
on a red-hot bar, in the Dom Plata, adjoining. On 
one pillar is nn ecpjcstrian statue of Conrad II., 
culled "St. Stephen." Bronz(; heads of several 
canons, nnd arms and names of persons whose 
monuments have been removed, may be noticed ; 
and several relies richly mounted. 

Jfifetesl's, on the Hiehelsberg, at a Ane point 

of view, is a Romanesque Church, belonging to the 
I Beneillctlne Convent, founded by the Empcr»>r 
Henry, 1(KI9, and entirely restored in the eighteenth 
century. It contains several monuments, wMeh 
were formerly in the Cathedral, and the tomb of 
St . Ot to or Otho (USd), with hU walking-^tiek and 

The convent buildings are converted into a well- 
endowed almshouse, also a restaurant. Heru ulao 
is the Municipal Picture Gallery, of abont 100 
works. Open daily at 10 a.m.; 60 pf. 

The Marii'nkirchfi, or 1-Vauenkirehe (Onr Lady), 
on the Kaulberg, is a handsome (Jothic \n}<\ 
buUt 18S0-87, with a fine tower. At the EhethUr 
(Marriage Poreh), on the north side, an carvings 
of tho Ten Virgins, and the marriage of Christ 
and his Chtirch. It contains wood carvings by 
Veit Stoss (IdHii) ; wall-paintings, by Treu ; anA % 
stone Saersrium (18B8), with figures of Apostles 
and a Christ's Head. On the celling are frescoes 
by Gcbhard. 

St. Martin s, formerly the Jesuits' Church, in 
the Market Place, in the midst of tho town, is « 
modem ttmctare, a beautUU and regular edifice 

Digitized by Goo^k 

Route 41.J 


' the neighbourhood ; and at the There»!en Hniii. a 

In the Italian style, built lflS0-17?O. It occupies 
tne site of one foamled by ( liurlenia<.'iu', and is 
cross-shaped, with Corinthian and Doric pillars 
at the principal and doon. 

The sqoftre Tower, 180 leet higli, cominAnds a 
lliie procpect of the toirn. The interior rests on 
pillars, and contains pood paintings at the nine 
altars ; with a fresco by Marcolini, in the cupola. 
The body of Marquard Rotenheim, who waa bea- 
tified 178S, fttsts under the high altar. 

The adjoining' buildlnga are devoted to the 

Lyceum^ or High School, and the public Library. 
The Lyceum was made to take the place, ill 1894, 
of the University, founded 1585. 

The Library contains about 300,000 volumes and 
8,000 HSS., tome as old as the eighth and tenth 
centuries, including Alcuin'.s MS. copy of the 
Bible, and the ill'iniiiifUcd niissuls of the Emperor 
Henry II. and his wife Kunigundc. Here also is 
a cabinet of MtitUMd HUior^^ the gift of Bishop 
Franx Lodwlg, of Ertbal (1790); with additions 
made by Dr. Schonbcin, the king's physician; 
and Heller's collection of rare German Engtweingi, 
after Dilrcr and Kranach, Ac. 

St. Stephen tf now used by the Protestants, is an 
Italian eraes, on the St. St«i4ianiberg, bnllt 1038-80 ; 
except the tower, whlch^ with Its ronnd arches, Is 

much older, datlnpf from the eleventh rentnr\'. 
The walls and ceilings are covered with stucco 
omainents. In the Cupola is Vogcl's Stoning of 

St. Jamee* (Jacobus), at the end of CaroUnen 
Strasse, has a good porch, and acttpola adorned 

by frescoes. 

Tbo Hathham^ which has some paintings on its 
walla, atanda od an island in the Kegnitz, near «n 
old brid^ and the temlnns of the Lndwlg Canal. 
On another Island Is the Bishop's old Winter 
Palace, or OelermgMh, now converted into a Coart 
of Justice. 

The Tktatrt Is near the Synagogue, in Schiller 

C/arf»j,the mathemfttidin, author uf the Gre^ro- 
Han Calendar, and ramerarins, the pliilologist, 
were born here. Uonuer's Fables, the. first bools 
printed In German, was printed here 1461. 

Beer is drunk at the Felsenkellem, or f'avcs, in 

pretty promenade, between the river and the canal. 

About one mile distant is the Attenburg, or 
Babenburg, an old castle, or eitadd. overlooking 

the town, formerly the seat of the Counts of Baben- 
burg; rebuilt after its destruction by Albert of 
Baireuth, 1553. It has a mediiuvMl chapel. Here 
(or in the town itself) Berengarins, King of 
Lombardy, and Otto of Wittelsbach, stabbed the 
Emperor Philip. The view fmtn the old tower Is 
a remarkably fine otie. takint; ju Nitreniberir, 
Wurzburg, Bsiireutb, Coburg, &c., and ttie Moin, 
for serenil miles In extent. 

At Ponuner^fiddent nine miles off, the seat of 
Count Schonbor?) i« u g-ood gallery of Pai»tiiiif$, 

cliielly Itallnn and Flemish. 

Kaii to Wiirzburg, vu't Schwclnfurt. 

An excursion may be made to Sediof, the old 
pleasure castle of the Bishops ; wiother to 

Staffelstela (Stat), 22 miles, near Bam Catt'e, 
a tine seat of Duke Max, fonnerly a Benedictine 
Abbey, founded 1096. Here Marshal Berthier, 
son-in-law of Dnke Wilhelm, was buried 1815. It 
has a complete lehthyoeaurus, in the collection of 
fossils. The Cliurch attached to it hns two high 
towers, and commands a bpnutifnl jtro^pect. 

Another Church, for pi/grimt, facing tliis, was 
rebuilt 1773, after Its destruction in the Feasant 
War, and enjoys a prospect of equal extent. It is 
dedicated to the Vlerzehnhelligen, or Fourteen 
Saints, whose rplirs are uhown here to the faithful. 
Anotljcr point oi view is the Veitsberg. Bans 
CnUle and the VIeraehnhelllgen can both be 
Tlslttd, perhaps bettor, from 

Lichtenfels (&tat.)» where the Werra rail goes 

off to CobnrpT. ^<'- 

Hochfltadt (Stat.) 

A road hence to Kronech (population 8,000), an 
old walled town, where Emw KrvmeK, or (hwtaeht 
the painter, was born, 1472. Branch nil to Saal- 

feUl. !>y Kronacb nnd Probstzella. 

Kulmbach <8tat.) A pretty spot on the White 
Main; and the old seat of the Mai^raves of Brandcn - 
burg-Culmbacb, whose old castle on the Plassen- 
l)erg Hill is now a House of Correction. Much 
beer is made here. At MtlnChb«rg (Stat.) the 
rail crosses the water-shed of the Saale and Main. 
It belonged to the robber knights of Sparneck. 

Digitized by GoQgle 


HOF CStftt.), ia Ujtper Kruiironia, Uuvariu. , 

POVDXiATIOH, 24,544. 4 

Imt.— Lamm; Ulneh; LSw«. 

Here the line joins the Altenburg and Lelpsio i 
Rail to NureinlHTj.', itc. 

A well built town and seat of the cotton manu- 
ftcture on the Saale, with aome iron and marble 
works near it. Miieh of the town, inoLuding St. 
Michaer* Church, has been rebuilt aince a fire in 


It has a handsome Sathhaus, hi the Gothic style, 
built and a High School or Gymnadvm, in 
the old FranclBcan convent. 

On the road to Lobem(ein, about 9 miles distant, 
arc the Stehen nnrl Lfmcenan Hath.*. chJofly 
alkaline and chalybeate. Stebcn stands among 
tteveral objeets of interest. Excursions may be 
made from or to the Steb^nhaeh waterfall; to 
Tttimpelblihcl, a fine point of view; to the Cave 
in the Lanprenaa Valley; nnd to F5parenlK»rff and 
l.ichtcuberg Castles. Dili:,'oii< o daily from Ilof. 

For the remainder of liie line to 

BaiUn, see Route 34. 


Munlclito Frankfort-on the-Maln, vl^. Gun- 
zealiausen, Wtirzburtr, and Aacliaffen- 

This, in the reverse order, is part of the direct 

route from rrntnil Oprmany to Italy, Tui the 
Hrenner Pass: taking in, on the onfwnrd journey. 
Frankfort, Aachaflenburg, Wiirzhurg, Gunzcn- 
hansen, Munich. Kufstein, Innsbmclc, the Brenner. 
Brisen, Dotzen, Trent, Verona, BolofniA. *«• 

1. By rail to f!unzenhau»en, either r/? Auirs- 
burg, as in Route 53, or riu Inptist.Klt nnd 
Treuchtllnjfcn, as on page 158. From Treueht- 
tlngen it ts 15 miles to Ounsenbauscn. 

9. muntnbanseii to Ansbaoh and Wfln- 

tnurg (Bayerische Staats Eisenbahn). 

Miles. I Miles. 
Gnnzenhausen to Ochsenfm t [>*J 

hrahshaw's iLLusTRATBif [Sec. 3* 

I 3. WUrzburg to Frankfort. 


Veitshocldu'iin 5} 

Karlstadt Ifi 

Gemiindf 11 2(»i 

[Branch to Bcbra 
and Hamm.] 

Lohr !?8| 

[Branch to Wcrtheim] 
Helgenbriicken (tun- 
nel. 3, 172 feet) ... 45 

Laufncli 60 

Aschaffenburjr 'fl 

IBrarich to Darm- 


Kl.Ostheim COJ 

Dettii.gen 63| 


Grossc Auheim 


[Branch to Fulda, 
Gelsscn, Ac] 

Wilhelmsbad 7fi 

Doruigheim IS 

Mainkur H(i 

Frankrort 8»i 


An-.'i:n'!i IT 

Uurghernheiin 31 

Stelnach 86 

iBraneh to itothen- 

V\' |-iMin 4i}j 


H.'iilin-sfi ld,.., fiS 

Wiirzhurg .„ 72| 

[BranrhAs to Bam- 
berg, Nuremberg, 
Stuttgart, and 

OmueiiliaiiMn (Mat.), as in Ront«4i . 

here 1^ miles to 

AnsbaelL (Stat) 

PoprtATiov, 14,SM. 
/»»«.— Stem; LQwe. 

A well-built town, in the pleasant valley of the 
Heznt, where the HoI;>biicb Joins it. It vrnn 
founded by the uionks of 6t. Gumbert, and was 
the head of a principality annexed to Prussia 
1791, and to Bavaria 1806, as the eapital of 
Mayence and Franconhi. 

The SchlosSy or Palace, now n government honso, 
built 171!^. was the reHidcuz of tlie Margraves of 
Ansbach-linireuth, the last of wlioiu married Lady 
Craven, a daughter of Lord Berkeley, who reside(| 
here for a while, and complains of the dalness of 
the plnee in hor " Mi nioirs." It has a picture 
gallery and pretty gardens, and is in the Italian 
style. Statue of Von Platen. 

The Church of St. Oumberlus, in the Gothic 
style, is marked by three towers, and taMdudea the 

Chapel of St. George, in which are tombs of twelve 
knigiits of thi' Oi di r of the Swnn. Tn the Tlofgar- 
ten :ue houses of the poet Uz (a native), and of 
Cus|)ar Hauser, on the spot where be was assas- 
sinated. A stone In St. John's churchyard beara 
this inscription, "Hie jacet Casparus Hauser, 
ainjgma sni tcmporis. iL'not.i nntivitas, occulta 
mors IH'oii." His birthplace was tmknowu, as 
were the circumstances of bis death. In thia 
church are tombs of the Margraves. Croncgk, 
another poet, was also a native of this town. 
Wolfram of Eschunbach. a poet of the ISthc^- 

Digitized by Goo^k 

lIAKD'fiOOK to OS&MAVY.«->A1«gfiA0R, >VURJEIirRG. 


tury, wftt bom iiw thia place. Al>oul a mUes 
distant, on the way to Gunzenbausen, ti iltvttod 
FtHtdor/,^ coniitry M«tof the last lltrgnTC, 

ivhu kept a good stud nnd breed of cnttle hpre. 
T!if^ men about here dress in scarlet waistcoats 
tiiul long black coat«. The wonieii we generally 

Here croiaes the line combig vid Crollshciui 
(pege 187) from Stuttsrard direct to Niirenibfrg, 
pflPsinfT Ellrichshausen. Domhiihl, and Leutcrs- 
hausen, and on the eastern side from Ansbach, 
Hetlfibroim, RossstalU Stetn, and Sehwelnav. 

Dombiilil (Stat) neumtnmt. 

[From this place a line. 834 mUei, runs to 
Ntfrdlingen (page 158). The inrlncipal stations are 


POFUtATlOK, 2,500. 
/nff«.- Po8t; Hirsch. 

An old towu on tho Sals with an old Gothic 

/im.—Goldene Rom. 

One of the oldest towns In S^vnbJa, In the 
Bavarian Virngrundc, still surrounded with walls 
and towers. Church of the twelfth century. 
Statue of Chr. von Schmiil, a native, a popnlar 
writer tat young people.] . 


A Nttall town (population, 800). with a mineral 
pprinfT (hrunn). The old ristcrcian Church, 
founded 1132, by Bi'ihop Ottoof Bamberg, contains 
the tombs of the Margravea of Hnicmherg, of the 
HohenioUem line, Its fwiner owners. 

The next station after Anshacb Is 

Biixi^b«ni2iaim (Stot.) 

Hen is a mlnenl qurtng, romantkally situated 

in a larpo w ? 
BtSlBftdl (Stetk) ^'"^ innction for 

[RotlienbTirg-on-tlie-Taull«r, «♦ miles. 

Population, 6,500, 
inn.— lllrach. 

An old Imperial clty« on a ridge over the Tauber, 
sanonndedby ancient walls and towers; probably 
the best existing sample <if n media?vfil Geniinn 
town. The Hmptkircht (^t. Wolfgang) Is n pic- 


turvaquc (Jothic of the l^tii and 14th centuries, 
with good carvings, paintings, and »talned 
windows. St. Jmnm, a good restored churchi has 
a }>eatitiful cnrvpd triptych df wood, by Rlemcn- 
schneidcr. of tin- K'-th century. The old Rathhaus 
is also Gothic. Water Is supplied from works 
established by a monk, in the IMh century, by 
whleb it Is raised from the Tauber.] 

In a pretty spot, on thp Oollach. Ncnr it Is 
JJoheniamhbay Vasile in a thick forest on a moun- 
tttiu, with splendid view. 

Od|M]iftirt (Stat.) 

/an.— Sehnecke (Snail). 

On the Main, here crossed by a stone bridge, 
500 fppt Innp'. of the 17th centuiy. It has n Church 
in the Byzantine style, built ui the middle of the 
ninth century ; and Michaeliskirchc, with its Qothlc 
portal. The vine Is largely enlttvated here. 

HeMingtftid (Stat) has a church with a 
good stone pulpit of the 15th and 16th centuries. 

WURZBURG (Stat.), the Capital of the tlntcv^ 
franken (I.ower Franconia) Circle in Bavaria. 

PoruL\Tiox, (iO.S44. 

Hotels. — Kronprinz, ijrst-class hotel, centrally 
placed and well fumiriied; Frankischer Hof| 
Adier; Wittdsbaoher. 

Rail to Frankfort-on-Maln, Bamberg, Heidel- 
berg, Niu(inbir<:. Stutttrurf. ^lunich, Augsburg, 
Lcipsic, Schweinfurt, Ilciibronn, Aschaffenburg, 
Jcc— Sec Brodthm** ContiamUa Outde. 

This old cathedral town, formerly the seat of a 
Prince Bishop of the Empire was foimded as far 
back as 741, in the bo.xutiful winding valley of the 
Mahi. It derives its uame from the gardens and 
vineyards on the surrounding hills. The Leltten, 
Steinberg, Bochsbeutel, and other vineyards eav«r 

about 7»000 acres. In the War of 1866, 
three or four ac(ioi>s took place near this town, 
25th to 28th July, in which the Baden and WUrt- 
tcmburg ti 4>ups were defeated by the Pmsslana. 

The town contains many picturesque old houses 
and Churches, and crooked streets. The be|t 
are thp Dom aTuI Ilof St rn-'-er, nnd the Xeubangasse. 
The site of the former ramparts Is lni'! <mt in 
pleasant gardens. On a hill, 400 feet above the 

Digitized by Google 

[Sec. S. 

town, called the frflUeiilrt-'rg, or Marienberg,%tanti* 
the old atoM, built 1680, by the Prinee-Blshop, 
on the Bite of an old Roman fort; it has* a fine 
porcli. Rotenhan, its tlofonderin the ri a<5ant War 
of l.'»25, is burled in th<' Church. Apply at the 
guard-house for a gnlde. 

A bridge, C50 feet long, built 174'»-1607, is adorued 
with twelve statues of suhitH. From themlddlQ of 
H a eattseway, called Wehr, stretches off to the 
suburb on the West bank, ji< ;ir Sr nitrhiT<Ts 
Church, the oldest one in the town ; it was built 
l*H2y w ith a choir oud transept added in the 10th 
century ; and has been restored, In commoti With 
many other churches here. 

At the centre of the town Is the Cathedral or mm, 
a handsome building (1189 to 1940), with later 

additions, markid by four towers, on the site of a 
crypt of the ninth (•cntury. It contains a fine 
statue of the Virgin, at the altar, and an altar- 
piece by Sandrart, with some other good paiatlni»H 
worth notice, Antong the statues and monuments 
ofmnny of its eighty-two or eiprlity-three bishops, 
are the carvings on thoseof I^ishops von Bibraand 
Scherenbcrg, by Riemensehnofder, of the sixteenth 
oentnry; and Bishop Seh8nl>om*s ^apel, orna- 
mented with marblr fttid prildinfr. The tomb of 
Sel>astian von Mospclbrunn is a sleeping kiu;rht. 
Au uru marks the spot where Conrad von Kavens- 
burg was killed by bis uncle, 1302. Notice the 
Jachin and Boas at the altar, two symbols of the 

St . Johannes im J/aug (?t. John in Haug) is an 
Italian building (1671) on the model of St. Peter's 
at Rome, with a handstHnecnpola and two towers ; 
and is adorned with much gilding. Old Stlfthaug 

or Priest's College. 

'Vh': \?ir!,-itk(rch<\ In the ^Iark(>t Pla/u f^uilt 
13;7-147u), is a handsome Gothic building with 
good lancet windows, and sculptures by Rieonon- 
sehneider; on the top of its high tower Is a gilt 
sitatuc of the Virgin, 11 feet high. On the porch, 
u relief of the Conception. 

The Nfilinumtti'kirche, nenr the Dom, has the 
bones of St. Kilion, on Irishman, tho A|>0Atle ol 
Franconia. It Is of the twelfth century. Hero is 
Ludwig l.*s statue of Walther von der Vogel- i 
woide, the German poet of tho thirteenth eentnry, ' 

\ so called because of hie bequest of a anm for feeding 
I the birds. 

The Resident or Royal iSchloss (formerly the 
seat of the Prinrp Hishop) isalarge f*tone pile, built 
17:?«M4, on the mo<lcl of the Palace of Versailles, i 
I by Bishop BdiSnbom. It forms three sides of a 
rectangle, about MO feet long, 390 feet deepi, aud70 
' foot h'.trli. It contains seven courts and 2?:^ room«; 

a (inc staircase, with frescoes by Tiepolo; tlieatrc, 
I and a richly furnished Chapel. The Spiegelsaal 
I (coot £4O;90O) is unique. Some of the old apart- i 
mi nts were occupied by the Emperor at his viait* ' 
Ludwig I. resided here whi-n Crown Princo. The 
' capacious cellars would hold upwards of 2,000 1 uus 
(4,000 foder) of wine. 

The UniMnilp was foimded as early as 158t, 
by Bishop Julius Echter of M. spclbrutui. and is 
chiefly attended by medical stiulcnts. It lias a 
library of 200,000 volumes, cabinets of physics, 
natural history and art, and a curious collection of 
"naturmosaiken," by Professor Blank, of wood, 
feiithcrs, tiie dust of btttterflies' winprs, prains of ' 
seed, tiax, <tc.; the most successful Imitation lK*ing 
an Eruption of Vesuvius, ilie fire represented i 
through the outer wing of a crielcet. Alao the | 
Martinengo coUeetlon of paintings, sculptures, and i 
weapons. ' 

The Observatory Is fixed in the tower of the old { 
disused Cburdi. 

The Julius Spital (Julius Hospital), founded by 
the same munificent Bisliop, 1576, Is an extensive 
and richly endowed training school for physicians, 
with room for MO patients. KingLudwig*8l»roasa 
statue of the founder, by Sdiwanthaler, stands in 
the Square. It includes an Anatomical Tlieatre, 
built 1H52, a Botanical Garden, several collections, 
and an elegant Church. 

The RatMuttiM and Theatre deserve notice ; with 
the Pillar of Bishop Zobel (killed 1558). 

The T-ei'^ten vineyard occupies about sixty acres 
on the slope of the Citadel Hill. This is the best 
of the Franconiaa wines. Another good quality 
Is grown on the Steinberg, whence there is a fine 
prospect of the town and river. Another point of 
view is St. Nicholas's Pilgrim Chapel, on the Kap- 
pellenberg, an eight-sided building reached by a 
series of stations or shrines. 

The Archduke Charles defeated Marshal Jour- 
dain near this, 1796. 

Digitized by Google 



Kxcur^lons can Ijc made to the country sent of 
Count Hchoiibom at (iAibacb, with its bas-rclicf 
by ThorwiildMii And a colott4il boat of Schiller b}* 
DAnneeker. To Lndwlgnbad, at WlpfeUI-Oll- 
tlld-Maln, ^vith UAcfut chnlylxsate and saline 
uprlnpH, schlamm (nuul) and vapour baths; and ; 
to Kiiugenbc-g Castle. 

lOlir (Stat.), on the Kaint from which a I 
branch ;?oe8 off to HftSULlalir, Trtimfold, | 
Wertheim, nml LaUda. "^Verthrim, •where the 
T.'iulii r joins tlio Main, is the scat of Prince Lowen- 
stetn-Wert hcini, with some picturesque castle ruins. 

Laufitch (Stat.), naarLengfttrt. Across the 

cnHtein-Wcrtlielni, formerly an Aufrustineconvcnt. 

Kctweon l'>sclharh and Ilcsscnthal. iit Rohr- 
brunn, tbu punt nmd reaches the tiighoit point of 
th« heights of Sposaart, the Oeywtbeiir ( Voltnro's 
HUl) 1M4 feet above the sea. The Speesart Is one 
of the larprcst fnrc<?t«« in Oennanjr, part of the 
ancient Hcn yniiin !'i>n st. 

ASCliaffeaburg (Statj, in Lower Franconla. 
Bavaria. Pofolatiok, 111,376. 

//oMi^Adlor; Frelhof. 

Rail to TMayence, Diinnstadt, Ac. 

An olrl walled town of tlic ei{;hth cent m y, nn a 
fine spot at the West corner of the Spessart hills, 
OTer the Main. It belonged to the Elector of 
Mayenoe, before 1814, when It was transferred to 
Bavaria. In the Oennan war of 186fl, the Federal 
army of 80,000, under the Prince of Hrs««c. was 
defeated by General Von Falkenstcin, and driven 
across the Main Into the town, which was after- 
wards stornMKl and burnt. A handsome stone 
bridge crniiscs tin- rivt r. The streets arc old and 
narrow; the rampurtH are laid out in gardens. 

The JolumuiBbcrg ikhlosB overlooking the town, 
belonging to the Royai Fhnilly, was a bunting 
seat of the Electors, built 160^14, on the site of 
a Roman fortress, In the Renaissance stylo. It is .i 
handitome si|narc of red sandstone, about 2G0 feet 
each way, with towors at the comers 1!»0 feet 
high. Hero Is a good picture gallery of 880 
works; about '20,000 engravhigs, some from Kra- 
nach, Grlin, and other early masters; a Library 
including some early books and illuminations, 
with cork models of old temi^es and mlns. It 
stands near an orangery In a pletnresque botanical 

pnrden. which extends round to the .Schoncthal. 
Amonjf the eight churches are some Gothic 
buildingit. The /tern, or Stif tsklrche, was founded 
980 by Otho of Bavaria, in the Romanesque style. 
It contains the Electoral tOmbs, includinpr that of 
Albert of Brandenburu-— nn cflifry by P. Vis* her. 
opposite aatatue of the Virjrin ; also a monument of 
the foimder, and a canopied bronze of St.Margoret. 

Tho large old University; the Rathhans; and 
thr- ancient House of the Teutonic Knls^ts, de- 
serve notice. 

>ioar the Station is the /'ompcianum VUfa. built 
1843—9 by GKrtncr, for Kiufj Ludwig, after the 
model of tho house of Castor and Pidlux at 
Pompeii, and ornamented with wall palntlnjrs, 
mosaics. Ac. 'I'licrc is an Knglisb Roman Catholic 
establishment for ladies here. 

Wilhelm Uehise, author of Ardinghello, wbodictl 
here 1808, as Librarian to the Prince, Is buried in 
St. Agatha's cemetery. Boat buildlngls carried on. 

In the nelghbotirhood. a walk may bo taken 
to Schono busch, and another to the Schmerlcn- 
bacher Forest, wliich is about 20 miles in 
circmnference. From here a branch of S3 miles 
runs up the Main, past Suhfy<teh-am-Main, and 
A'^r>?fr^nAery;,toMlltenberg(Stat.), an intf resting 
town with a population of S,6U0, Weilbacl!, 
and Amorbacll. Diligence from Mtltenberg to 
Wirtlioiim, 18 miles. 
Klein OstlMlm (Stak), a Bavarian frontier 

1 custom honsr. 

DetUngen (Stat.) ('elebrated in the Austrian 
War of Succession, when the French were defeated 
27ih June, 1748, by the allied armies of England 
and .\nstrla. fJeorge 11. and bis snti the Duke of 
Cumberland tfK>k part. In the churchyard of 
Klein O.Hthcim are several monuments to officers 
who fell in the batUe, wbleh was heaviest at the 
J " Hes.sen acker." as it is called. It stands on the 
HesKC side of tin- )i>ii(l>'r. llnndfd composed his 
Dftliitym Tf Ih-tnn on this occasion. 

From Dettiugen 7^ miles to Hanau (»ee page 
7fr). the Junction of the line from Fnlda, from 
which it is 10 miles to Frankfurt by Ifilnklir, 
see pa'_"' 7"i, 

Frankfort.— See Bradthaw's hand-Book to 
Mgfum a»d f Ae Rkhn. This old free oity and 
capital of the Federal INet upon belng^pn«t«d 

Digitized by Google 


[Sec. 3« 

by the Federals in the tienuau war of 1866, was 
uccttpled by 7.000 Pruasiaiie, inu July, and a 

I'ontribmi.m ,,f thron initliuiis levied, jmrt uf which 
wus remitted upuji its amioxntion io the (iijrman 
Empire. The Diet was moved to Augsinirg and 
afterwards diseolTed. 

Nuremtierg to WtelmTg and Asoliftf- 

fenburg.- (Haycrischo fitaats Blaenbahn.) 

Nureiiihcrg to 

Flirt h 

BurKfariib:u !i .. 

Ncustadt 26 

MarktF^Blbari as 

. S 


WiirzhiiriT , 64 

Gemiindeii 87 

AschaffcnbOTB'...... 1^ 

Nuremberg and Fiirtll. See Route 41. 

BnrgfEinibach (Stat ) Hoc excoiicnt wbito 
beer is brewed, and hops are grown. 

N«itstadt-Mi-der-Al8oli (Stat.) 


A small town in ii lu autiful and fertile tract of 
Franconia, near Posseniteim, and the old fortress of 
Speckfeld, which overlooks it. Hops grown hero. 

KitltalgvXL (Stat), hi Lower FranconU. 

7m». — RutlKs Ross. 

A town on the right bank of tbe Main, noted for 
its bc«r and Tineyards. Etwashanseo, on tbe left 
bank, Is joined to the town by a handsome bridge, 

88a feet long. The Gothic Church C4>ntuin8 some 
curious nmmiiiK nts. Old toll-house, with a high 
roof, was built by Bisliop Julius. Vineg-ar made. 

The people here took an active imvt in tbe 
Peasant war of 1525, for which the MargraTo 
Caslmer, their feudal lord, beheaded seven men in 
the old Leidenhof, or Tournament Yard, and put 
out the eyes of seventy-five others. 

WtlntbOXgandAseliaffMtliurg. BeeRoute42. 

WiiXMlmrs to Ba mberg:, Kia^ngn, and 


Wiirzborg to 
Heligenstadt 10 

Weiprolshausi'fi 19 

Rcrgrhelnfclil L'i 

ScliwclMfun 29 

[liranch to Kiss)n- 

Ebenhausen 9 

KUsingen 1ft 


Saate 24 

Heiningen ......... 49 

Hassfnrt .... 

Zell ............ 

Bamberg ...... 

... 46 
... 62 

Wurzburg. See Route 4;j. 
Stilgenatadt* bi llesse. 

l'ori:i.\Ti<iN. ;5,700. 

«>f the Benedicti'.io Abbey Imilt in tin; cli-veiitli 
leutury, there remains the very ancient Church 
' of Eginhard, the one-ihonaandth jubilee of which 
j was kept in 182$. In the present parish eburob ia 

I :i martde sarcophagus, containing tlie bones of 
I Emma, daiifrhtpr of f'harlcnintrne. and of her hus- 
biuid, Eginhard. The uriginal sarcuphugus was 
taken^ 1810, to Erbach in' the Odenwalde. 

W»tgolaliaTiaen (8tat.)jnaction for damiiii. 

den, page 172. 

Bergrbeinfeld (Stat.) 

Al>ont six miles from this is Khxter Ebrttck, for- 
merly a rich Cistercian abbey, with a handsome 
Church of the twelfth oontury, in tbe Golbia* 
Bysantine style, supported by thirty columna. It 
has twenty-five altars (some entirely of marble), 
and a fine rose windnw in the fmnt. Within are 
several excellent paint ings, and many monument^ 
of the Hoheiistanfen faintly. The oldest nionn- 
mcnt (1128) is outdde the Chnrcb. 

The rail enters Schwetaifnrt by a abort tonnel. 

Sebweliifiirt (ttat.) 

POPtTLAIMOK, 12,488. 

A well-built place (fomicrly an imperial town) 
on the rifrht bank of the Main. Coloured papers 
are mode. The old walls were erected by Qustavus 
Adolphus, who made this his head-qnerters in tbe 
Th Irty Years' War. The AaMAoiM, beJIt l^MTO, has 
a p7i>d The Gi/mnofUtnn Omittufum wit 
founded by Gustavus Adolj)hu«i. 

fSt.JohaHmskirdie,th<i most important church, is 
of the thirteenth century. During summer, steam- 
boats ply on the Main from here to Bnmbagy. 
Near Schwcinfurt is a monument of King Lndwigi, 
the oonstrnctor of the Ludwig's Cnnal. 

A <---"T' rtiiifr rail, of 49 miles fan ft>»ovf>, rfs 
Ebeiiiiausen to Meinlngen,joinsthe rails in Sooth 
and Central Germany. See Route 28. 

For Kisdnifen ^Uks, see next page. 

The line to Bamberg follows the Mabi by aide 
of vineyard!'. On the heights here and. there (1« 
remains of old forts. 

Digitized by Google 



Hassftirt (Stat.) A small town. «hut ill by 
mediaeval walls; has a Church of the fourteenth 
oentnry. Towards the south is a tUw of the 
Mountains of the Stiegerwalde. 

ZelKStat.) Anotherold place near the remains ; 
of Schmacbtenbers CasUe, destroyed 1M2. 

Eltmann, near the rail. A new bridge crosses 
tho vallej- at the side of the Main. The tower to 
the south-east is a part oi WuUlburg Castle, more 
than ten oentnries old. 

Groas the river to 

Bambeorg. See Sonte 41. Lines to Cobnrg, 
NnremberiPt Ac. 

From Oberndorf-Schweinfurt, as above, a branch 

rail opened 1871 troes nVt Poppenliausen (Stat.), 

Avficro thi» road frnjn Wilrzhnrp: cnisscs. and EbOZL- 
ImUHeil (Stat.)» (d miles), to the famous bathing- 


KnUNOBH (8ta.l)» 1« BngrHsh miles from 

PoFVLATioir, nearly 4|000. 

HontM.— Sanner, first-class famUy hotel. 

Victoria and Kaiserhof, Brst-olftss family hotels, ' 

deservedly recommended. 
Kurhaus (Bath Hotel). 
Rnssischer Hof. 

Engilseherhof; De Frneae; Bajrrlacher Hof . 

For good apartments apply to the Kffnlgll<die 


Jimmnrj Room at the Kurhnus, P9$t and Ttit' 
graph Ojffice in Saliuen Strassc 

€(sri'liigei.to8alzdampf1>Rd. 4 n ark; toBoeklet, 
6 marksi BrttekenaOt 19 marks; Gemttnden, M 
marks; Schwelnfurt, 10 marks. One-liorsc f iVi*er, 
as per tariff. The Frankfort Steamers come np 
the Mnlii to Gemiindon. 

RntjUsh (.'hnrch Service in the new Church, built 
by the Colonial and Continental Church Society, 
chiefly through the exertions of Dr. Qranville, 
anther of Kis^gen ; Its Sonrces and Resources.'' 

Season*. — April to Oi !(■!»« 1. Ourtaxc, payable 
after a week, fir^t, si coad, auU third olass« accord- 
ing to rank and position. 

Kissingen, on the Franconian Saala, In a fine 
valley, ie much fteqnented by English and BvssltKi 

visitors in the season. t»> the immber of nearly 
10,000. It has come into general repute slnc« 18aC. 
The waters have been known for ages past, and are 
as effieaefams as ever, especially In disorders of the 
stomach and bowels. Two of them, the Rakocxy 
for drinker"?, and the Pandur for bathers, contain 
salt and iron, and were put under a handsome 
arcaded Kurhaus, erected by King Ludwig, and 
designed by GSrtner, 1842. Another spring, the 
MaxbTunihn, near these, is effervescent, like 
Seltzer untor. The waters are taken frmti six 
to eight in the morning, and 300,000 bottles are 
exported yearly. Tho Aetlen Bath-house lies 
across the river. Here are two hospitals and a 
theatre; with Arnold's statues of Maximilian II. 
and Germany. Pike tishiatg iu the Saalc. 

Amonf^rst the sigrhts here are some old monuments 
and frescoes iu the Church ; the " Soolen eprudel " 
(brine fountain), a powerftal intennlttent spring, 
charged with cartNmIe acid gas, at a temperature 

of fiJ? dt'pri'pf s. It rises from a depth of 330 feet, 
and supplies tlic Evaporation Houses close by. At 
Ilauscn, further up the Saale, is the Artesischo 
Quelle (Artesian Well), a boring 9,000 feet in d^th, 
which has been closed, as it WAS thought pxi^u- 
didal to the other springs. 

Promenades in the Garten, nt the Music Hall, to 
the Lindesmiible, Kuersdorf, OehUuuble, AUi-n- 
bcrg. More distant Exevnifim to Booklet, Neu- 
8tadt«]i-der-8aale (Stat); Baiamrg Cattle, 

said to have been built by ('harlemagne; Sion- 
berg, with fine view, Schloss Aschach, Stnf- 
cnberg, Casoadenthal, Trimbcrg Castle, and to 
the KreuKbcrg, the highest spot of tho Rhonge> 
birge HHIs. DUigenee to Booklet (see below), 
and to Steinnch. Omnibus dally to Brttckenau; 
•see next pa^o. 

This pretty place suffered in the Germau war of 
18(K>, when 40,000 Bavarians, on their way to join 
the Federal army, were defeated with great lost 
by the Prussians. Prince Bisniarck's life was 
attenipted here 1874. A statue marks tho spot. 

Still further up the Saalc (IJ hour) Is — 

Booklet, with a strong chalybeate mineral w.iter, 
fonubU by the union of three warm spriu^s ; used 
for drinking and bathing. A weak sulphur spring 
Is good for piles and duonio lUarrtMsa. Tber) is 

Digitized by Goo Mt 


BR.VDSHAW »4 lI.lA !!iTH \tED 

[Sec. 3. 

an hotel at the KlotterliAtts«n, with coiiverMtion 

itml coffee rcKims. 
Diligence to Brilrkfiiau. 

Wtlx^burg to Tiilda. 

Wlirzburjrto Miles. • Miles. 

Jossa ......»•...*»•>• 35 

Elm. W 

FnldA 70 

KarlRtadt ........... IH 

n<MnUnden..« 24 

burirsinn 32 | 

KarlBtadt (Stak), tbc best for 

Arnstelxi, on tlio Worn, tbe Uitbplace of Mleb. 
J. 8cttiiildt« tbe historbui. 

OemiindOT (Hat.), on tbe E. Main, to which 
the Fmnkfort steamers come. A line was opened 
1872. from here to Elm, for Fulda, Ac, on the 
Bebra iiiie. There is a short line, 17^ miles, In If 
lionr, from GomUnden to 


Population, 3,000. 

A protty spot on tlio rvA\t Imnk of thp Saalc, 
which Wloiifjfil to the rriuco Bishops of Fuldn, 
whose country seat was burnt, 1844, with the 
lUthbMi, Ae. Near this ii Soaleek Caitle and the 
mlna of Amalimbnrg, a monntaln fortrosi. Ftvlt 
an«l w!nf» nre produced. 

Jossa (Stat.); short line to Briickenau, 
reached also by omnibus from Kissingen, in d 

PormuiTioN, 1,000. 

A small town and watering-place m the valley of 
the Sinn, at the foot of the R !n" hi i-jre Hills. The 
lia/h. mile distant, has uuicli pmspcred owing 
to the yearly visits of the late King Ludwig. 
Thwe are three springe called Siunherg, Wemati, 
mid Brttckcnau, all of a chalyl>eate nature, and 
excellent for brat ii)-' the syHtem, especially after a 
course of Kissingcn waters. 

The large Kwhmu^ containing ninety chantbers, 
fs near the Flinitenbatt, which was the nsnal 
residence of the king. There is a pavilion for 
music, Ac. The noi;,'hbonrho«>d of thi'j ]A\\cc is 
l>eautiful, the best Hi>ot8 being provided with 
resting plaeeaand agreeable pathe. A fine view 
from the Heiligen Krena convent, near the 

Fulda XMeBontel7. 

■ROXJTE 43- 
I Nuromberg, Bamberg, or BayreuUl, to 
i Franconian Switzerland. 

Coming from the »4iutti, thv neurcst statiuii utt 
the Bamberg and Hof line to Forchbelni, between 
Nuremberg and Bamberg « from the north the 
branch of 1" milc.i from Neuenmarkt t(j T?MyrfMith 
(Baycrlschp Staais Eisenbahn) should be tuken. 
From Nuremberg, a direct line (58 miles) rnnato 
Bayreuthand Hof , through a plotttresqne part of 
Franronian Swifz rland, past £at(A Iftt^ruci^ a 
place for hops under (he Miphclshorfr, and at a 
junction for Neukirchea and Weiden^ pa^e 17.^; 
Rupprechistegen and some old castles; Ntuhau*^ 
near Veldensteln Castle; Pearnitx, In a pretty 
▼alley; {VeirsMn, Ac. 


As it to called, lying between Bayreuth, Forch- 
hcim, nnd Hamh(»r5r. is a picttircsque table land at 
the west end of the Fichtclgcblrge Hills, about 
2,000 feet above sea, and styled Franconian, as 
being mostly in the old cirele <rf Franconia, now 
part of Bavaria. It covers about 200 square milc'^. 
ami is watpred by the Wiesfiit. Aufsees, and other 
streams abounding willi truut. The valleys arc 
often deep gorges hemmed In by rugged eaatle- 
looklng rocks, and contahiing many Cates and 
grottoes with animal bones In them. The roads 
through it meet at Muggeudurf. Onuiibuses start 

FoTolilNim and BaywiOoiEf (Stats.), oo 

the Niimbcrg-Baraberger rail, or from Bayrouth 
(see Route 47), by wav of (it'sct'S and Blankenfels; 
making the journey in two or three hours. Coaches 
keep the straight conntiy road, as many of the 
mountain paths are heavy. 

Bail from Forchheim to Ebormailllitadt, in 
t hree*qnarters of an hour, theoee by road, 8| miles, 



ffi»«.— €h>ldener LOwe; Adl«r. 

Most romantically situated in the valley of the 
Wiesent. It has a Kiirhans, ivitfi bntli-^. <fer., 
under Dr. Weber. From the Amtsschloss, on a 
rock near the town, to a line view of the neigh* 
bonrhood, taking InHuggendorf, as far as GnckhlU 
to theWehrborg, Ac. Near It are the Hanging 

Digitized by Google 

Koute 40.] 



Btone, Marluteiu, and tbe Cave of tbe Sdiiiiistein, 


Schdniiteiiilidllle, one oiul a half mile rrutn 
Streitberg on tbe road to Mnggondorf . The entire 
Cftve ie about 300 feet long, and is divided into 

seven cnjnpnrtmcnt<5, containing stalactitP"?. The 
farther one has the natucs of RoscumUIlcr and 
other naturalists who have visited the spot. 
The BranilflllStolll Cktv has two small 

entrances, one two feet high, through which you 
enter a cave 100 feet long; beyond which lios 
another and smaller cave full of beautiful stalac- 
tftec At 

Henitobk are remains of two round thick Castle 
towers, surrounded with Trails, on a rocky ttat, 

150 feet high. 

After passing the Felseugrotte, a large ^uilaettte 
cave, oTerlookittff the line valley bdow, we reach 

IfUggeiUlorf, a small viUage, with 450 Inhabi- 
tants, at the foot of the IIuh<m— OT Hagebmiiuen- 

stcin, 1,70') fpot ahovL- the sea, anumK hop and 
fruit gardens. ()innil)us (iaily to Fordilu'iiii. 

The neighbourhood abounds in Caves and pictur- 
eaqtte mountains; among which are the Guckhtil, 
with a fine Tiew, the Welcheelbaum, the Markens- 

bcrg, the Hohlcborfr, the RiimcrsHerfr, and othor 
points of view. One of tlic most notico;il)I« sights 
is a cave in the Kuppe Muuiituin, called the 

BMWninlUlinlltflile, so named aftO' Prof. 
BosenmfUler, who first described it 1793; abound- 
inr 'n stalactites, upwards of 100 feet high, in 
the middle and round the sides. It commands a 
splendid view. Entrance 2^ marlis fur one to six 

TheOiValddlOlile, in the IIohlel)crg, half-way 

up the mountain, is divided info three prlneipal 
passages, tbe middle one and most beautiful bohig 
40 feet Imig, 76 feet broad, and 80 feet high. A 
waterfall is seen In a neighbonrlng- cave. 

The WltZdXlliOhlO I-'' another remarkable series, 
entered by a efive fiO feet bmad and of the same 
length; beyond which is a second, 30 feet broad, 
and 100 feet lonir, eontabiinir yefAw stalactites. 
Then three caves, in which are the remains of 
heathen altar?, and urns, with black stalactites, 
and many fossil beds. Ilcnco past the Baumfurter 
Mill, in a pretty spot, to 

The OftUennutlMrlM^lileb «1m» Miicd the 

Zoolithenhlihle, from flie ininilieikss Ijoues uf 
antediluvian animals found in U, together with 
those of wolves, hyenas, bears, &c. It is divided 
into a series of small caves, and has been described 
by Esper, RosenniiiUor, Cuvicr, Bucklnnd, and 
other natu'-fxlists. The forester shows the cave, 
1 mark each pcritun. 

From the Eisgrotte, or Ice grotto, there is a way 
to a hole fall of foesil remains. Over tbe back of 
the range to 

Gdssweln stein, a small plnce with G(K) inlial i- 
tants, near a mouutaln of the same name, with a 
fine view from the Castle on Us summit, over three 
valleys which meet here. 

The village church baa a lo-eaUod miraculous 
image of the Holy Trinity, tn which ni.nny pil- 
grimages are made; with line altar-pieces and 
stucco ornaments. In the neighbourtiood arc the 
Espers, Allersdorfor, and Etsdorfer Caves, and the 
Wichsensteln II !H. 
T!h' iif'xt place is 



It has the picturesque remains ni a Cmfte, sur- 
rounded with high rocks, and beautifully situated. 

In the neighlmurhood are the large and small 
Tcufelslocti, the first 330 feet long. Through the 
beautiful Tlichersfeldcr Thai, and into the 
BngHlharttellWgW Thai, a continuation of the 

Wicsonthul. between striking pyramids of rock, to 
the Riffcnberg, or rsinnt's Hill. This is n prroup of 
rocks shaped into arches and towers, and made 
accessible by the owner. Count SdiQnbom. A 
guide may be had at the Toos Inn. It overlooks 
the Engelhardsbcrprer Valh y. 

The Rabcneclter Thai is another beautiful valley 
leadinii to 

/na.— Hofman. 

A small place on the Wiescnt. surrounded with 
groups of rocks. Its church, built 14')0. has the 
monument of Bishop Grau, a native, who died at 
Vienna, Pine views from the remains of 

I Schllisselberg and Gutenberg Castles; also from 
' the llabeneck, formerly a very cxtcn?iive nionntain 
1 castle, in one of the most lovely parts of the 
! Wlesont Valley. Remains of the original struc- 
! turc and the chapd arc in good preservation. 

Digitized by Goo^k 



[See. ft. 

Itaben^ft in f'<is/[t Ims mofiorn ndilUinn*^ mnflf* hy 
ifsowiuT. Count Srhiinlxirn ; nml staiidfl ovor tho 
Rabenateinerlibhle, one of the most rctnarkable 
cares tti tbls locality, on aeeouut of th« great nnm- 
bcr of fossil bones and stalactites. Another Tiiiino 
isthc Sophlonhohleor cave. Adniittaiico. 'iiuarks 
for one to tivc persons, including^ the lighting U]> 
of from forty to fifty lights. 

On the opposite side of the roroantie Ahomthal 
is Kiinif^ Ludwipshiihle. 

Tho ForstershOhle, firRt described by Esper, 
belongs to the landlord of the MciKel Inn. 

Past Unteraiifseefl to 

Or0(^en«f<i»^ a rocky height, sunnomnted by an 
amioiiry. a Cbinoie pavilion, and other faiwlfnl 


From hero to HeillgeilBtadt and by way of 


SegexiBbuiig (Ratisbon) to BayreuUi. Hof, 
and Eger. 

By Bayerlsebe Ostbahn, the stations are as 


Itefensbnrg' to 

^Valh^^llastra^^se ... 2i 

licfjeiistauf 9J 

Haldbof 17 

Schwandorf 27 

{Brtm^ to Prague.] 

Irrenlohe 29} 

IBr. to Nureniberfr: — 

Amberjr 14 

Balzboch. 21 


(Lnnp to Wfldcn, 32.) 

Etzelwang 2H 

Mnremberg ... 5Q 


Nabbtuv 36 

Wcmbcrg 44 

Weiden 54 

[Branches to Ncu- 
berjr, and to Eger 
and Carlsbad.] 
Kenmath-Ncustadt 75 

Bayreuth 90 

Nenenmarkt .........101 



Obcrkotzau ........ 

Hof 188} 

Bogemdmrg, or Ratlsbon, as in Ronte 40. 

The line proceeds up to Regen, through the 
quartz hills, which are nsetl liy the Kohemian 
glass makers, to the Walhallastrasse, or road to 
the WatMOa (Route 40) ; then to 

Regemtenf (Stat.), Mar the remains of 
BiircnfoM and Carlstein Castles. 

Haldliof (Stal), near Burglengenfeld, a small 
town on (ho Nab, havlnganoldcharchandaniinod 

mountain fort. 

POi'LLATlON, 1,500. 

Schwandorf (Stat.), at the junction of the 
Prag-ue line, on the Nab. It has the Castle o| 
Prince Wallerstein. 

mrenlolie (Stat.), on the Nab, where the 
branch to Nnretnberff turns off. It passes by 
Ainbcrg, Sulzbach, Nenkirehen, Ac^ as below. 

[Amberg (Stat). 

POPILATIOK, 19,f»98. 
/Hn.—TTalzcr Hof. 

A well-imilt town, on the Vila, in the Upper 
Palatinate, and so called bocanselt is am Berga,** 
on the slope of the Bragehlrge Hills. In the neigh* 

bonrhnod. The ramp.irts arc turned into public 
walks. At tlie Vilsthor G«to i<? a moniiment of 
Max Joseph 1. It is celebrated for the victory 
gained by the Anstrians under Archduke Chaides, 
1796, ow Jourdan. St. George*8 Ohureh baa 
three towers. The Hutbic 

Marlins tirchCf in tiic pnnctpai square, has a 
beaatifui tower, 890 feet high, and several monu- 
ments, including that of the Count Palatine 
Rnpcrt (11)97). 

The lUithhatif. is n very old Gothic bniMfn?. 

Other bnildings deserving notice are the Hoyal 
and the Jesuits' CuUtge^ mam a Gymmasiaiii, 
containing a large Library from the suppressed 
abbeys, nnd cabinets of natural objects aod of 

The Royal Factory of arms turns out 20,000 
weapons yearly. There are also manulhctnres of 


On a hci^-^ht near the to>vn is the Mariahirf 
I'ilgrimago Chnrch, with a fine view of the 
Bayrische Wald. Here the Anstrians defejited the 
French, 1798. 

Tlic f orges in t he Erzgcl>i rge range In the Tietnlty 
yield 2.50n tons of iron yearly. 

Sulzbacli (Stat.) 

PopuLATioir , 8,200. 

Inm. Wilder Mann; Bother Krabs (Red Cntb); 

Bflyeri<ichcr Hof. 

Tills small town i-^ oti thf dot-livify of the Ficli- 
telgebirgc Hills, ana has an old Royal Castle, or 
Schloss, once the resldoice of the Bavarian dukcK 
belonging to tlic bookseller Yon Seldel.] 

Nabburg (Stat.), on the main line, under th« 
nlojjp of n hil!, ''urniountrd hy a Gothic char«h. 

i Wernberg (Stat.), near an old Ca9tie. 

Digitized by Goo 

3lottte 47.] 



Welden (Stat.) a bdwII numuf acturlnir town 

ou the Nab, where the lines from Nei:ddrchen 

niul Kurcinlicr?. nnfl Efrcr in Austria fall in. The 
latter posses by Wuldesseu, uuthe Bavarian border. 

POPULATIOV, 34,361. 
lanr.— Anker. 

Bail to Neueumarkt, Hof, Xurcmbcrg, ttc. A 
rail ifl open past Creusscn to Nuremberg (p. Ifi7). 

Coaches to Walschenfeld in Frmiconiaii Swltzer- 
laud and other places. See bradshaw't Continental 

ThU 1« A well-buill town In Upper FrancontSf 

surrounded by pleasant gardens and promenades, 
on the Red Mnin between the Mistelbnch and 
Bendelbach. It has six gates in the t)ld walls, and 
the suburb of St. Geurifcu. Bayrcuth, which 
formerly belonged to tho Brandenburg family, 
came at lenjftti to tlm MarKnivcs of An-'ipach- 
Baircuth, who gave it tip to Prussia, 1791, In 
1806 it was trausfen-ed to Bavaria. Taits of it 
haTO been rebuilt since the fires 9t 1921 and 1753. 
It was captured at the olose of the Qennan war, 
28th July, 1866. 

The Sojyhieakitxhey in St. George's suburb, was 
built 1705-11. 

The largo Opera House, or Theatre^ which was 
handsomely fitted, 1748, in i>art of the old Biding 
House, was rebuilt as a National Opera, in honour 

of Wafn»er, tho composer, author of Lohengrin^ 
Tannhmtsn\d:r., whorosUU-d here. It is fan-shaped, 
not semicircular; and has been adopted as a 
German National Theatre. 

Wagner*s House, in tho Rlchard*Wagner- 
strasse, 28S|, has an appropriate inserlption, and 

the grave of the composer is in the Garden. The 
Alt .Schlo!!« fhtimt 1758 and rebuilt) lias a lofty 
tower, with a good view. 

The New IkMott has n very tine gai'dcn, which 
iB used as a public promenade. 

A Statue of /«»» PwA RtOUer^ the German 
writer, who lived and died (1825) at Balreuth, 
stands in Gynmr'siums Platz ; ft is the work of 
Schwsnthaler, at the cost of King Ludwijr of 
Bavaria. Hli triTe, with that of his son, lies 

under a marble pyramid in the Oottesackcr 


St. Ceorce's suburb is united to the town by an 
avenue of trees. 

The Sremitage^ three miles east of the town, the 
most beautiful spot in the neighbourhood, is a 

country seat, built 172(1, In a fine park, with 
gardens, temples, walt rworks. A-c. Two wings 
were titled up by a former Margrave with cells 
for himself and his wife, and their followers, to 
retire to when disposed. Here Frederick tlio 
Great's sister, the Margravine, wrote her Memoirs. 

Near l^ckcrsdorf. west of the town, is the Pftan- 
tatie^ once a country seat of Uuke Alexander of 
Wtlrttemburg, in another beautiful spot. It con- 
tains sculptures by the late Dncheis (Mario of 
Orleans), iiu htdin;.' her well-known Joan of Arc, 
and the Guardian Angci ; also paintings aud 
portraits from her own hand. 

At Mi^difou^ eight miles distant, are graves of 
the Wends, in which many old weapons have been 

For Franconian Switzoriaiui, see Route 46. 

[Two hours distant, un the pu»t road tu Iluf, is 

BemeciC. /<m.~L8we. 

A sniall town, in a deepvalley, surrouttdedby the 
Fichtelgebirge RangO* on which are remains of 
old castles. A small bridge crosses the Oelsnitz, 
which flows through the town, and produces excel- 
lent trout; a fewpearlsarealso found. FurtheronU 

QefreeB, near Falls-Gefrees (Stat.X H miles 

from M!incbber<.'. /»«.— T.iiwe. 

Tlie road turns oil" liere to the right through tho 
Fichtelgcbirgc towards Bohemia, and by way of 
Wetssenstadt to Wunsiedel (nine miles), and 
Alexanderbad (two miles). From Wunsiedel there 
is a direct line to Hof (sec below). It follows the 
western slope of the mountains, the highest peaks 
of which are— the Schneeberg, 3,&46 feet high, 
and the Ochaenkopf, S,S60 feet high. The Main, 
the Eger, tboNaab, and the .Saale, all rise at the foot 
of thene mountains. In the last few ycnrs. a larcre 
trade in mock pearls has sprung up in tho small 
towns of thisdistriet, which has serloitsly interfered 
with the Venetian monopoly.] 

Hof (Stat.) See Munich to Hof, Route il. 

From here a branch of 20 miles proceeds viA 
Oberkotzau, Rbslau, to 

Digitized by Google 


BttAl>t>UAW t» 

WunBledel (Stat.) 
Jim. — Kruupriiis. 

A town on tho BoMla, »l the bottom of tbo luilf 
circular Flchtdgeblrgtt laiige, rebuilt since the 

rtrc of 18.M. Its wealthy, endowed Hospital V«s 
founded 148(1. It tit.- l,irthiiIa<M' f.f Jean Paul 
Bicbtcr, vrhosc .s.aiui; viands before his hou«c. 
Woollen goods are made. 
Aiiout 1| mile from Wiuisledel lies the watering 

plarr of 

AiexaiI(leiSba4, formerly calk'd .iic/iersreuih, 
butre^named by the last Margrave Alexander of 
Baireut li. It is a black allialinc ch ilybeatc water, 

u»*cd for drinkiiij^ and for w:mn baths, and i-xcol- 
Icnt ia all cases of weakness. Jt is effervescent, 
and bottled for exportation. There arc good 
private lodgings, and two /atM, the Weber and 
the KurhauH, or Schloss, tlic latter at the Sprin;,'s. 
It l)clon?r<'d tu the Margruvos, atul cfmtninx ns-nrly 
flfty rooms, at a height of 2,000 feet above the sea, 
In a fine sitnatlon on the dedivlty of the Rosaein, 
one of the remarkable peaks of the Ficlitelgebirgo. 
Table if hdte at the Schloas, 3| marks. The air is 
l»r!t'-in'», fiti'I the vit \vs are ro-narknlily Jipjiutiful 
and extensive. Carriaije innn Wuiisledul to 
Atexandersbad and the Lulsenburg and back, 
7 to 8 marks.>nH m:«y Ijc mndr in the nnl'^-hlKiurhood to 
the Kiisscine. 3,08Ufeot alM>vc the sea ; tlv Sclnice- 
hcrg, 3,450 feet hi;?h (the hi^jheat luak of the 
Fiehtelgebirge range, marked by a watch-tower, 
Imilt 1520); the Ochsenkopf, 3,960 feet; and to the 
Schneeloch (suow hole), where the snow remains 
till July. These hills arc extremely rujrtred and 
ttHsurcd. One of the meet remarkable, called the 
LuUeiautff^ or LuA^rff^ eonaists of loose blocks, 
heaped in the most grotesque way, and covered 
with small slini'is and trees. It rciiuln-s a frulde, 
and two hours to see it completely. Kefieshmcuts. 

I^OXJTE 48. 
Augsburg to Ulm. 
(l^yorische Staats Eiseabahu.) 
By rati, past the following stations: — 
Ingush 1 
Augsburg to milos. I 

Wcstheiiii 31 

Gosscrttthattscu 9.^ 

l>inkelseherb«i..».. mi 
B' iH^......... 28 


fT U n / 1 1 1 1 1' ,r 

Neu Ulm... 





Augsburg (Stat.), as lu Koute41. 

Otinzburg (Stat.), in 8wabia. 

Popi r.ATiox, 4,000. 
Intl.— Biir. 

A town at the Inflns of the GiinK into the 
Danube, over which Is a fonr-arched bridge. It 

is the Romnn Guntia, and has a t arreted castle 
overlooking the Uiinzthal and the snrronQdiitg 


Lelplielm (Stat.) is passed, with a Castle 
built in the middle of the sixteenth eentory; thou 

Falheiin, the inhabitants of which carry on a large 
trade in nnails as far ns Vienna. On the uther 
side of the Danube is Elchingen^ from which 
Marslml Key took his title of Dnke^ which he re- 
ceived in acknowledgment 'of the victory gained 
l>y him here over the Austrians under Laudon, 
1 kli October. 180">. He tonk this place by Storm, 
crossed the Danube, and made Geueral Mack 
prisoner hi Ulm. 
The last place in the Bavarian territory is 
Hen Ulm (Stat.), on the right bank of tlie 
Danube, a kind of suburb of Ulm, with large 
barracks. A bri(I'.:e ( i'(>.s-«<;es the river to 

Ulzn (Stat.), on WUritemberg territory, bcc 
Route bi. 

From Ulm a rail runs aeross the Bavarian 

territory to Memmingen and Kemiiten, where it 
meets the line from Augsburg (Ruuie 49), towards 
the Lake of Couatance. The stations on this line 
are as follow: — 
Ulm to Miles, i Miles. 

Neu Ulm ............ 2 Memmingen 

Senden M | [/IraneA toBncidoe.] 

lllertlsscn I'lh Uroneubach •..•„„. 41 

KoUuiUu;i 22 Kempteu ............ M 

Fellbeim ............ 36 I forLlndau. 

XttmnSngem <8tat), in awabhu 


Inn. — Bayrischer Hof. 

A niAUufacturiug town and ancient free city, 
annexed to Bavaria in 1803 ; standing on a branch 
of the liter. It has an arsenal and barmeka, and 
I was the scene of Morcau's victory, 10th May, 1800, 
over the Austrians. The liter is the boundary of 
WUrltcmburg. A direct rail towards Munich was 
I opened in 1874, past the neighbourhood of Uindcl- 
i helm to BoelUoe (itol), as In Sonte 40. 

Digitized by Google 


Angtlnirg to Undau and Lake of Coustance, 
through the Bavarian Highlands. 

By rail (Bftyeiische Staftts Eiaenbahn); sUtioM 
AS under: — 


[Branch to V]m, an 
in Route 48.] 

Immenstadt 78 

[Braneh to South* 

Oberstaufon — 

Hnrbntzhofen 98i 
Ruthetibach ......... 96^ 

Hergatz 106 

Schlachters 111} 


[Branch tO 
SchwabmHnehen ... 14 

Buchloe 24i 

[Branch to Munich.] 

Kaufheiiern 37i 

Biesneahofen 41{ 

Branch to Obeni> 

Giiiizach 52| 

Kempten 64 

Augsburg (Stat.), as in Route 41. 

At the next station, Bobingm, a branch goes up 
the Iiech to Landsberg, past Lager-Lech/eld, Klos- 
ter-Leeh/dd, ftnd Kav^fering. Landsberg (popu- 
lation t,600) is an old plaoa, wliieli raffored in the 
Thirty Years' War. On the Lechfeld, or plain of 
the Wertach and Lech, Otho I, defeated the Huns, 
A.D. 955. Welleubttrg belongs to the Fugger- 
Babenhausen fSamily. 

BeihwablllflilUdieil (8tal), on tho Wertaeh, 
near the remains of a Roman bridge. Here the 
foot road ]iarfs off to MinrMhnm. a principality 
^veu by Joseph I. to Marlborough, after his victory 
at Bleidifllm. Tli« pariah chtu«^ ooataina tomba 
of the Dnliea of Teeli, and Qeorge von Fnmdsharg, 
Charles Vs. General, called the German Bayard. 
One of this family (a branch of the Royal House 
of WUrttemberg) is the present Duke of Teck, the 
Ima1»nd of Princen Mury of Cambridge. 

BaoUlW (Stat), where a line from VUlilch 
and Pasing(see page 148) comes in; 41 T^nglish 
miles Ion? from Muni< h. It pa«!>«es Bruck and 
Igling, among other stations, and was opened 
1873; tiine eompleting a direct Une fkom Unnich 
to Lindav. Another line comes in ftom Km* 
mingen, on the line between Ulm and Kempten, 
as in Route 48. 

Hence across the Wertacb, in the Algau Valley, 
the ZugtpUz, 9,710 feet high, and other peaks, are 

Kaufbeuren (Stat.) Popmuinov, ft,000. 

/MM.— donncj Hineh. . 

An old Imperial city, on the Wertach, with 

nimiiifftctiivt^^ 'if jinpor. <Vc. 

BlessenllOfen (Stat.), where roads strike off 
to Peissenburg, Fllsseu, &c., in the Highlands. 
Branch rail to Oberdorf, 4 miles. 

GoniaclL (8tal)» the nearest to OtMlsttlll* 

burg. roi'ULATioN, 1,500. /««.— stem (Star). 
About 2,770 feet above sea, over the Giinzthal. 
Wagegg Castle, a ruin on a height, is near. 

Kempten (Stat.), in SwaUa. Pofukatiov, 
10,739. /luw.— Algftner Hof; Krone. 

A Inrg'e, old, fieo city, the Roman Campodunum, 
on the Iller, or valley of the Algaus, here traversed 
by a high raUway viaduct. The Cathedral is on 
one hill overlooking the town $ another is topped hj 
the rains of the Burghaldc or Castle. The Prince 
Alibofs Scliloss is of the eij^'-htcenth century. 
Many Rowan remains, including a forum. 

Within a short distance are several peaks of the 
BavariOH BigMamk, or Algin range; as the 
Grlinten, 6,730 feet high; HochTo<rel 8,493 feet; 
and the MikU'le GabH. upwards of 8,670 fe^ t niul a 
fine view may be obtained from tho Marieubcrg, 
2i miles west from Kempten* 

The line passes throngb a sneeesslon of rftrlnee 
following the Iller to 

Inunenstadt (Stat.), near the Tyrol borders, 
and 2,400 feet above the sea. From here It Is 70 to 
80 miles to Innsbruck, through the Leclitliai. Rail 
through Bonthofen to ObenitdOff. 

Oberstaufen (Stat.) 

The watorslied of the Danube and the Rhine. 
ILdthenbach(Stat.),orRuthenbach by Lindau. 
Ahont 3,100 feet aboTS the sea, near the Rentert- 
Jkt/iWier Hamm, a Tiadnet across the valley, upwards 

of one-third of a mile long. Beyond this the view 
takes in the Lake of Constance and the muuntaina 
of St, Gall and ApniMizcll. beyond. 

LINDAU (Stat.) 


Bono..— BaTihre. Bt^et at station. 

An old imperial city and fort on the Late 0 
Comtancc (Rodensce), founded by the Romnns 
under Tiberius, part of whose old CasHe, called 
the Heldenmaner, remains. It stands on aa Island 
united to tho mainland by a wooden bridge and 
Ti-idnct of the rail, about 1,000 feet long. Swltier> 
land and Yorarlberg are In Tiew. 

Digitized by Goo^k 


[Sec. 3, 

l(:ilhi;;'s monument to Maxhniliari II., on the 
luibom- mole, was erected ISOil. 

Stoaiucn to Constanec, Frtedrtchfthsifcii, 9re- 
gCWZ, Rorschach, Ac, on the Swiss sidi', in con- 
nection with the mils to foin. St. G. ill. ^l-r. Direct 
rail way communication Is now o|»en between Lindau 
and tlie 8wIm and AttMrliiii Vdntlberff lines, by 
way of St. H ax^sarethen, Feldklreh, Sec Bee Brad- 

Mnnieli to Landilittt and PftiMii. 

By Rail. 

For Municii to Landshnt see Route 40. 
Thence to Pussau (Uaycrischu-Ostbuhn); the 
stations are as follow :~ 

Miles. I Miles. 

1.5 Plattling ........... 52 

27 I Li(n<rvnisarhofen». •'''7^ 

Pleintiu? 67 J 

Yllsbofeu 71 

Passau 84 


Oeiselhiirin^' ... 
^Branch to Sttu- 
Straabing ....... — . 37 

A nearer wny to Pilsen is froi;; T rii l-fint ri.'i 

AUhohii. Ahrnln, W<irth, kc. t«> Landau-aiH- 

Isar, ll'cnce tlirouijii Wallrradyrf niui Ot/.ing to 

Piatt liiiff. 

1. Plattliug to rUssn, ovor tbe Austrian Dor- 
dor: — 

Miles. ) Milei. 

Df;».'ondorf ('» 

Ciottu^zcll «... 20^ 

Jte^cn .•■ 

l.udwi r*th.i 40 

Kl^cuHtciii 4.> 

2. Munich to Una (see page 1BI% by the direct 


Grfln «0 

KhittHU ............. 75^ 

PrestUa.. «0 

PUscti 1054 


Miilildorf 33 

llirtMch to Latt' 
dan, Plattlln?, *«.] 

Ncuiitthjg 61 

Sinihacb 77^ 

Una 145 

Munich (south) ... 

:\Iunirh (onst) f> 

Si hvviiben IDJ 

I )< I if on 8C 

acliwindejEg ......... 40 

Ampfins. 48 

gtranlDlllir (Stat.) Population, 13.5C1. 

J[:}!i'l. -\V«.;?iu'r. 

Dslitronces— St'C Dradf hate's Confincutal GuUU. 
An old towti. the Uomun C'tstra Augustaua, in a 
fertile pliiiu, near the Danube, which Is crossed hy 
fiVO bridges traversin:^ an island. From one of 
thcni the mifurtunatr wifo of Albert III., Agues 
licr»uuar, d.iuahter of an Aujfsburg citizen, was 
1, to be drowned in the river, J43C. She is 
St. Peter's Church. St. Jameses Gothic 

Church of thft rtft^'onth (ion t urj* ! sonic pnintingrs 
by Wohlgemuth. The Carmelite or (iymuasisl- 
kirelM Chnrcii, has a fine monument of Albert IL 
nattUnff (8tat.), on the Isar, at the junetlen 
of the MUhldorf line, on the south side of the 

[Rraiu'li rail across the Danube, to 
Deggendorf (Stat.), in the Bayrische Wald. 
PopOLATiOK. 4,000. It has pottery works and 
I breweries. Hence to IffiflWIitrffln (m aboye) for 

Pllsen (pairo 2:14)]. 

Osterhofen (Stat.) 

Here are extensive remains of a couveiit, witli 
a handsome ehnreh. 

yUflhOren (Stat.) //i/m.— Ochs (Ox) ; Rossel. 

The Ronifiii Vif'd Qufntaru'rn. at the junction of 
the V ils with the Danube. The bridge commauds 
a fine view of the Danube, andthomomorlal Lion 
to Maximilian T. is seen on a rock to the le't of 
the Hue. It has a Col 1 o irl ate Church, founded 1376. 

FASSA0 (Stat.) 

Poi»li.ATroN, 16,700. 

IxNS.— Zum Bayrischerhot; Wilder Mann. 
Rail to Batlshon, Lins, Munich, and Vieuita. 
Steamer to Ratisboii, Una, ^ 

Dili:^cncc to Brcitenberjr, undftr the Drelses* 
selgcbirgc in the B.nyrischer Wald. 

The capital of Lower Bavaria, and an oUl cathe- 
dral town, at the junction of the Inn and the lis 
with the Danube, on the site of the Roman Ceufra 
Ritual. This is the most bfautiful spot on the 
Dannbe. Ihc Inn an<i the Danube are respec- 
tively «60 feet and7!» I feet broad, running between 
high picturesqtic cliflTs, covered with old balldings 
and suggesting a likenoss to Coblcntz. Tlie old 
f t"v,-n st:in(1<; on the Danube and Tnn ; the suburb 
of luiistailt, on the west bank of the Iixn; that of 
(Jbcrhaus between tbe Danube andllz ; and that 
of Ilxstadt, on the west bank of tbe Ila. The 
rivers may be distinguished by three calonrs: the 
Danube is greenish; the Inn, white; tbe lis, 
rather black. 

St, Stephen's Dom has an old Gothic chofr« and 
addltloiiK in the old Italian style, with a cupola, 
ito.. maAc. shiro the fire of 16S2. It contains 
monuincnts to Otto von Laynlng (1414) and 
others, some adomed with mosaic; and tho rave- 
stone of Hans Slnchlng (IM5), who was <sourt 

Digitized by Google 

B<»1lte6 dOand 61.J aAN]>.B00lC to 0BR]lAKy^l>ASdAl7, TRAUKBtllK. 

fool to fiMir blshopi. Ho U iropfeaented In J««tep'B 

annour. On the Domplatz l» a bronze of Maxi- 
milian r., raised 182i. inscribed "Charta Ma^riia." 
The Bishop now occupies part of the old Ducal 
Restdens; and opposite tbio Is tho Poti OJice in 
which the Treaty of AuaoN bstfreen the Emperor 
Ferdinand and Maurice of Saxony was signed, 
1662, secaring relijrious liberty to tlie Protestants. 
8t, PauTs Church of the seveutecnth century, has 

'^MRathhaus is partly of the fourteenth century. 

A pyramid to President Rndbordt stsiids on the 
promenade u<»r the Inn. 

The Ilxstadt subarb is principally inhabited by 
tlmber>Taftsmen. Itlso^rlookedbytheinHMtery, 
on the snmmU of which is the ^onnengUUf whenoe 
is a fine view, the singular polonring- of the waters 
of the three rirers being clearly marked. 

The Obertkutt on the Georgberg, on tiio north side 
of the Osnnbe, Is a strong fortress and state 
prison, 430 feet high. Another pckint is the 
Pilgrim Church on Mariaiulfberg, across the 
bridge to Innstadt. Hals Caatle, and the wind- 
ing valley of the Ita doscrre a visit for their 
piotniesiiiie iManty. 

The Bamrian FnreM (Bayrische Wald) extends 
from here o'j miles towards Fnrth, past the Arbor 
and Rachel peakn, 4,800 Icet liip-h. 

Kiilil<di to Xnnsbrnck, Salz1nixv»IiiOlil»t]i4 


The line here given, as far as Rosenheim, is not 
ttsed by expreie trains, bnt is mueh the finest route. 

Munich to Miles. 

Hnlzkirchen 23 

[Branchet to Schlier- 
Rcc and TOla.] 

Aibiing 40 

Rosenheim 47 

[Branch to Munich 
via Grafinjr,the di- 
rect route. 6^m. 
shorter(very unin- 
teresting). June- 


tion for Kufatpin 
and Innsbruck.J 

Endorf 57i 

Prlen 62^ 

Uebersee 81 1 

Traunstein oi 

Frellassinjf lu8i 

{Brandk to Relchcn- 


Salzburg 118 

[Branch to Halle in, 1"] 
From Municll the line passes l)y Mitterseud- 
Ung, and Untersendling Church, which lias 
ZJndensebmidt's fresco of tlie battle of ITOff. 
Pttrther on, at DelSttBllOfiBll, it crosses an old 
Biimaii way, whieh eones down from Pelis. 

Holzkirclien tStat.), near the ravine called 
the Tenfelsgrnbe. Dltig«ice to BenedlctbeiMfn 
and Pensbtrg (Route 39a). Here a short braneh 

line was opened, 1S74, to T61a (Stat.), in a fino 
part ot the Ba\ iiriau Highland*. (See Route 

PoPULanov, i,oao. /m.— Schnllhrln. 

The Roman Albeanum on the Vangfall, neaf 
which Is n ('Mlnrv.ii tn ttu- Vir;?in, ercpti d by Qupph 
Theresa, on tlie 8i)ot where she parted from lier sou 
Otto on his way to Greece. The Castle bus a view 
of the mountains of the Inn, towards Innsbmclr, 
a road to which turns off here via Knfstein. 

Bosenheixn (Stat.) 

POPCLATIOK, 10,069. 

/aM—Alto Post; Bahnhof Restaurant. 

The jnnction of the Innsbmelt, Salsburg, Mtthi' 

dorf, and Holzkirchen linos. 

A pleasant town on the. Inn, at a junction of 
the Mangfall, among salt baths, and salt works 
fed by brine brought all the way from RclchcnhalU 

[A rail to MUliUlorf and LmdaaMmfter, 

descends the Inn, passing WaiMrlniXy (Btat.), 

with a church of the 13th century.] 

Endorf (Stat.) near the Slmmsee. 

Prlen (Stat.) From liere a steam tramway to 

Stock, on the C'hiemsce, or Chiem Lake, the 
largest in Bavaria, about 9 miles by 12 and 40 
miles in drenmferenoe. lu flsh are excellent. 
The mountains on the south side rise from fi,<POO 
to (;,n'K) feet above the sea. thp fii_'h<"^t pcik Lein'^'- 
the Wendelstcln. It contalub three islands ; one of 
which, the Heneninsel, has the handsome castle 
of 8ehi9$i HerrmMemm^ oommeneed by Lndwlg 
II., but not completed; it was planned on tho 
model of Versailles, and is magnificently fitted up : 
another, called Fraucninsel, has a nunnery, near 
which is a good inn, mueh frequented by artists. 

UelMnee (Stat); branch to Margnartstein. 

Tranntttln (Stal) 

PopuT.ATiox, 4,500. /n/M.~HIrsch ; Post. 

Rail to TrOBtberg, opened 1890. j>iiigenee.^ 
See Bradshaw's Continental Guide. 

A town on the Traun, among salt works. Most 
of It has been rebuilt since the fire of 1851, whkh 
nearly destroyed the town. The brine is brought 
from Boidienbail, 2« miles distant. 

Digitized by Google 



[Bee a* 

TiMra Is ft Urg« and ir«U-ftmiigred bftlhtiifr 
ettftbllibment and Pension. 

From here It ahotit 14 mites t<> Reichenhall by 
a fine road ascending the hills, with the Tyrolese 
heights in tIbw. Bnt tke shortvst way Is by a 
branch rail from 

rrtlllailrtBg (8talw)» Ivrttwr on, the last sta- 
ll Ti i-1 Ravaria. 
[BeichenliaU (Stat.), in BaTaria. 
P(irL L.\ rioN, 3,000. English Church Service. 

Hotel and VtUas Berkert; Loolsenbad, 
flnt-dass botelt and exeellent aoeotDmodaUoo, 
with moderate charges; Hotel Achselmannsteln. 
Knrtnxp after 7 days' f^tay, mark<?. 

A salt t<vwn an'l watering place, in a healthy 
mountain valley, on the Saale or SaaUcb, mostly 
rebuilt since the fire of 18M. About U^OOO Invalids 
and yisltors come here in the season to take the 
brine baths. Kurhaus, readinpr-room, and every 
accommodation. Reichenhall is in the centre of 
four Bavarian salt works; the brino being con- 
ducted along troughs of wood and Iron, is pumped 
from a depth of 50 feet, to the boiling and gradua- 
tion works ; and thence it runs down to Traunstein 
and Rosenheim, at a l-.w er elevation. The surplus 
brine from Berchtesgaden Is also brought down 
to this iilace by a eondttit, which winds tbtongh 
the nunrntalnB^andts abont 90 miles long, passTntr 
the Ramsau and other beautiful siiots. 
Rail, 11? miles, throncrh Hnllthnrmto 
Berchtesgaden, in Bavaria, 
innj.— >Leuthaus ; Neuhans. 
Abeantifiilspot, with a castle formerly belong- 
ing to the Prince Bishop, n ow the summer Palace 
of tho Kin? of Bavaria. It is notpd for carvin^f 
hi Avood, ivory, and bone, of great excellence, 
bait works and saline baths. Here the sunrise and 
sunset effects on the Watsmann and other peaks 
of the Bavarian Alpw are seen to great advantage. 

The KdnigB-See, close by, is a monntafii lake, 
the finc't in Geraiany, G miles long, and shut in 
by ovorlianging peaks 6,000 to 9,000 feet high. 
Another name for It Is lake j8I. BarUukmetf^ from 
a hunting castle of that name, near the llttla Inn, 
nt the foot of the Watzmann, a monntain covered 
with {?1aclcr«(. Excellent salmon-trout are to be 
had at the inn, wtevo boats may be hired for 
Tlilting the aMbaMijm, tha BIs!Mu>^«t Md 

other sights. Stag and chamois hunts take place 

when the Court resides here. The Sallet Alp 
divides tho Konigssrr from the Obersee or Upper 
Ldiku. A narrow paHs along the course of th6 llttlo 
rivulet Alba, between the Unterbarg and Bx>b«n 
Gdhl, leads over the Austrian bonndarr* 
Unter^erg U fi,000 feet high, and has n cnvc in 
which accord in tr to an old prophecy, Charles V. is 
said still to sleep till the day when Garmaay 
shall reach its highest pitch of prosperity.] 

Fram Fteilassing (above) the Itaia croaMs «ha 
Saalach to 

Salzburg (Stat.>, on Austrian ground. 

Popri.ATioN, 27,741. 

Hotels.- lye r Europe; d'Autrlche; NelbdMk; 
Erahcnog Carl, dtc. 

A beauttfoMy situated city, mostly rebuilt after 
frequent fires. The Residona Platz, with the 
Ilofbninnen m the centre, is the principal point in 
the old town. Here are the 17th century 
Resident Pchloss, tbeNeubau (Qovemment BoBd' 
ingsX and the fine Cathedral, a miniature wpy of 
St. Peter's, at Rome. The Mozart Mufcnm, St. 
Peter's Cimetery, the Carol ino-Augusteuin, the 
fortress of Hohen-Salzburg (fifteenth century), aia 
the prUicipal attractions. Mosart was bom Ime 
ITM, In the house No. 7, Oetreldegassa, which 
contains the Museum (fee, 50 kr.) ; tlie house in 
which he lived is in Mak art platz. From the 
Achleitners-Thurm, on the Monchsberg^ and also 
from the Jfonnberg and the Ct^pmlmerietg^ Ttxf 
fine and extensive views are obtained. 

Manlcb to Liiig.^For stations and dlitancas, 
sec Rnute r.O, No. 2. 

Schwaben (Stat.); from which a branch to 
Elding, ei^rht miles long, was opened 1873. 
Schwaben Is the nearest station for 

Hio1tfiH ^^i^<i<w ij on the Isar, the scene of the 
battle of the 3rd Dcc.,lfi^O. wli. n Mon m d. feated 
the Austrians and Bavarians under Archduks 
John } and celebrated in Campbell's lines : — 
On Zxsdlw when the sun was low.** 

Ampflnff (Stat.) — Between this and Iffftlil- 
dorf, tlio next Station, Ludwig of Bavaria 
defeated Frtedrich of Austria at tlie Ilirschkuh- 
wieso, 28th Sept., 1322, and took him prisoner. 
A memorial chapel stands at Wimmasing, near 
^Anpfing;. Here also th^ Bcawmj^B gtag, oil^}^ 

Digitized by Google 

Route 51.] 



was defeittod by the Archdukes Heinrlch and 
Ludwicr of Bavaria, and 5,000 Bohemians were 
drowned in crossfais the Inn, by the giving way of 
the bridge. 

V«lldttt]|g (Btat), near 

MfeOltlllg, R faTOforlte place of pUgrimaga, 
on the high road from Munich to Linz. At the 
Wall/ahrfskitrfie is a richly endowed shrine, con- 
taining a black image of the Virgin, under which 
are preeenred relics of many Bavarian princes. 
It has been visited by distingalshed pilgrims, from 
Charlemagne and Otto von Wittelsbach to Pope 
Pius VI., whose names arc enirravod on lironze 
tablets. In a vault i.s the leaden aaroophngus of 
ra^t the Catholic leader in the Thirty Years' War, 
(with an InsCTlptlon on the gravestone, beginning, 
"Johannes Tzerklas, (^oraes ab Tilly, Oeneralis- 
fiimus Lijniaj, Ac") who died at Inpolstadt. lfini>. of 
wounds received in the liattle on the Lechfeld. His 
clothes are still preserved, somewhat faded in colour. 

The f rentier enstom-hoaees are at BlmlMell 
and BniwuMl (Mat!.), whence It is 65 mllee to 

I^OXJTE &± -Continued. 
From Salsburg to Linz and Vienna. 

The stations are as follow: — 

Knplish English 
8alzburg to uiiies. miles. 

fitrasswalchen 1P| LIna 77 

Frankenmarkt 28 r/?;'(7/jrA tn Hndweis.] 

Kleinnuim-heii 79i 

Kiins Sei 

iBtxmcft Ut Steyer.] 

St. Valentin 90| 

St. Peter 102][ 

Amstettcn IK^^ 

[Branch to Weyer, Ac] 

Keramclbach 12.5f 

PSchlarn lZ5i 

[Branch to 

Qaming 231 

Melk 189f 

TiOosdorf 144^ 

St. i^iilten 16ti 

[Brandt to Schrainbach 
and Leohersdorf .] 

Nenlengbach Ifi7f 

Purkersdorf 184 

i'onzing lUO 

e04 1 Vienna 192} 

Vooklahruck -i'^l 

Aitnang 42' 

{Branth to Isehl.] 

ficlnvanonstadt 42| 

Lauilmcli .w| 

[Branch to 
Trannfell ... 9^ 
Gmttnden ... 19] 

Gunskirclien 51 

[Branch from Pas- 
san : 

SchcerdiiifT-. 0^ 

Riedau 2 >^] 

[Branch from 
Simbacb and 
Orleskh-chen 39.4 

Weis 51J 


Salzburg. S!..,. nrndshnte's Hand-Bool- to 
Switzerland and Tyrol^ and Notes /or Tra9eller$ in 
the Tyrol. 

Ziaaibacb {Hotel ftUssl) contains a Benedictine 

Abbey, and a PUgilmage Clrardi dtodieated to the 
Trinl^. A branch line to QmUnden and Zldll. 

Wels (Stat.) Here tlie line from Passau and 
Ratisbon, down the Danube, falls in, and is 
continued to Linz and Vienna. 

LINZ (Stat.) 
POF1!£ATIOll,47,5G0; with Urfahr, .55,000. 
HoTBLS.— Erslierzog Karl ; Nevbaner; Goldner 


Cab from station to the towji, 1 hone, €Ol(r.: 
2 horses, 1(1. Steamer to Regensberg. 

The Roman Lenfium, and the capital of Upper 
Austria (Ober-Ooaterreich), in a fine spot, on 
the right benk of the Danube, fortified since 1833, 
when the Arehduke Maximilian built a circle of 

twenty to thirty bastions and forts, on the most 
connna»»diiip: points. An iron liridi,'e. 930 feet lonj,', 
connects the town with the Urfahr SuljurJ), on 
the opposite binli. In the Franz-Josefs-Platz is 
the Mil^CMiniM,bailt by Charles VI., 17SS. The 
fine Promenade is near the Laudhaus and the 
Theatre. Tlie /i'a/Mf/(/s was built 1414. Tbc house 
No. 894 is the oldest building in the town, 1098. 

The Domkirchc was built 1670, by the Jesuits. 
The old Stadtpfarrkirche dates from 1286. St. 
Matthias, belonging to the Capncblns, has the 

tomb of the cele]>rated Gonoral Montecuculi (1680), 
a If ider in the Thirty Years' War. Kear the /.an</- 
liaus. in which the Provincial States asscinhlc, is 
a National Museum^ containing Itomun antiquities, 
old weapons, poiinlts, works of art, and coins. 

The Sehlou (Castle), situated on an elevated 
spot, in whii li tlif Emperor Leopold resided when 
the Tiiiks l)i'-ic_'-L' i Vicuna, l(?s;5, is now partly a 
Provinzial Strul'liaus and birrack. Tlie Lyceum 
has u Library of 32,000 voluujcs, and 500 early 
printed books. 

The Freinherg Tomr^ near the Capuchin Chnreli 
and the brid^jre, is used as a Jesuit College, and \t 
close to a small church in the By/antiiif styl" 
The view from hence of the valley of the Danul^c. 
and of the fine chain of mountaine, is splendid. 
LaeHanoladmitUd, Another fine view Is o|rtaiued 
by walking hence (good level road) to 
tain inn of Jayermaiir. where fhc prj 
in the .Styrian Alps, and in tl 
i Traunsteiu in tbc Salzliai 



Digitized by Google 



prospects from the PotUingbei^ (1,760 feet), ou 
the other side of the Dftnube, near the PlIgriniAge 
Chnrch ; and from the :MapdalotUi Chnrch fthout 
8 miles to tlie north of Urfahr. 

Amstetten (Stat.) Here a branch of 2f) En?:- 
liflh miles was opened, 1873, to WeyOT and Klein 

yieawu See Route 65. 


STUTTGART.— PoFi; LAI los (1890), 139,659. 

HoTSts.— lEnrqiUirdt, adjoining the R«lliray 
StAttoii, a splendid boitao, hiffhly recommended. 
See AdTt. 

Royal, near the station; Silbor; OberpoUingor; 
Textor; Weber, 

Pemloii Rnthlfatir« >l« Olgftstrane. 

Reetamwit.— 'Marqoardt* 

Ruidbut Enolish CsAaaft D^ArvAiSES. 

Pr>«T OmcF.nenrthe r-illway station and palace. 

EsoLisH Church Service at the English Church. 

Dboscokim (faras Inelde the Tebldea). One 
quarter hour, one horse, two persons, BOpf.; Sto 
4 persons, 80pf. By the hour, 1 to 2 person?, 
J m. SOpf.; :) to 4 persons, 2 ni. loj.f R.vii, to , 
Munich, Hellbroun, Uruchsal, Carlsruhe, lleidel- 
burg, Ac. I 

Stuttgart, the capital of Wilrttemborg. and scut \ 
of the ("ourt, is, for tho mr)st pnrt, !i nio(k«rn city, 
its chief bnilflin-rs liavi- lietn cn cteci iuthc present 
ccntur)', since its rulers obtained the kingly 

The Counts of Wlirttcmbcr;,' be^an to reside here 
1320; the first dnke, Evorjinl thn Bearded (died 
14« ;). was so created by the Emperor Maximilian; 
and the last duke \vu» made king by the grace of 
Napoleon in 

It wa« fortified liSG; and stands about 000 feet 
above the sea. in a be intlful valley, watered by the 
Nesenbach al>out two miles frf)m the Ncckar, sur- 
rounded by hills covered with gardens, vineyards, 
orchards, and woodland, whtt h are seen at the end 
of every .street. Living i« chctp here: and the 
i^ituHtion is a convenient one for tho Rhino. 
Switzerland, Tyrol, Ac. 
^ The town consists of the AUstadt, or old Town, 
Ipind three suburhs, ciHl^d tiie QssUncror Outer, the 

rSee. 3. 

Rcichen (Rich) or Upper, audthcTUbing or (Berber 

In the old Town, near the market place, the 

honscs are timbered and in narrow streets; the 
rest of the town is regular and well luiilt. The 
two best streets, Kiinig 8trassc and Ncckar Strasse, 
run parallel to each other In the direction of the 
Schloss Garden. The Scbloss Flats is the centre 
point of the city. 

The- Old Srhlosf. or Palace (Altes Schloss), built 
1570, is an irregular quadrangle, with ronud 
comer towers, and looking like a eltedel. It is 
now turned Into GoTemment offlees. The dtteh In 

which bears and stags were kept is now tilled up, 
which lessens the apparent heli^ht of the building. 
Ou the Schiller Flatz, hi front uf it, is 

JScAilZer'ff 8Ma«, of bronze, 14 feet high, by 
Thorwaldsen; erected 9th May, 1839, by publle 
subscription on the anniversary of his death, 1805. 
lie was born at Marhach <ni the hanks of theNeckar. 

The new Palace, or Resident Schlois, in Schloss 
Plutz, is the greatest ornament of Stuttgart. It was 
bc;?un l74fi,finiBhodl806iandeonilstsof aeentreand 
side wings, enclosing a large court, adorned with 

nu tal statues of tha supporters of the WUrttemberg 
arms, a Hon atul stag:. Here also is Hofer's eques- 
trian statue uf Elicriiard, or Evcrard the Bearded, 
I the Srst dnke of the royal line, erected by 
I the late King William, who died 1864. This is the 
' t;(>.i(J duk.% who boasted that ho could safely fall 
asleep in his forests, when others were obliged to 
keep to their castles. On the I'iatz in front is 
a Jubilee CoUthm, 60 feet high, to the late king, 
erected 1841, on the 25th anniversary of his rolgn. 
He promoted most of the modern improvements 
in his capital. Tho Column bears reliefs Iiy 
Wagner; at the base are allegorical statues by 
Hofer, and it stands between two fountains, 
which are adorned liy fijcures, by Kopp, repre- 
senting the Main, the Naab, the Sanle. and 
the Eger, the principal rivers of WUrttemberg. 
The porch of this Schloss Is a cupola, adorned 
with a colossal Crown. Its ** 366 ** rooms include 
the Marble Room .ind other.", c tntnliiin r p-oud 
pihitin;?s. statuary, va'^es, china, .tc, including 
Dunucckor's Venus. Thorwaldseii's Bacchus. 
Canova'sOladlator, Seele's Battle pieces, and other 
treasures of art. The S^rres ohina |s the gift of 

Digitized by Google 

IloutC 52.] MANJ>-BOOK TO 

Napoleon. Several rooms arc painted with 1 
frescoes of early \Vllrtteuii>crg bbtory, by Gegcn- 
baaor. The klng*8 private Library la now in tbe 
Academy dlning-taall. The \argc Theatre adjoins 
tlie Palace. Behind it is tho oM Akudemlt!, now 
occupied as (lvvi llin,'r<^ of the oific?rs attached to 
the coui't, and cnniected with tho Leibstall, or 
Royal Bfcablo. The boautlfnl Gardens extend hence 
to Cannetett. 

Tho Palaoo of the Royal Frlneosses (rrluzosBin 
Palais) is In the Ncckar Stransc. 

The Prinzenlxtu, in tho Old Hi hloss riatas, a 
handsome buUUiug iJi tlie luiliaii style, is the 
residence of the Crown Prince, The KmigAmt is 
a Urge pUe, 445 yards long, bnUt 1856-80^ by 
Leina. If h iN an Ionic portico of 26 columns, and 
contains the E.\ch:in{fc and Cnnccrt Room. 

Adjoining? the Koni;?sbau is another new SrMoss. 
or i'alace, built (1763) in the Italian style, the 
residence irf the Crown Prince. It has a picture 
gallery, inctnding the Welsse Fran, or White Lady, 
■who murdered her children forlovc of All^crt of 
Brand'-nbiirT. Nenr ft nrp tlic Kair/.lci ((iuvern- 
luent Offices), and the Miiiistcriuiii dfs AuhwUrtlgen. 

There arc six or seven Chuvcheu St. Jlary ; 
MnsdAlono, or tho StndtkinM, Is Gothic, bnllt 
1485-48, and contains old tombs of ^eBlaxgraves, 

and a modem palntin? by Hiedel (a native), of 

St. Pt tor lu'iilingr the Paralytic Man. 

Holy TriDity. or tlio Hituptkiirho, Is :ilsi> Oothlc, 
rc-lmilt 1614, after tl»e lire. It hn<. oil p iinlii)j.'s. 

The ScMoMkirche, re-built IIOS, in the Italian 
Htylc, has a painted ceiling, and the tombs of 
Margrave Friodrlch aitd his Wife, the sister of 

Frederick the Great. Its ciirht-sidcd tower was 
built in03. In front of 5* i'? Brug^cr's «/a^9(^ of 
MaxiiuiUan If., erected ISiiO. 

Tho Sti/tikirche (for Protestants), near tbe Old 
Sohloss and Scfailler*a statne, is a handsome Gothic 
bnildlng, erected 1486*90, and restored by HcidelolT. 

It. has two untiiiishod towers, one 200 feet hl;xh, 
with reliefs t»f Chrixt iinil tlic Apostles. It contains i 
new jMlnted wlu<|uws, by Neher, several good 
pahitlngs, and abont a dosen effigy tombs of the 
Old Counts of AVUrttemberg, with one of Count 
Albert of II(>!K'nIohc-Lai».!?cnbrr^'. 
The SpUalliii'che {s old worth uutiQC, buiU 


1471. It stands in Fuchseu Strasse, and has the 
model of a Christ, by Danneeker; with several 

tnt(M ( stin;? tombs, especially that of ReucbUn, the 
friend of Mclniu hthon, in tho cloister. 

St. Leonhanltfkitrhe, built 1470-7'), is in Hnupt- 
stadtcr ritrasse. Before it is a Mount of Olives, 
cnt in stone, a curious work of art, much decayed. 
Near the station is the JTa^AoffscfteitfrcAf, built 1611 
and having: on the high altar n Iioautiful painting 
by Dicterich. At the llofkirrhc is an altar-piece 
by lletscU. The Englischekirche has some finely 
stained windows worth notice. 

The Royal MarriaU^ or Stud, is 640 feet long, 
near the htatioii. The Chambers meet at the 
Stihidt fiiius, wliich Iiris !i hall In the shape of an 
amphitheatre, rebuilt ISU). In Hirsch Strasso 
la the Town Hull, or Rathkam^ built 1456, 
restored 1825. The OoMltv Barraeks^ near 
Kouii^sthnr. were built 1810-5. An e.Ktensiv© 
Tnutyitrri Ihin uck was built 1828-42, on the site of 
the old Post Ollice, and is large enough to bold 
3,000 men. The ifint U in Ncckar Strasse. 

Museum Of Fine Arts (dcr Biidendcn iviinste) 
is a sriuare building with wings, opposite tho Mint^ 
in Neckar Strasse. Open (partly) four days 
a-week; free. In the Court is an Equestrian 

St itiic of Kin^ William I. 

t)u the ground-tioor are casts of tho best statues, 
such as Niobe, Venus de Medici, Lnocoon, Apollo 
Belvedere, Ac^ with casts of Thorwaldsen'a 

works fpres-nted by himself), anditf the works of 
Damiccker, Schwunthalcr, &c. 

In the rootns above are 700 Pirttirpg. aiTjuijred 
in Schools, including tbo Swabian. Italian, vVc, 
endbig with modem artists. Among these are : — 
Tltlan'a Magdalene and Portrait of Andrea 
Dnria. G. Bellini's Picta. Giulio Roman. »'s 
Aladoiina (!clla Sr-rririola. r<inlf>nnii(>'s .IinUth 
with the Head of Holoferncs. P. Veei hlo'tt 
Madonna and Saints. Era Bartolommeo's 
Coronation of the Virgin. A. del Sarin's 
Holy Fiimlly. Murillo's Portrait of a Boy, 
VaiKlyrk s Portrait of Snydcrs and his 
Family. Ji Zclti.lum's Vbitaiion (tiwabian). 

Cranach^s Portrait of a Woman. Modern 
Pictures by Schick, lianger, Rottmann, 
Xohor, Hirhcl, Knnlhach. andntlier ttrrninn*. 
The Uo^a( L'f^rary, built 161 it, )u NccHur ^tra^se, 

Digitized by Google 



[Sec S. 

is open ten to twelve and two to live. It contains 
500,0OU volumes, including 2,400 early printed boolu, 
And Ml «xt«nBiT« ooUection of 9,000 BOtu In eighty 
dlfllnmit langiiagm, eomprlsing 4,000 various 
editions; also Cnllpcfions of Coins, Art, and 
Antiquities; a curious nstronomical clock, by 
Uabu; and an equally curious map of Wiirttem- 
berg, etched in marble. In the same building, 
collection of WUrttemberg antiquities, r«tf In- 
terestiuf,' from a tiistorical point of view. 

Close to tlic Royal Infirmary, the vinitor will find 
the Arc/iiees aud Cabinet of Natural Objectt, both 
In one building; the latter divided Into Botanical, 
Zoological, Anatomical, and Mineraloglcal sections. 
Open daily, 11 to 12 and 2 to 3. Sundays, 11 to 1 
and 2 to 4. Wednesday and Saturday, 2 to 4. 
Tliti Gyinnasiuia tias a collection of physical and 
mathematical Instmment«t and an ObBcrratory. 
The MuMterlagtr^ or Indnitrtal Museum, is at the 
Legion Uarrack. Free. 

Katharinm fitift\va<* fonnded 1818, for daughters * 
of the higher classes, by the Emperor Alexander's 
sister, the Duchess of Oldenburg, afterwards 
(^een of Wlirttemborg; who died 1819. The 
WaUenJtaus, or Orphan A<<y1itm, Is a large build- j 
log near the Prinzc?^<in raluis. 

The former Alle'enplatz is now the Stadtgurten or 
Town Park; and has been greatly improved by the 
houses erected there, by the members of the Poly- 
tecbnlcum (for ArchUfrt«> and Bauf^cwcrkeschulc 
(School for the Building Trade). The latter build- 
ing is a handsome Italian quadrangle on one side of 
a square; the otheir sides of which are oeeupied 
by the Polyteohntcum, mnklng a long pile; the 
KrleplirrTN? Pi'^-o ; and tlui Trades" Hall (Gcncr- 
bchalU'i. Several groups of model houses, in 
fours, have been erected for postal and railway 
employes. The new Court* <^ Jiutiee have a 
Grecian front on a rustic base. S30 feet long. 

Ca/e Marqunrit wa«; funncrly P.niiifclior's 
studio. Danncckcr was bom here 1768, his father 
beingagruotn in the duke's stables. He went to 
school with Schiller, and died in IMl, In his natlTC 
city. Wagner was bis pupil; his Arbidne is at 
Frankfort. G. W. Hegel, the philosopher, was 
born here, 1770. 

Tlie Sehliutgttrteit^ extending from the Palace 
to the heighte of Catmstatt, Is a beautiful Park, 

with a botanical garden, oranf,'ery, aud trees 
upwards of 300 years old. In the middle are two 
groups of statuary' by Hofer^the Horee^mers, or j 
P/e/tfe £(in(/tV7^, and the Rape of Hylas. At the 1 
' further end, near th-^ suburb of Rer?'. !<? 

Rosenstein, the king's summer residence, built 
1823-9, in the Grcclau style, containing many good 
pictures, and one of Dannecker's finest woriES, the 
Cupid and Psyche; with painted ceilings by Gegen- 
hauer and Dietrich. A Moorish t<>wor, called 
WilAelma, built by the late King William, is seen 
below. Tickets at the KOnigsban in the city. 
Fine view of the valleys on either side; one 
towards the capital, the others over the Neckar, 
towards Catni^^tadt and tho Rothenhei'g. On the 


top of the latter, 1,350 feet high, on the site of 
the first castle of the Wtrttemberg house, is a 
round GrecUui Chapel, buUt 1894^ over the grave 

of Queen Katharina. It contains the four Evan- 
gelists in Carrara inarble, by Dannecker, after 
I Thorwaldsen's designs. 

The Ro^ rma (tickets asabove),opposlte Roaen. 
stein, has an equally qdendid view of the valley of 
the Neckar, Stuttgart, Ac, and is dccomted Inside 
I by native artists. Other objects of notice are the 
Solitude^ a deserted Palace, built in the last 
centur>'; and anotheratAiAsiiMmi built 1768, now 

a model farm. 

The WiirtterabergiHche Staatslmbn. <m to Fricd- 
rieb^hafen on the Lake of Consumce, follows the 
valley of the Neckm*, through Cannstatt, &c. It 
was finished 1850. 
dumitatt (Stat.) Popvlatior, 20,S67. 

HoTRL.— Hotel Hermann, 

An old to•^^^^ on tlic Neckar, in the siiVnirTjs of 
Stuttgart, at the en«l of the Schloss Garten, and of 
a railway tunnel, two-thirds of a mile long. It is 
a beantif nl spot, much frequented for its mlnmnt 
waters and bathing-houses on the river. The 
Springs nuinlMi- between thirty and forty, arc 
chiefly saline and tepid, aud useful in stomach com- 
plaints, hyiM>chondria, Ac. The best spring Is Wll- 
helmsbrunnen, near the Knrsaal, on the SulserralB. 

The Sprudel is at Berg, on the opposite sido of 
the river, above wlilfh rise? the king's villa, built 
by Leins, 18^3. I.odgingsarcplentlfulaudmodoratc. 
and the usual resources for visitors arc at hand. 
There is also an excellent OrtbopiediG Institution, 

Digitized by Google 

Boutd 5SA.] HAMD-BOOK to fiBBHUrr.— 8TUTI0ABT» ludwiosbubg. 


with another for diieaies of the skin. TbeNeokar 
iaiMTlgable from here itown to the SUne. The 

excursions and walks embrace Rosenstein and 
Iloponhoim, already mentioned, the Burgholz, 2^ 
miles, with a fine view up theNeclcar, the Solitude, 
a hunting park with wild animals, Waiblingen, 
Btetten, and other attraotiTe qtots. 

Several entj^agcnicnts were fought here OH the 
Ifith and '2.5th of June, 179(!. between Moreau and 
Archduke Charles. A Volksfcst, or agricultural 
festival, takes place on 28th September. 

Sfentlgarfe to Liididgibiixg, HeOliroBii* 
BfliddlMrg, Otterlmrkeii, and Wiirzt)urg. 
By nllway (WUrttemherpische Staatseiaenbahn) 

89 follows: — 

f (iitt^'art to 

Feuerl)iich S 

SUdt, in Black 
Forest. Route 5 6J 
7!ufTenhnuscn (tun- 
nel, 2,900 feet). .... 5^ 

liUdwlgBbarg. 7^ 

AsperpT 10 

Bietighcim (buffet) 14 
{Branch to Bruch- 
sal, Carlsruhe, A 
Forest, Rf>ntc 56] 
Bietigheim to 
Besigheim >... 


lAuffen (tunnel, 

2,000 feet) lOJ 

Heilhronn (butTet) ... 18 
[Branch to Hall uid 

Neckarsulm 31 

Kochendorf .......... 24 

Jagstfeld 2d 

[Braneh to Wtlns- 
burr ] 

Stuttgart, as in Ront<^ 62. 

LudWlgSburg (Stat.) Population, 17,897 . 

Ahw.— Waldbom; BSri Pott. 

A jcarrison town, capital of Ncckar province, In 
a beautiful part of the Necknr. fouinb d 17(";. by 
Dnkc Eberhard Ltidwiir (Louis), from whom it 
derives its name, "Louis's town," uud enlarged by 
his aueoeHor, DiAe Charles, or Karl, who gives i 
name to Karl strasae, the principal street, above a ! 
mile long. 

This is the head-fiuarters of tbo Wttrtteroberg 


T'nterfrneshcim... 28 

Ziittlingen M 

Mockmuhl.. ...„. 39 

AdelBheim ......... 47 

[Arafieft to Hei- 
Osterburken 49 

Eubighelm « 56 

Konigshofen 68| 

[£»^rikt9C rails- 



Wittighauscu 80 

Cieroldbausen...... 87i 

WUraburg... 97*] 

Jagstfeld to Heidel- 
berg as follows: - 

Babstadt 32 

Steinsfurth 40 

Sinzheim ................ 42 

Meckesheira 48 

Neokur^remiind 54 

Heidelberg 60* 

Army, and it has an arsenal and cannon foundry, 
with a garrison of about 6,000 men. Stransa, author 
of **The Ufe of Jesua,** was bom here, 1806. 

The largo Schlost^ or Palace, joined to the town 
by a park and avenues of trees, is a hand.wmc 
edifice, consisting properly of sixteen buildings in 
imitation of Versailles. It contains a gallery of 
the Qerman and Dnteh sehools ; and a aeries of 
family portraltsof the WUrttemberg Royal Family, 
from the first Duko, Ebcrlmrd the Boarded, in the 
Familion Gallerie. In the Schlos.sgarten is the 
tomb, by Dannecker, of Count von Zeppelin, 
erected by King Frederick to the memory of a 
favourite minister. 

The Emichsburg, so 'called from Count Emich, nn 
ancestor of the royal house, is an nrtificial ruin, 
with a collection of old weapons and implements. 
It commands a beantif ml view. 

The Atodttirefta, in the Market Place, faces a 
Ptatne of the founder of the town; and Karlsplatx 
has an obelisk to Duke Charles. 

The park extends towards Bietigheim, past 
the Ilcuorit4 hnntlng seat, to another royal 
comitry teat called Aegarl, or Momrepog^ which 
contains a Sappho by Dannecker. ITohen-Asperg, a 
fortress, two miles distant, is a state prison, on a 
rock 1,000 feet high, in which the poet Scbubart 
was conflned two years. 

Blotlglielm (8iat.» RftU thromgh Marbach 
to Backnang on the Hall-Stnttgart line. . 

Here the line toBmchsal (35 miles) turns off. 
past Vaihingen, n beautiful spot on the £nz ; 
Maulbronn, and its tine Abbey Chnrch; and 
Bvetteikt where Melanchthon was bom 1497. 

HarHadk a. MaOkar, where the small house 
In which SchillrrwA-i liorn, 1759, is shown: now 
faced by a statue of the poet, lie went to school 
at Ludwigsburg, untler Jahn, and wrote his 
''Bobbers" here. 

BeHgliaim (Stat.) 

Jnns. — Sonne; Waldhorn. 

A small place where the and Keckar join, 
on a rocky hill, with remains of two Ilonian or 
medisval towers. Nedmr wine is grown <m the 
Schalkstein, facing the town. MichelsbeM|MKb 
stands 1,980 feet high. Beyond ^W^^^' 

Klrchbeiin (Stat.) you pass ihrott|j|^?'^ 
tuimel, 4l«)Ut 700 yards long, to jpf 

Jptized by Google 




Xfft ^lfAw (Stat.), 01 LaulIeii-am-Ncckar. 

An old town on tbo Kedwr, which is cru»«sed by 
a hrldpre, near the old cn^tlc .iird thn church, from 
titlicr of which ft chnrmin^' view of the valley ia 
ohtaincd. Here Duke Ulrich overthrew the Swa- 
Man Bvnd, 16»4. Soon after, the Henclielberger 
Warte, a tower so called, aitd the pictnreMine 
Wartberigr* <^ino into view. 


ropi LA rioN, 29,939. 

Hotels. — l^i^oll!>ahn ; Fnlkc; Rose. 

An old Imperial city, in a fine part of the 
Neekar (here eroesed 1^ an iron bridge). It wan 
founded, alxmt 800, by Charlemagne, nnder it« 
present namo, pijrnifyinpr "Sprinf; of Health," 
from a fountain discovered here, which figures in 
the town anus. Fred. BurbarosBa built the walls, 
wbich are now taken away, their place being 
occupied by a well-planted avenue. It was 
assigned to Wttrttcmhprpr, 1803. There are many 
old gabled houses and Hve clmi ches. 

St. KHiaiul irdte, iie^un 1013 and finished 1529, 
lias a liandsome Gothic tower, 390 feet blgb, and a 
flnely-canred altar-piece of wood, by TlUnann 
Biemen Schneider. 

Tho Ufrthhaus contains many rare documents; 
among which, are several Papal bulls, letters by 
Franz ron Sickingen, of the Stfonnatlon era, and a 
dcelaratfonof war,wrltten by G8ts von Derliehingen 
(the hero of Guethc's story), which he sent to the 
town, l^eing capturcfl liVio. he was confined in the 
Dii bs Ttiurm (Thieves' Tower) or Ciiitxcns Tburm, 
which still remains. Another relic is tbeold Com- 
mandery of the Teutonic Knights, or DevUehet 
Jlaun, near to which is the Restaurant zum 
Deutseyuri Hause, 5n which Charles V. nnre spent 
some weeks. In the Cemetery is ihe tomb of Hcrr 
von Bankcnhagen, a mastcrpioje by Dannecker. 
An old Orphan Home has been restored as a PsJaic 

Heilbronn has a -rood trade in wine, kc, much 
fiieilitated by tl»e Wilhehns-(Vm;iI. opened 1821. 
Justinus Kerbcr, author of " Scherln von Prevost." 
lived here. The finest view of Mcilbronn and of 
the vineyards of the Neckar is obtained from the 
tower on the Wartberg or Nordberg, where the 
Winserfest or Vinedressers' Feast is oelebratod in 

the autuum. A roil is open to Carlsrubc, tfa 
fiehwaigem and Eppingen, 4ff milee. 

T!ie Descent of the Neckar may be made from 
here, inthef!at-bottnmed steamers which run on It. 
The Bcener}' is like that of the Moselle. You pass 
Eba^taeh^ where false pearls are made from iBsh 
scales; JTofsm, a peak about S;000 feet high; 
the eliffs of JIslsAarlkafd^, swarming with hawks; 
Hornhertj, whore the famous Gotz von Bcrlich- 
ingcn died 15G2; Gnndehheim, once a seat of the 
Teutonic Grand Masters; and Wimpfcn, as below, 
noted for lu salt springs. 

At Luwenstehi, to the south-east, lathe Theusacr 
spring, with manufactures of Epsom salts. 

Excnrsions to the Kocher and Jagst volleys. 

lUII to HaU and Crallsboim. 

From Heilbronn the next station Is 

Neckarsolm (StftL), at the junction of the 
Sulm and Nec kar, near an old Commaudery of the 
Teutonii' Kiii-'lits. 

JagstTeid, or Jaxtfeld (Stat.) Here is * 
salhie Bath. Branch line to Keckaretx. . Here 
the lines from Stttttgardt to Berlin, vta Hannn, 

and tM Wiirzburg. turn off. 

[At FriedriCbflliaU, t>u the Kocher, a troujfh 
three miles long runs to salt woxln, which prodwo 
7,000 to 8,000 tons yeariy.] 

At Ingelflngen, on tlic Koc^hcr, arc two 
castles of the Princes of Hohenlohe Ingeltinfren- 
Schouthal, on the Jaxt. At the church of the 
old Cistercian Convent is a monument of Gotz 
von Berlichingen, the Knight of the Iron Hand, 
whose mined Castle lies to the south-west. Hi<« 
wixWxo \^\ixo!.\ Ja.rfhnitxen. has three castles ; in t»ne 
arc the iron hand and .st>uic lioman antlquiiies. 

At Wlmpfea (Stat.), on the Neckar, belong- 
ing to Hesse, are the salt works of Lodwig^ball 
and Clemenshall, with two old churches: tlmt on 
the hill (.\m Ber^r) T.eiii'.' the site of the Roman 
CoriHlia, destroyed l>y Attila. 1 

Sinzlielm (Stat), iu Baden. 

PoPUt^ATIOX, 8.000. 

/niM.— Pfalzer Hof ; DrelKIinigo; Post. , 
A town in the KIsenz valley, once the seat of * j 
rich Abbey, the cigbt-sidcd Tower of w hich i» ia ' 
good preservation, datfnir probably from lOtfti. At 
Woiler Scbloss (three miles) Tiu eimc defeated tlie 
Attstr|a||s,Junc lti74, Ucucc 32 milQS to 

Digitized by Google 

lioute 53.] 



Heidelberg, fiee Bradshaie'* Hatni-Book to 
Belgium and (he Rhine. 

Stuttgart to Hall, CraUsheim, and Wuxjt- 



<1) Stattgartto 

nann?<tadt 2| 

"Walbling^n 8 

Winnendcn 14 

Sttlsbach on the 

Murr 25^ 

Murrhardt m*»«.m 29^ 

Thence to 
, Hall (on Heilbroim fO 
and rrailstielmllne). 
[Hall toOehringen 
'J^k. Hellbronn 6S.] 
Hall to 

Siilzdorf. r>8 

Ki"kartsh;iusrn fi5 

Cmilsheim(seeNu.2) 71 


Blaafelden ............ SR 

Behrozbertr • 89 

Nioderstctten 96 

Wcikershclm 101 

Me rf^ent helm.***. «* ... 1 08 
Edel Ansen...............! 1 0 

KOnlgBhanfflii .........t 13 

{Branch to Hellbronn] 

Lnuda 104| 

CtrUnsfcld 117 

WittiffhauMii -.»....1S3 
Ocrotdhftasen ..•..•...184 

H.i-lin-Nfcld ICr 


(2) Crallflheim to 

Domblihl 15 

{Branch to Feucht- 

wanf?cn« pftge 166.] 
Ansbach ............... 29| 

VTallhansra 77 | Hellnhronn 40} 



Stuttgart nixl Cannstadt, c Route 52. 

WaibllUgeu (Btat.) i'oi>., ii,100. /nn.— Post. 

An ancient town in the fertile valley of the 
Koma^ which belonged to Conmd. Duke of Suabia, 
afterwards Emperor as Conrad IIT., of the flohcn- 
Ktaufen line. In the battle of Wfinsbert-'. 114<i, 
between hiiu and bis rival, on the WclforWolf 
afde, Henry the Lion, Dnke of Saxony, bis follovr- 
cra used the battle ery of HU WaWingen^ '^Hnirah 
for Walblintfen." These two names of Welf and 
Waibllnpren after\v:m!s took the forms of Guelph 
and Ghiheliue in Italy; the latter representing 
the Imperial side as opposed to the Papal. 

WiiiiMfid«a (Stat.) 

Po I'll. AT ION", 3.S0O. /«».— Krone. 

A l>eautiful »p >t, having an iron spring. 

Backnang (Stat.) 

PovcLATiox, 3,600. /fiM.<^Hir«eh: Si^wan. 

A small town on the Hnrr. Its Stiftsldrcbo baa 
tombs of the Harvravos of Baden. Branch to 
Bietlghelm, see prccedlnsr Knnto. 

Hence the fMil runs tliroujfh the romantic Murr- 
thal to Sul2l>acll (Stat.), near Schloss Laotercck. 

WaXthKM (Stat) The Stadtlclrebe and 
Watderlchs Kapelle will repay a Tisit. 

0MiOlltliat (Stat), Junction of the line to 

to (list iiiguish it from other places of the same name. 
royuLATiox, 9,000. 
/aM.— Adicr; liamm. 

An old free Imperial town, at the bottom of 

the deep valley of the Kocher. It contains six 
Churches, one of which, St. MichneVf, Iniilt 1427* 
1525, is (lothic, and has ;food wood carvinjrs. 

The iiattthaus, in the Market Place, is :i hand- 
some bnUdhig. The Satt WMtt here (from whMi 
the phiee derives its name) are snppUed from Wll* 
hclnisglUck mine, which is situated six iniiosfrom 
Hall. Here rnrk-salt has Ixmmi -wnrki'd since 1824 ; 
this mine is easily accessible and well worth 

The Metier^ a small eotai, value aboat a fartbli^* 

was first coined here, and takes its name from thla 
pliice. About 1} mile to the south of Hall is 

Condfurg or Komhur^, a roy;i1 Cnt^tle. in a )>!'•' m- 
resque spot, near the old Benedictine Church, 
which has a t,'o1dcn altar-oloth of the ISth eeittnry. 
From the BtOlEOrAi fonr miles distant, formerly a 
place of plIgrimaKO* there ia a fine view. 

At twelve mUos north of Hall is the little 

town of 


POi'ULATlOS, i,;]oo. 

Pietorestiuel y rttuated on the Jaxt. It has only 
one gate, and belongs to the Prince of Hohcnlohe- 
Klrchberg, whose family Ca^fe is here. 

About 17 miles north-west of Hail, on the line to 

Hoili)riinn ticxt imgc), is 

Oekriogen (Stat.) 

Poi*UI.ATlO>', y,700. 
/m. — ^Kaiser. 

A pretty town on theOhm, the seat of the Prince 
of Tliiluiititlie-Ochrin.'en. whose Residenz stands in 
extensive <rrotinds near the old ehnreh.] 

crailsbelm or Krallshelm (Sta'.) 


Post; Adler: Falke. 

A bustlin>r little town on the .Tnp^st, ^vhich is 
I crossed hy u sroue l»rl»l;re. It contains an old 
! Schloss, ihu handsome church «>f 8t. John, and a 
I large Rathhaufl. Powder works here. The direct 
t line to Nureraber;; passes ABilMtGfll and H^Ql* 
* IVOBH («cc Koute 43). 

Digitized by Google 


Fruui Crailbheim to Mergentlieim 37 miles. At 

MledMitettcn (Etat) uui Ve Mw n i l tt i in 

(Btat.) «r« castles <^ tli« Hohoilolitt families. 
Mergoiitlieim (Stat.) 

PoPTTLATfON, 4,440. /»«.— Post. 

An old fortified town on the Tauber, among 
vineyards ; having to the east tlie SeMoti^ wblcb, 
from im tai 1809« was the seat of the Orand Master 
of the Teutonic Order. Tl>erc Is a rolloctlon of 
archives. Near It is a I^runnen or mineral Spa. 

Further up the Tauber is 

CregUngen, and Us beautlfnl Gothic Hettgotts- 
Klrehe, hnllt 1S84, eontainlnir some good carvings 
at the altar. Dlll jonce to RntlicnTiurjr (page 167). 
In thencijrhhoTirliood of Mcr;,'oiuheim are Eppin- 
ger Bath, and Ballenberg, the birth-place, 1525, of 
Metiler, the leader of the Peasant War. 

WilXtlmrg (Stat.), as in Bonte S3. 

Sorac of the places above may be reached by 
means of the rails from Stuttgart to Kiirdlingen 
(Koute 54a), and from Heilbroim to Omllsheim, 
which intersect it. The stations on the latter line 
to Hall, are as follow: — 


Stuttgart to mm and Frledrich«liafan, and 
mm to Constance and SdudDuuian. 
By raU'-the stations are as follow 



Hall M 

From Hall to WUrz- 
burg, as above. 

Ifetlbronnto Miles. 

WciTisherp 4| 

Brctzfeld 12| 

Oehringcn 17 

Waldeubttrg ......... SI 

From Heilbronn the rail crosses the Neckar. 

nnd passes tinder the Wurtherg by a tunnel nearly 

two miles lon^-. Beyond this it cro».scs the Enz, 

by a viaduct on 21 double arches, 110 feet high, 

1,070 feet long. 

WelnslMTg (Stat.) /»».— Tranbe. 

An old to^ni near the ruined Caitlc of fTsOsv^ 

treue OYlves" Fidelity), renowned in German story 
for the beliaviour of the faithful "Weiber von 
Weinabcrg,*' wliich forms the subject of Biirger's 
Wer sagt mlr an wo Wetosberg liegt 1 
At the sicse of lUO, after the battle between the 
Gnelphsand GhlheHne<:, •^vln n the Emperor ( Oniad 
III. defeated his rival here, lie threatened the 
little town with fire and sword for holding out; 
the women, however, obtained his favoor, with 
leave to carry off their treastires: upon which 
they apiieared eoiuiiiir out of the gates, each 
loaded wilii her husband or sweetheart in a sac)(. 
*'Mlt Ihrem MSnnehen schwer im Saclh 
So wahr ich lebe | Hnckeiwck,** 


Stuttgart to 

Cannstatt {tnnncl 

1,200 feet) 2i 

Untertiirkheiin...... 4| 

Esslingen 9} 

Altbach ~ 

Plochingen(BuflFct) 14 
[Branch to Kirch- 
Rottweil, and 

Reichenbach 17 

Giippingeu '2ij^ 

SUsscn 814 

Ghigen.................. Sa} 

GeMingen 88t 

Belnierstetten nf 

U!m frwo tuinieln) iSj 
[Bratie/it'x to Augs- 
burg & Munich, 

(a) to friTi ;tnff> 

<t ScliatJiiausen 

(as below).] 
Erbacb.................. 65 

Lavphdm 72 

Biberach 81 i 


Aulendorf 97| 

[Branches to Wal d- 
sec and Kisk 

10 miles; and to 
Herbertingeu, 16} 

Ravenshnrg .••••••**lllf 

Meckenlieuren 119 

Friedrichstuifcn 123J 

(a) Bmuktnm Ulm 
to Constance 
and Schafihan^ 

Siiflingen 1| 

Blaubeureu .....*..« 10 
Ebtngen ............... 91 

Rottenacker 25 

Rechtenstein SiJ 

Riedllngen 401 

Herbcrtiugen ...... 47| 

[Branch to Aolen* 

Mengen 51 

Messkirch OS 

Stockach............... 76 

Radotfsell 07 

Constance 99 

Schaffliausen 1.30 


Schuascnried M| 

N.B — The best route from Stottgart toSchalt' 

ha II sen i H Hi Hit e 

Uuteitiirklielm (Stat.) 
POPVI.4TI0K, 8,1«6. /nn.— Hlrscb. 

A pretty spot at tUo foot of the Rothcnter^'. .-n 
the Nerkar, ajid a siinimer retreat for iwoplc from 
Stuttgart. On the Rothonberg is the tomVj of 
Queen Catbarina, a Greek rotunda, built 1824. It 
stands 1,850 feet above the sea, and commands a fine 
vie«' of the Ncckar, Well, the SwabUin Alps, Ac. 

Esslingen (Stat) 

PorCLATrOK, 22,15fi. 
Inns, — Krone; Adler. 

AiKdd Imperial city, partly surrounded by walls. 
bnOt by Fred. II. (1216), on a hill overlooUagtiie 

beautiful Neckar. A handsome stone bridge crosses 
an island in tlic river. The houses in the t»uburh« 
form a succession of villages called Eaalingen 
Gebiet, ascending to the Rothenbeig. It baa five 
churches, the best lielng Mvr9\ or the £M< 

Digitized by Goo^k 

Koute 54. 1 



frauen Kirche (1406-1622), with a very beautiful 
Gothic tower, 246 feet high, and rtftlned wlndowi. 
Th«re is a xicldy endowed hoepUal. 

The Rttfhkata, bnUt 1480, has an infrenloiis 
eloek. Here are Keader^e maeblnery works, with 
larprc mannfactories of lacqTicred wnrea, paper, 
Ac. Esslinf^t n rhampague is also made. 

Beyond the town are remains of the old fortress 
of Perfricd. At the Wdfithor Gate are the 
Hohenstanfen Lknu. The nefghbonrheod U all 
orehards and vineyards, for Neckar wines, and 
offern many attractive points. About l.j mile is 
the rnniantic Hiinl.iuhthal and its Water Cure. 

I Ploclimgeii (Stat.) 

/flnjt. -Waldlioni; Krone. 

At the junction of the Fils with the Neckar, over 
which is a light wooden bridge. Branch to Kirch - 
belm-nnter-Teck, vtd VllMrlMllllllCHI (Btat.) 

Ilzdi]i€i]iipiiii.t«r-VMk CStat), readied hjr 
breneh from Flochlog^ 

PorcLAnov, S,000. 

Ihm.— Bir; Post. 

It has a royal Custic nnr! a considerable market 
for wool. A short stay should made here. 

Further upwards, on the Lindach, is the small 
town of Wkilheim (population, 3,600), vrlth an old 
chitreh of the year 1069, in a very pleasant litna- 
tion. To the south of this place, on the snmniit of 
the Limbertj, are the remains of Limburg^ the old 
ancestni! castle of tiic Ziihringer Dukes. 

From Kuchbfaim the Luuter Thai also may bo 
visited; and the Teekherff, crowned by the old 
Cattle of the Duket of TVcX-, and remarkable for 
Its ^ip'oii.lid prospect ill the Swabinn Alp^. Villn 
Weil, nut far from Esslin^n, is In the Nockartliul. 

Going over the Uasenberg, In this neighbourhood, 
you reach the Park for the king's deer and swiqe, 
oontalning two beantlf nl lakest the Pf aAensee and 
the BtlrenMe,wtth the BSrea SehUsschea (Bear's 

The mam lino no w follows the valley of the Fils 
to Geislin^en CStal.;, while a branoh tanu off 
to Tabtegen, Ac. (Bonte 50a). 

Gopplngen (Stat.) Populatfon, 14,203. 
JiMM.~PMt; SMidwlrtb. 

A town en the Fils, rebnilt stnoe the lire of 
1788. Cotton spinning is carried on. It has a 
mineral spring and a tower built 1562. by the 
Duke of WUrttcnihcrfr, out of the stones of the 
old castle of llohensbillfen. 

About six mites distant Is the BolX&baA, a 
sulphur spring. In a pleasant spot, at the foot of 
(hi- Raiihrn Alb or A!p, a hl^^li taMc-laiul in the 
Snabtan Alpt; and alx miles from this towards 
Gmiind, is 

Holienstaiifdn, on the north-west dedivlty of 
the Alb, 2,S0Ofeet high, bavin.? a Ihw remains of the 

ancestral castle of the ITohenvfanfen or Swablan 
house of the Imperial line, wliich lasted from 
Conrad, Duke of Franconia, 1138. till the accession 
of Baddf of Hapsburg, 1870. Here lived the Em- 
peror Prederick I., or Bnrbarossa. It was de- 
molwhed In the Peasant War, 1 '2.-. Fnmi the top 
there is a view of more than sixty towns. On the 
Sechba'g, near this, was another mocmtaJn Castle^ 
burnt in 1800. Einsplnner from aOppbigea, 
4 marks. 

The riin;-'e of the Alb runs near the rail to 
Geisllngen (Stat.) 
FornLATios, 2,300. 


Diligence to Wlesenttclg (below). 

A small town beautifully situated at the foot of 
the Allv. in a narrow valley, commanded by the 
old Castle of Helfenstclu. Carvings are made In 
wood, horn, and Ivory. The valley of the FOs 
may be ascended to Wiesemtehj, near which are 
some retnarkablc masses of calcareous r<»ck. rich 
in petrifactions; among them arc the Hteittemt 
W^b, Stone Woman; the iffsfterfebMNU^, a stalae- 
tite cave 470 feet long; and anothw cave called 
the Stetitene Sam (8t©ne Hou8o> 

The railway now pasoe^ Beimerstetten, <fec., 
<m its summit level on the Swahian Alps, the water- 
shed between the Danube and the Meokar, that 
is, between the Bhiek and the North Seas. 
UIM (Btat»), in Wttrttemberg. 

POPUT.ATION, 36,201. 

Be Rus^ie, an cxrcllcnt house for families 
and i^entlcmen, near the station. 
DeTEurope; Kronpriuz. 
Bail to Augsburg, Kempteo^ Ac. Six 

Digitized by Go; 

Ad otd tmperial kofrn and fortress oo the left 
hank of the Danube, at the foot of the ^wabian 

Alp«i. on the borders of Wiirtt.'mlx and Bavaria. 
The Hlau joins tlic Danube here, and the Illera 
iitile beloir; and here the nutik itrann of the 
Dannbe becomes UAvlcabte, being about 2S0 feet 
bffoad. The rtreetaare narrow and irrcfpilar, and 
coiit tin many old wooden and stone booaes. The 
Nt ue Biiu erected 1591, 00 a hill. 

Thcrcare live churches here, beiidcs the Cathedral 
or Mimter (Httnsier), the llneat boUdinir here, and 
one of the finest ebitrchea hi Germany. It is 
tiaed by the Protectants, and stands in the Miif^-^tf^r 
Platz. It \s a iKibh' (iothic jiilc. finally completed 
in 1890, cbietiy built between lo<7 and 1488; is 
430 feet long, 1<5 (bet broad, and has a soath tower 
540 feet high, the highest In Enrope. A fine porch 
leads into the nave, cnnsistinL'- of three immense 
aisles, supported by pillart*; the middle one being 
110 feet bigb, and adorned with coats of arms, Ac 
It emitahis stained wbidowa of the year 1180; 
IMintings by old German masters, richly carved 
utaUs, by J. J^yrlin, 1474; monnmcnts of Bessercr, 
KrafTt. Noithardt, and other founders of the 
church ; an«i a fine organ, restored In 1856. Por- 
formanoet dally in stttnmer. 

The JEMMftHS la an old bntldhig In the Market 
Ptace, with an ingenious clock and sCTeral good 

old German |Aintin;rs, one hi liijr a i>ortrnit of 
<1n<5tavu»AdolphuH. Itcontains^thu t*m-n archives. 

Near here is the handsonu* ffuintaiti called the 
fiscMtt.sten, by the elder Syrlin, crec-tfd 1482. 

Tlie Deutiches J/an$, now used as a barrack, 
in the nio»t regularly built edifice In the town. 
The Tkeaire (Schausplelhaus) Is marked by a Greek 
portico. There Is also a Ducal FkJace, with a 

richly endowed hospital. 

opp.witp tn it in Neu or New Ulm (Stat.), 
on the Bavarian side, with which it is connected by 
two bridges, one on threearches, built 1882. Ulm. as 
an Important military post, is famous for tti<- Capitu- 
lation of Oct. 17th, 1805 (j"st before J r ifal^'ar), 
when 30,000 Austriana, under Mack, who were shut 
up ill tlie Citadel on the WilhelmshSbe, surrendered 
to Hapoleon, after Key*s vIeUMry a day or two 
before at Elcbingen, for which he was made a 
dnke. Ulm became a Federal town in 184Sf In the 

iLLrgniAtBt) I Sec. S. 

Joint oo<»patioa of the BaTUrlana, WUrttember* 
gers, atod Anstrians. 

JfJdkeUery, near this, la 1,800 feet bigh,.aiid a 

ri!u> point of view. Thalfingen and Cebe^'klngea 
are two small bathing- places. 

Ulm to Donanw9rtli, by rail. 



Uhu — 

Neu-llm 2 

Nersingeii ..........*. 7| 

Giinsbnrg 15| 

Neu OffinfiTn 20 

[Branch to Auga- 
bwg 80 miles.] 

Lauingen '11 

Dillingen 30 

Hocbstiidt 34| 

Blindbeira, or Blen- 
heim 37} 

Donauwiirth (.page 
107)..„ 41 

From Donauworth the rail is complete down 
the Danube past Ingolstsdt, Regensburg, «fec. 

From Ulm, on the line to Radolfzell rtnd Con- 
stance, the narrow valley of the Blaa is aiK;end«d 

/an.— Post. 

At the centre of some of the most ehamlns 
country In Wilrttemberg. at the head of the Blau, 
near the Blautopf, a cavity, 70 feet deep, in a 
romantic locality. Not lar from it a remarkalde 
cave called the Sontheimcr Huhle, full of stalac- 
tites. There is an old Benedictine Convent In the 
village. In the old church there Is n very fine 
ancient altar of carved wood. 


POfCLATTOX, 4,100. 
ijitt.— Tranbe. 

An eld jdacc, having, on the other «;5de of the 
Danube, tiic jncturesque Marrhthal ("astle, be- 
lonffing- to the Prince of Thurii and Taxis. 

Zwlefaltendorf (Stat).,in the valley of Aach. 

Further up the Danube is Mengdil (Btat.^ 
Route ; and towards the Lake of Constance 
are KMikMi (Stat.) and Stookaoll (Stat). 

where Archduke Charles defeated the Fioncli. 
1799. From Stocknch 10 mHos to RadOlfTOll 
(Btat.)(Junction with the B&te and Constance* line. 


POPtTLATlON, 16,233. 

Hovns. - Insel { Hecbt (Brocbet). 

Digitized by Goo .'k 

tontt 54.] 


Formerly an Austrian town, but tninsferrod to 
Raden in 1805, on the edge of Switzerjand. Sitnated 
on the beautiful lake of Constance (see below), 
where the Rhine emerges. For deicrlption, see 
SroMaw** Sdndlbook to i^Uteiiand and the TifroU 

[From Ctmstanoe to B41e» by mil as foUows?— 

Mlhs. - ■Miles. 

To Radolfzell l:> 

Stnpen 1 

ScliaRhauscn 31 

Obcriauchriugcu ... 49 

[Branch to SlUhlingeii, 

and Weizen-l 
Waldithut •••»•«<*••• 



The Fricdrlefashftfen lino runs from Ulm (page 
190) for as mUes, through unintereBtlng oowitry, to 

BIBBK&CB (8tat.) 


Iwis.— Kaiser; Rad; Ente. 

An old Tiiiperlal city, in the beautiful valley of 
the Ri9S or Kciss, surrounded by walls and towers 
buUt by Rudolf of Ilapsburg, 1273. It was annexed 
to Baden 1808» and to WQrttcmberg In 1806. Here 
are fonr churches and two suppressed convents, 
with a well-endowed linspilitl. ^ST ncnu defeated 
the Austrians here in 1796 under Lntour, and again 
In 1800 under Kray. It was the birth-place of the 
painters, Dietrich, Meber, PflOff, GiJscr, and Eni- 
niinger ; and of Knecht, the organist. At Ober 
Holzhr iiu. in the neighbourhood, the poet Wieland 
was born, 17 33 (statue). Buchau,nG&T the Federsee, 
on the west, is an eecloslastlcal fonndatlon,now the 
property of the Prince of Thumand Taxis. On the 
east is the Jordonbad, or Jordiui iron spring, near 
the pii t 1 -^ iii. old Abbey of OchsenUiUiscn. 

Bsseudorf (Stat.) 

Hen; tin rail leaves the Rlssthal, and opens dis- 
tant views of SwitserUittd and Vorarlbcrg, the 
mountains of Appenzell, and the HriHi«, <kr. It 
afterwards follows the SchussenthHl throujfh the 
Altdorf'T Forest. 

At Aulendorr (SUt.) is the Castle of Count 
Konlgsegg, beyond which lies WaJllMe<8tat.), 
the seat of the Prince of Wulburg-Wolfegg-Wald- 
Scc. To the loft of Nicil. rirmsjen (a little further 
on) is the ancient but suppressed Benedictine 
Abbey of Wtingarlen, founded by the Onelfs in 
1053, now a barrack, with a very handsome 
Chureh, formerly much resorted \o h\ i ii ^i; ^ 

iLiHwoyconnecti n ^vitll Elslegg.Waiigen,l8iiy 
(on the ArgenX HerborkliigeD, &c. 

Ravensburg (Btat.) 

PoftTi.ATiox, 12,266. 

Juris.— Host ; Kronprinx* 

An old Imperial city, on the Bohnssen, shut In 

by walls and turrets, 1,455 feet above the sen. The 
old castle of Veitsburp, on the hill above, has a view 
of the Lake of Constance and the Swiss Alps 
beyond. In the neighbourhood are the valley 
of Lanraand the Waldbnrg, the aneestral cAstlc of 
the Prhices of Waldburg. Br.inch to Weill- 
gaxtcn, where is an old Benedictine abbeys 
founded in the lltii reiitury (sec above). 

Meokenbeuern (Stat.) About 3 miles dis- 
tant la 

Tettnang, with a large Castle, once the seat of 
the extinct family of the Counts of Montfurt. 

From hore the post road procs to Liudau (12 
miles), and to Brcgcnz (7 miles). 

Friedriclisliafeii (Stat.), on the Lake of 

PoPf LATIOX, 3,000. 

//()/(?/«.— Dentschrs Harts; Krone. 

Rail or Steamer to Ulm, «tc., LudwigsUafcn, Con- 
stance, Bomanshom, Brcgenx, lindan. Ac. 

The train runs through the town to the harbour ; 
from which f^tonmers run to all the principal 
places on the Lake. 

This is the principal port on the lake, with a 
harbour and lighthouse. It has a summer Castle 
for the Boyal family, in a tine position on the lake, 
with pictures, ^tc, ]<y Pllu,.', n(>;,'('nl)ani'r. A-e. 
Good snlmon and trout. In tl>e former Hotel Belle 
\ uc are prehistoric and historical ecdiwtlons 
worth notice. 

The T,%1rA of COlUliailOe, or Bodensu, Is about 
40 miles long, by 12 miles brnnd. and U surrounded 
by five dilVorent countries. The greatest part of the 
south shore, at liorschach, Ac., belongs to SwiUer- 
land, Including the Unter See and Arenenberg 
Castle, once the residence of Hortensc, Queen of 
Holland, and mother of Nnpolion 111. H. re the 
mountain«5 of St. Call rise 2,tMX> to 7,U00 feel high. 
The other part of the south-east shore (about 
Brcgen«, In Vorariborg) belongs to Austria; the 
north-west shore at Constance, iee^ to Baden ; the 
nurthcrn shore to WUrttomberg. and to Bavaria 
(Liudau). See Jira<i$/Mtcs Iland-Uogli to ^tciizerm 
lixmi and the Tyrol, 

Digitized by Goqgl^ 


[See. 3. 

Btnttgart to Aaien (for Vim) and 


(WUrttembergische Staats Eisenbahn). 
By rail — the stations are as follow : — 

Stuttgart to miles. 

Cannstadt 2i 

Follliach ..•*.«•••». 6 
Wail)liii)jren ......... 8 

Eiulcrshach ......... 11| 

Orunbach 14 

Sehomdoif 18^ 

Lorch .....,„,„„.,... 27| 

GmUnd ............... 31 i 

UnterbSbingieii ..... 38 

Aalen .................. 47f 

f AvHuft to 
Heidenheim ......14 

Giengcn 21 



Nioderstotzlngcn 28 

LaiigenMi 33 

rim 4*] 

WasseralfmgMl ... 49 
[BrancJi to 

EllwaiiL'cn ... 5 

Ja;,'stzfll 11 

Jagstheim 16 

Crailsheim ... 19 

liauchheim 68 

BHptiTipfcn ............ 64| 

>;ordlingen 73 

Stuttgart and CanXLBtadt, as in Route 61. 

Sdiomdorf (Stat.) 
Poruiuinoy, 4^000. 

A town amottfr vineynrds and orchards, on the 
Kerns ; memorable for the defence made by its 
mmuk aipainst tli« French, in 1668. Here are a 
Boyal castle and a fine Gothic Chnrdi of the 14th 

Lorch (Stat.), where Schiller lived when a 1)oy ; 
the restored Convent on the Marienberg has the 
grares of some of the Hohenstanfen family. 

Chniliid (ttat.) 

F0P1TX.ATI0N, 16,804. 

Inns. — Bad ; Drei Mohren. 

A town, called Sirahinrt Gmiind, to distiiiprnish it 
from otherH, in thcextinctprmcipality of the Hohen- 
lobe family, now part of the Olrde of Jaxt, or 
Jaget. It aland* on the Boma, and wasfonnerly 
an imperial city. The bridge Is ornamented with 
statues. Here an* a Town Hall, a Blind and Deaf 
Asylum ; the Krcuzkirche (lUtM), a Gothic q^ire 
edifioe; the old Johannlsklrohe ; and St. Savionr**, 
a pilgrims' churA tathendghbowbood, cot in the 
rock. Wooden wares and Jewdlery are made. 

MbggUngen (Stat) 

Close by here is the 

Rosenstein, a mountain on the north-west edge 
of the Alps, baring many flinirea and eares. 
Lamm/^trg (MIe, in nilns, and the Caatlea of 
and BMhfnstaiifin. the latter 

being the first aeat of the tmpnbl Iunim.— 4Bea 

Rente 64. | 
Aalen (Stat.) Popvlatios, 0,600. 

//jn.— Krone. 

Here are smelting works for the iron mines in 
the wild ralley of the Upper Kocher. Branch line 
to Heidenheim and Ulm (see tablo above). 

HeldenlMllii (Stat) PoPo&Anov, 6,900. 

Inni. — Krone ; Tratibe. 

A small manufacturing town in the valley of the 
Brena, where casks and buckets are made. Near 
itaretheremafaia of HeUenalein, and 10 mflea off 

is Kesfenheim, a seat of the Thorn and Tazit 

family, the church contains paintings by Knoller. 

At'Wasseralflngen (Stai.J are iron works. 

Ooldahofe (Stat.) Junction for Ellwangen, 

[BUwangai (itet.) Am.— Adler; Poat. 

The capital of the Jagst Circle, with two or 
three handsome churches. Near it is the 
Schoncnberg with the Loretto pilgrim charch. 
Hence to Crallaheim, Wttrsbiirgr Ae.] 

HttrdUas«B (Btat.), aee Boate 41, Hence to 
Nuremberg, Angshnrg* Ac. 

Btuttgart to Plochlngen, Tubingen, Rotl- 

weil, Constance, and Sclia£QiaafdiL 

By rail— alatlonsas under:— 

Stuttgart to Miles. 
Plochlngen ............ 14 

Unterboihingen ...... 19 

[ Branch to Kirchliebn- 

'Niirtin'Tcn 8S| 

Neckarthailfingen ... 20 

Bcmpflin^en 38 

Metz 301 

Keutliu;^cu S6 

Tubingen ... 
Rottenburg ............ 62 

Niedeman • »»• ■ >«eee e* e»e 64 

Horb 6^ 

Sulz 7il 

Obemdorf 81 

Rottweil 92 

[Loop to Inouncndin- 


The fast trains take the shorter ronte 9i» 
BSblingen, 4S milea to Horb, In plaee of 64| atlei^ 
hat the lengerioirte It the mofe intenallnff. 


Deisslingen. • ee 

Tro.Hsingen 7 

Schwenningen 11 

Marbach IS 

{Branch to YH' 
1 in gen) 
Donanescblngen 29 
Iniuiondlngen .mSQ 
^cufra -...••*..•.....««. 96^ 

Hiiaichin^en...... lOl 

Wurmhngen 106 

Tuttlingen 1084 

Inimrndingen 11 6| 

[Loop from Rottweil.] 
Welaehtagen .........127 

Singen 134 

Constance ..164 

Schaflhansen .........146 

Digitized by Google 

Boute 55.] 



SfeattgUiii u In Booto 5S. Thence by Frled- 

richshnfen line (Ronte .•)4) to PlocMngen (Stat.), 
where thf* line tunis up the valley of the "Neckar. 

Metzlngdn (Stat ) Branch rail, 7 miles, to 

Uradl, in the SwaUnn Alp*. 


/WW.— Post ; Pass. 

A small town, in the deep and narrow Emsthal, 
the chief seat of linen weaving in WUrttemberg. 
OM Ghnroli and Cattle. The Uraeh Thai, 6 miles 
toDff, near this, unites In Itself all the beauties of 
Alpine scenery, and has several Ca4tle ruins on the 
heights above, with a F:<]| of sofeel at Hohennrach. 

POrVLATIOH, 18,499. 

Imrs.— Oelis; Knmprina; Lamm. 

An ancient Imperial city, capital of the Black 
Forest, on the Echa?. (orEschatz), eontaining many 
old houses and remains of medieval walls. It stands 
at the footof tlia Aehahn, a conical moimta]nS,39$ 
feet high, iHth a splendid Tlew of the town from 
the top. It is covered with vineyards and orchards. 

The Marienkirrhe has a haudwmc tower 335 
feet high. It was built in the 13th century, and 
restored in 1814. Some anoint frssooes and Oio 
carved font (1499) deserre notice. Cloth and 
leather, clocks, watches, and paper are made here. 
It i*« the birthplace of Fred. List (fhe political econ- 
omifst ) ; and it was the first Swabian town to accept 
the Reformation. On the Adulm are pattered the 
Cashmere and Angora herds of goats belongteg 
to a royal farm . The prospect takes In TdUngent 
Ilohenitaiifcn. the Alb, Ac. 

Branch to Honan and Miinslngen. 

Excursions to the Georgenberg, and to the 

flwaMan, or SoaHlaa, Aipa, ae the hlUy 

country from Ballngen to Gmiind is called. The 
rofid fo the Castle of Llchtenstein lies throtig-h 

Oberliausaxi miles), near a large and 

beautiful stalactite cave called the Nebenhdhle, 
M0feetUmg,79feetblgfa. BntraneeMpf. Qnlde 
at the Krone Inn, 1 m., and 4S pf. for each toreb. 
From this it is two miles tn 

Lichtrnxtein Castle, a niediajval roHc.lately restored 
by its owner, Count Wilholm von WUrttemberg, 
and the subject of a romance by Hauff, **8ehloss 
Uohtenstetn.*' It Is a good specimen of an old 
baronial fortress, standing on a point about 3.000 

feet above the sea level, overlooking the wild 

patsotof tiie Eeharsandfioaaiilfalleyt cuMltav 

side, a position of almoot iin!qiif craTideTir nnd 
beauty. The Castle contains a gallery nf l irturci 
by Zeitbloom, Holbefai, Wohlgemuth, and other 
flemlih and BwaUan mastei*. TldiflM At thi 
Onehest of 17radi*s Palace, Stnttgift. 
TiiUsgeu (Stat.) 

POPCLATION' 13,275. 

/niM. — PrinzCarl; Traube; Lamm. 
A very old and invgulaily bnllt town, hea«it- 
fnlly placed on the left hank of the Neckar, at the 

junction of the Ammer, amnnp lofty hills covered 
with woods, vineyards, and orchards. The 
modem part of the town contains the new Unt- 
Twdty buildings, Hospital, Ac, In WUhelm^ 
Btnuae. The ancient Castle of Hbhen Tttbingei\ 
on the Schlossherg, projects over the town. It 
was rebuilt 1636, by Duke Uli ioh, and rontains in 
a room 220 feet long the Librui-y (.:^u,uuu vols.) 
of the UnbttraUy^ which was founded here at 
early as 1477. About 40 ^feasors and 1,000 
students, chiefly theologrlcal and medical, are 
attached to it. Mclaiichthon and Rau -hlin were 
professors here at the Befurmatiuu. The uid build- 
hig, containing some fossils (iohthyotanri, dc), 
stands near Bt. Georfft^sot the Stifts Klrehe, which 
has twelve tombs of the princes of WUrttemberg^ 
and is a Gothic pile, buUt 1469-83. 

The large Rathham erected 1^09, was carefully 
restored in 1877. Statue of Uhland the poet at tlu> 

An old Augttstlnian Convmit is now converted 

hito a Protestant Seminary; the Collejrlum is ap- 
propriated to Catholic use. There are a Botanical 
Garden, Observatory, and Museum (built 1821), all 
connected with the tXnlverdty. In the environs 
are many attractive siMts, as the old Wurmlinger 
Kapelle, 1,500 feet high, with splendid views of the 
Ni'cknr Valley; the Lmtnnu, a favourite prome- 
nade; Bebenhausen, an old Cistercian conveu^ 
sttvatod tn a wood, with a fine Gothic church, 
built 1188; and the Rossberg, 2,760 feet high, witii 
some extensive prospects. 

[From Tubingen a line, 103 miles, pnsscsthrough 
Hechingcn, Ballngen, and SIgmaringen to Con- 

HediliicoxL (Stat.) 

PoPUi.ATiOK. 8,600. /nni.— Linde; Lywe. 
This small town, on a hiU over the Starzel, is th« 

Digitized by Google 

J94 BttAD8HAW*» 

capUalnf the principality of HobciuoUein-lkchin- 
gcn, ^^ hl^ll wft» trausfciTea to Pruasia, 1649, with 
that of iioiicnzoUem-SlgmariDgon. Vmfmnu- 
sottnded by WltrttemlMrg^tid Baden. The town 
cOtttains a new Palace and a hnndsome Church. In 
the nci^.'hb<jurhtK)(l is the Fasanongartcn ; also 
several peivlisol the sjwabian Alps,»ucha8 thcA'arn- 
buJU (2,7^2 feet high), and the Wellerbers (one mUe 
and a half «mtb) or Merfati? i%9iO feci high;, on 
which stands Hohenzolleni Castle, the ancient 
family scat of the Prussian reining house, built 
before 800 by Tbasilo, Count of ZoUcm. It was 
completely rebuilt by Frederick WUUam IV^ the 
old ehapel only being loft. Tbe ereet is an Eagle, 
with the fuotlo "Yon Fell aamlleer.*' 

ItnHmrMI (iltftt.) has good snlphur bnth<^, nnd 
Is near the I^ochcnstcin, wliioh riflos feet 
ninon-r the Swabian Alps. 

SlgmaxiQgeXl (Stat.)— Population, 3,800— on 
the Infant Danvbe, the eapltal of die -fnineipality 
of Hohenaolleni-Slgmarhigeii, now, like that of 
Hcchliigen, belonfrinfr to Prnssin. 

In the Ritteniaal at the Schloss is a ccillection of 
family portraits. There is a now Museum, well 
arranged, and worth leelng. On the Branskofer- 
berg, above the town, a monnment of the war. 

Excursions into the rocky and picturesque valley 
at the head of the Danube, cspcclall> to Wifd'^stein, 
an old mountain fortress, and to Beut on^ fumerly 
an Augruitinian conveat. 
Hence to Kadolfiell, page 190.] 

BoMtnlNIXS (Stat) The realdenoe of the 

Bishop is near some fine rtttna, and ta the site of the 
Roman Solidnnim, of which there are relics at tlie 
palace. A bridge crosses tboNecltar to Ehingcn. 

Haigerloch, a town romantically situated in 
HohensoUem-Sigmartaigen, on the Eladi. 

Hledtmail (Btal), a Spa, with aoven mineral 

apringa, In the beautiful vnlkyof the Katzenbach. 
They arc useful hi long-standing chronic diseases 
scrofula, gout, &c. There are also douche and other 
baths ; a IVhoy Cure, excellent table d'hote, and 
aheap board and lodging. 

• Excursions to the old Castles of HohensoUem 
and TJohtoii<:triT^ mid to the Wurmlingcrbcrg. 

Imiiau, another Spn. ht the principality of 
Sigmarlngtn, 15 miles from I ubiugui, Omlles from 


llechlngcn. Hero are six chalybeate springs of 
an invigorating cbaiacter; and the nelghbonifaood 
offera many potnta of Tknr for excnrdona. 
Horb (Stat.), on the Neckar,wtth a good diurdi 

and piljrrim cliapcl. 

Rottweil (Stat.) 
PopuLATios, about 6,000. 
- /aa.-^Ijamm. 
An old Imperial town on theNcckur, nowinnch 

decaj*ed. It has remains of the ancicut walls, and 
of several churckes. Komau antiquities are found 
in the neighbourhood. Diligence to Ballngen and 

Here a IiM)p goes off to Immondingon, with a 
branch to VilUngen (Stat.), where the junction is 
made with tin; Black Forest A'aiA which comes from 

Offenburg and HauHaoii, to VUUngen ; and 
goes on to Marlwtflli, DoaavMeliiiLgezL, Im- 

miwUllgen, and gfnglll (page 198>; and thna 

completes the direct route from Strassburg t» 
Constance. From Offenborg to Siugen is Mcmilea. 

TuttUn^en (Stat.) 
PoruLATiox, 10,09}. 
/jtai.- Poet; Heeht. 

A town on the Danube, much of which has been 
rebuilt since the fire of 1863. 0<xm1 cutlery is 
made. Close to it are remains of Jlonburg Cattle^ 
destroyed 1042, in the Thirty Yeara' War. 

At Sdiwemlngen ia the aonvoeof thdKecte; 
and Wilhelmshall has a salt work. Beyond Tutt- 
lingen you pass over the frontiers of Baden. 

A croes road (14 English miles), towards the JLake 
of Conitance, brings yon to 

StOdOUai (Stat) Here Archduke Ghaite* 
defeated the French under Jourdon, March SI 
1709. Lndwigahafeo, on the lake, is within • few 

SteiSSUxigen (O English miles from Scockacli). 
is the caaUe of MohetUwkt, destroyed 1800, by 

the French. It is only reached by a narrow fool* 
path, and h at an elevation of 2,300 feet, on a rock 
forming one of a group of volcanic poak», comaumd- 
diog a line panorama of the lake and Swiss Alps. 

fawnHlKWlUMt (ttat.)» on the Ilannbc, near 
a tunnel. The river aaoendate the Bhick Foiivet, 
past DonanMOliliigen (Stat.),^. 

Constance and Schaff!iaa>€IL 8m Srmd 
$haw$ iland'Swi to SwitxeHand* 

Digitized by Google 

Koute 56.] 



Stattfaxt to WUdbad and Frendetuitadt 
In flw Black Ftemt. 

Bjr rail, as follows:— 

^tuttf^art to Uiles. 

Fcuerlmch 3 

Zurfonhauseii 5^ 

{Branch to WcJl- 
dor-Stadt, near 
t'ahv, in thO 
lilack Forest. 

KomtlMl 3 

DIf ziiijft'ii 4^ 

Kennin>;cu ... 12 

Calw JOj 

Ludwi^sburg 8 

BIftljrheim 14 

{nfaneh to Heil- 

Vaihi]i?eti 23 

HUhlackcr 30 

[ AraneA to Bruch- 


Enaber? ... ............ 31 i 

I'fnrzbeiin S7J 


Uii-kenfcld ............ 40 

Neuctibttrg 4di 

Hoft n 4H 

Calmhach 49 

WildlKid 'o2 

1. B V iZooc^Coachcs 
da'tly ill 8 to 9 
hour^ dtattgart 

HobUngcn H 

Calw......M............. id 

Wlldbad 14 

2. By RaiU Stutt- 
gart to 

Boblingen .*....*«... 15} 

Herrcnberg 25^ 

Eutiugcn (for Ilorb, 
pa;rt 11' J Ininicn- 

dlngcii, Ac) 66J 

Hochdorf( for Calw) 88 
Freudcustsdt.. ••••••• Ml 

[Branch to Calw.] 
[From Carbruhe to Wildbad, rail via Durlacll 
(for Brattan Bad and HcUbronn) and Wllfer- 
dlnSWIt to Fforzlieilll (below), if cnmin^r from 
liadt n-Hndcit. 5(-e the (iotcriptiou of Black forostt 
further on (Koute 'tl)]. 

Stuttgart, as in Route dl. LttdWigSblUTg, 

BletlgheLra, Ac. fcioe Route 62. 

Calw (Stat.)} acai* ^cu J/emjstadtt a filacc 
founded by Vaudols refugees, and eatlcd Bounette 
In French. It is 8 Oerman miles from Weil-dOT* 
Stadt (8tat.)i where Kepler, the astronomer, was 
bom(statue here),3from Wlldbad,d|byraUfrotu 

Pforzheim (Stat.) 

PoriTLATioK -iS.DbT, 

HOTBL.— Waldh«mi. 

A growing town on tbo Nagtrfd^in a wUd Imllow of 
tlie Black Forest, and the scat of a tiiuber trade, 

as well ns of many workinj^ j( wollers, who 
work up orders frutn other places on the contiiu nt. 
It has been rebuilt since the sack of the town by 
the French* 1682. Old fashioned costumes are 
Mcn. In the neighbourhood ate remains of the 
very old coiircnt of Ilirsau. 
From P/orahcim rail, ]-l| miles, to 


rOPCLATlON, 4,000. 

lunt.- Hotel Kiumpp, a largc fir8t<M:lass hotel, 
alfording exeellent and extaisive accommodation, 
and particularly patronised by English trarellers. 

Highly recommended. Soe Advt. 

Hotel Ik'Hc Vuo. Boantiful nitualion, on a 
Tirrscc fncing the INcw Trinkhaile. JDcservcdly 
rccoxiucnded. See Advt. 

Bad-Hotel; DaRussle. 

Kurtazc, after 6 days, 18 ink. 

Cunvcynncc to Badeu-Baden in six hotun. 

En^rlish ('hai)laiii stntioncd hero. 

A snmll town in a narrow beautiful valley ol the 
Black Forest, watered by the Ena, 1,808 feet above 
the sea, noted for Its warm salt AsOs. The springs 
rise out of the granite sand, at a temperature of 90 to 
100 degrees, and arc excpllent for gout, rheuma- 
tism, Ac. The liaudsome Kurhaua contains every 
convenience for bathbig, reading, and repose. 
About 8,008 invalids come here in the season. 

Carlsbad, opened by the Ring of Whrttcmberg 
in 1888. 

Many agreeable walks to the 'Windhof, Ac, 
through the healthy pine forests to Villa Waldeck, 
and ffermuM^ where Baroness Buusen lived. 
JEcmrjfons to the TenfelsmUhle at Loffenau, a wild 
rocky spot with a view taking In tbe Vosges 
uiountai!)s; to the Teiifcls Kammem, seven caves 
so cjilled; to the Jajrdhaus, and the Wilde iSee. 

'I'lie liiH' Iroin Pforzheim to Horl.i passes 

Teixiacll ^Stat.), auutlmr wutering place. The 
springs are alkslbie and ehalybeate, and are 
used both for drinkhig and bathiug. The Bath- 
house is in a most romantic spot. In the neigh- 
bourhood is a lake called the Wildk Ste ; and 
mile distant, among thick forests, is Zavelstein 
Castle, now a Whey Cure for invalids. Another 
old castle Is LiebtngeU^ 8 miles from WUdlmd, 
near some tepid springs useful in skin diseases. 

NagOld (Stat.) is Ju a (\et-p valley of the BI«ck 
Forest, on the liver JSagold, above which is the 
old castle of Uohcn Kagold. Fopulaiion, 2,600. 
Branch line to AEtenstdS; 10 miles. Borll 
(Stat.)« as iu Route 55, on the direct lino betwctn 
Carlsrnhc and Constance. At Eutingcn, JUBt 
before Ilorb, a liuc, l^ miles, runs off to 

Digitized by Google 

196 bradshaVs 
Freudenstadt (Stat.) 

ropuLATios, 6,025. 

Black For«ft HoUil (Sohwarawald). C<»infort- 
able and siplendldly aitnated, with beautiful p!«rk 
snrroandtng It. EU-ctrk- LIr-'ht. Lawn Toiinis. 
English Church Service during the Heftson. 
Recommended. See Advt. 

Rail to 8chlUaeli« Hanaaeli, and Sebramberp. 

Gonveyance to WUdbad. throagrh the Murgthal. 

An old fortlfiPd place oti rt hfll in theBhick Forc-t. 
having a hir^c qu ulmngtilar Platz, with houses 
built over the puveinent,like tiie Chester "Rowb." 
It* cnrioas Churdt consists of two naves at a riffbt 
anirla, with towers ni each end, nnd a pulpit at the 
corner, from wliich the preacher can see np the 
naves, wiiere the men and women sit separate. 
A gallery all round is adorned with Bible acenes. 
ItbasaTlewof tbeitnicMf, aridga of tbe Blaefc 
Forest, over 3,000 feet tiigh, over wbtcb tlie road 
into B:i(U-n and to Strns'^burfr f?ocs. 

Excursions to the valley of the Murg, 5^ miles 
from Baden; by diligence to tbe baths of Rippold- 
saa(8mlles); and to those of Griesbach. FroiRr:>- 
bacb, Pet^rsi)' ril, aiirl Antoga>-t, near the Kniobis. 

RlPPOldsaU, reached also from Wolfach 
(Stat.), on the Black Forest line, H miles bouth- 
west of Freudenstadt, at the entrance of theScbap- 
bacb ralley, 1,850 feet above the sea, amon^'^ tliick 
pine forost!?. It 5"=i tho hc-st of the Kiiiebis group 
•>f Battis, consisting of live nprings of various quali- 
ties, which act on the skin and glands, and arc 
stimulating, aperient, and dinretie according to cir- 
cumstances. Guringer's large Hotel for 800 makes 
Its own trri<!, anil hiisthc Englisli nrwspnpers. The 
bathing' arrangements are good, and the mamier 
o( living unconstrauicd. Charming walks every- 
where. Examions into the Bchapbocher Thai, 
towards Freiberg, where the fannhouiea are bnilt 
in a pccnilar stylo, and thn ownor"? wear n plr- 
turoHquo (!ro';<j. Across the Mulzwaider Iliihe to 

Grlesbacil, <> English miles from Rippoldsau, 
In tbe Renchthal, 1,690 feet above tbe sea, has 
chalybeate springs, mnch frequented by Iadies;,and 
gf>od conveniences for bathiucr at tli" Tiath-hnnsr. 

AntOgaStfl^ English miles north-wvst of tliis, in 
a solitary part of tbe MAlsaehthal, surrounded by 
high monntaina, has a good Bath-house oTer two 
tepid springs, and a little Chapel. 


Fetersthal, 3 English miles soivih of Gries- 
bach, has three Iron and lithia sia ings and a Bath- 
house with fifty rooms. Tbe Hermersberg, close 

by, is a fine point of view. 

At Freiersbach, near Pctersthal, arc '^itrinsfs 
of a similar character, further up the Reiichthal. 
See pages 203 and S04. 

The BLACK FOBEST (SeliwuRwald). 

Tfic Black T OTQtltf Abnoba Motis, or Si! ca Mar- 
(iaiia of the Komani. nnd ^ih-a Xtftra of the 
middle ages, is a range of bills con^rtitutin;; the 
south-west comer of Germany, and nuininj; trom 
tbe Rhine valley on the Swiss and French frontiers 
ns far north as the tow n nf Pforzheim. Its eastern 
limit is not so distinctly marked, as it cither, as 
near Schaffhauseu, joins other ranges of hills^ or 
dies away as in tbe nelgbboorhood of Donaueechin- 
gen into high table land. 

The name of Rl ick Forest (Srhirtn-ziraffl in Gcr- 
man) though conveying an impression of robbers, 
murderers, and other horrors, is derived from the 
preponderating masses of fdne wtodt^ which give a 
dark colour to the country, nnd more especially 
contrast with \hr bprrh and o:ik nf the lower dU' 
tricts. Beyond this the name Black has no specuii 
application. The country is beautiful and interest- 
ing ; and though the eight months* winter of the 
' high grounds would not rpcnmmend tbcm for a 
! continnrd residfiicc. the summer is the more en- 
joyabie ; wliile the lower districts, being sheltered 
to the north and east by mountains, possess a 
delicions climate, which has made Baden Baden 
and Freiburg the residence of so many strangers. 

Tho Black ForcKt lies now to the extent of about 
three-fourths of its surface within the Grand 
Duchy of Baden, the remainder belonging to Wtfrt- 
temberg. It was formerly divided amongst so 
m.Tiiy Tnri«;tors that it would be a lonjr task to 
enumerate them all. Besides the two houses of 
Baden, some of the chief lords were the princes of 
Flirstenberg, tbe Abbots of St. Blaslen, and 
Austria. The Black Forest is divided into 

(.\) The Vpp'T Fnrc^^f: Itotwcen the valleys of the 
Bhine, on the Swiss frontier, and the Klu/i;: ; with 
I an average height of 3,000, and a maximum of 
[ nearly 1^,000 feet, the Feldberg, 4,900 feet, being 
^ the highest. 

Digitized by Goo^ 

Bonte 57.] 



(B> i'he Forett. frum the valley of the 

Ktnxlg nonhw«rd«, with an Average of 1,800 and 
a inaxiitiaiaof n little over 2.0i>0 feet. Meronrius. 
nc-tr RKlrn-nndpii 2,200 (eei, and Dobel, in 

>VHrU'iul)Pr<,'. 2. '.'00 fei t. 

The chief t'ttsses of t he Illa( k I'orcst arc the 
Belubcu Pass, between Miiiiftterthul 

and Wieaenthal 8,400 feet. 

The Hdllenthal 2,050 „ 

The Kllpeti or RUcfaberg 3,30o „ 

Thf Knio!»l^.. 3,iyo „ 

The Kinzifethftl 2,300 „ 

valley by Ilautach. This le the highest valley of 
the whole range, and Ilea near the Prtf berg water- 
fall at a hcij^ht of 2,790 feet. For a coiisideraUe 

distance the Neckur valley forms the boundnry of 
the Black Forest, from Schweminingren to Horb; 
bnt sabaeqnently leaves it altogether. 

The only large independent river, vAoMaoieree 
lies in tho Bhick Foveal, la the Dtmibe, Next to 
this is the Xeckar. There are on the south and 
west sides iinmmprablo small rivers mnning into 
the Rhine, such as the VAz. Kinzlg', Murg, etc. 

There are also many small Lates, in some cases 

(Sec a more complete list of height* further on, I lyl"!^ deep araoogst rocks, and moeUy being of 

page 919.) 

The district consists on the whole more <ti devated 
plateaus tli iii of Isolated mountain peaks, whence 
it happriis tlvat in many places solitary farms or 
oven villajfes are found at heights of from 3,000 
to 4,000 feet. Even the Abbey of St. Blasicn, 
though lying in a valley, Is 3,450 feet above the 
level of the sea, and a village about 9 miles from 
It, Hoohcnschwand, 8,320. 

Thf» stf^f^prst rtpcoiit" of the lilark Forest arc from 
the Uhinc valley, on its western side, especially 
near Badenweller, Freiburg, Waldkireb, and 
Achem, where from a level of 800 or 900 feet, 
the mountains rise suddenly to 3,000 or4,000 feet. 

Tho Valleys <>f the Black Forest arc cxrcrdiiip'ly 
nunifroTis. They lie iiKistly on tin- western nide, 
and take a north-westerly direction. Many of 
them are very narrow and rocky. 

The chief are, beginning at the sonthem or upper 
end, akmg the west side - 

The Wioson, Miinster, Iliillen, Elz, Schutter, 
Kinzig, Achcrn, ^furg', and lower Alhvallej^s. 

On tho eastern side the valleys are few. Here 
are those of the Brigach and Bregc, which unite at 
I>onauesohingen, and form the valley of the 
nanniii The chiof valley on this side is that of 
the Wilde Wotach. 

The southern and northern ends are traversed 
by deep valleys. To the south arc those of the 
Alb, the Schlueht, and Wehra Thai. To the north 
thoae of the Ens, Kagold, and WHrm. 

In the midst of the hills running from south to 
nerthlir<t thp romnntir niTtm h V"i1lr'\ whf^h fnins 
that of the Reichenbacb, and opens into the Kinzig 

Dinsi(]oraM(< depth. Tho chief are the Feldsee, 

Schluchsce, Titlsce, atui Munimelseo. 

T^e character of the Vegie(a(hm of tho Hlsck 
Forest depends on the elevation. Above the height 
of about 4,900 feet trees no longer nourish ; from 
that heisrht down to 9,500 Is the region of the 
genuine Black Forest pin""" ; aboro :j,000 feet only 
the red pino (Finus aluos) ^tows. From 2.5tKi to 
1,300 feet grow deciduous trees, biixh, beech, 

maple, oak, Ac; below tliese agiUn walnuts and 
vines abound. 

For the Oeolo^st, but especlaUy for the Botanist^ 
there is much of fntrrcst. Many of the plants of 
the Alpine Flora are found on the higher ridges of 
the Schwai'zwald, which has also some peculiarities 
of its own. A list Is given at the end of this Route 
of the rare plants, with some of their habitats and 
times of flowprlnir. In other hranchos of nature! 
history thrrt' Is also much worthy of notice. 

It Is a great country for the making of wooden 
clocks <two millions a year are made) and musical 

The picturesque costumes, whfrh, though 
gradually yicldinjr hefor<» tho improvements and 
increasing communication of modern times, still 
exist in great variety in the valleys of the Black 
Forest, will much interest the tmveller. flome 
of the costumes date from the sixteonth or even 
fifteenth century, bnt most are at least a hundred 
years later. 

Coloured photographs of these have been pub* 
lished by MM. Lallemand and Hart, of Baden- 
Baden (London Agency, 146, Oxford Street), 

as part nf r\ sf-rics ninlor \ho title of Onltrie uni- 
verttlle de* PeujAe*, A gtM»d way to see the people 

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In a tliort time I* to take the early trains on the 
Bledc Forest Line (tee l>cluw)t by which the 
eountry folks usnally trrivol. 

The frenulne country-people arc friendly and 
hoapitable, and hide, under a roug^U exterior, real 
iroodnen of heart. 

/mii.— An atteniil hae been nude letely to con- 
nect tlje whole Black Forest, by mennsof a society 
called the "Black Forest Association," mainly 
composed of the innkeepers. For strangers not 
undentandln; the langnage, the anmngemente 
mmy be eoDTenieot, as they will be passed from 
one innkeeper to the other through the Black 
Purest, with nil the best scenery pointed out to 
thom; but of course they must pay fur it. To 
tourists who know something of Ctomian, we 
would say: Be independent: see what 3rou lllte, 
and do not he sent about like your la«»jrajfe. 

With respect to public Conrei/anees. thoy are 
liable to many and constant changes. But there 
are. as a rule, post coaches or omnibuses alongr 
the chief roads, and where these faU, except in? 
just at hnrvest time, a one-horse carriage, suffi- 
cient for two, or at a pinch for thurcc persons, with 
knapsacks or carpet bags, can be Imd at every 
Tillage, at a price cf alwut S| to 5 marks for a 
distance of 10 to 15 miles. 

I'or Font}in(Un it is almost always better to take 
a guide, a stout lad, or labourer, who will carry a 
bag, talk all tlm way, and may be bad for about 
3 marks and his dinner, for balf^nlay. 

The Innumerable fo^>tpaths in the forest are 
very perplexing to pedestrians. The best rule to 
Ims given is when one is certain of bchig on the right 
lutth, and has seen a sign post, to tnm neither to 
right or left, unless another signpost directs it. 

The tniTeller, If benighted, is snro before very 
long to fmd «omo habitation where he will l>o 
received, hospiuibly entertained, and uot cheated. 

The average price at ordinary inns will be about 
S| marks for bed and breakfast, bntaUcbargee 
are higher than formerly. A party of four, even 
with occasional airriaf^e assistance, may "<t!ll 
travel more cheaply here thua in any other 

equally Interesting locality. 
It Is impossible to prescribe a plan to be followed. 

In this respect we take the railway from Carlsruhe 
to BAle, and from BAl« to Waldsbut, »« the grotUMl 

line, noting tlie stations from whieh the Black 
Forest may hv^i he entered. Baden Bsden and 
PrclburfT ^vill he found the most convenient places 
for head-quuiters. In both there are English 
residents, and all reasonable conreniancee- 

The wines change as one proceeds sonthwards. 
In the northern parts the best are — white, 
Klingelbergcr; red, Affenthalcr, Zcller. Further 
south the red wiues remain the same, bat a deli- 
cioms while wine, Markgrafler, appears. (The 
best quality is called Lanfener. This may also 
lie had sparklin:- 

Railway Uirougli tlie Black Forest Dis- 
trict. Coming from Strassburg or Baden, this line 
is now open throughout from Offenburg, rto Hau- 
sach, Vlllbigen, Donaueschingen, and Singcn; 
about 93 English miles. AtSlngenthe mnin line* 
throu^-^h Germany unite and proceed to Winter- 
thur and Ziirich, for the St. Qothard Tunnel Liiw. 
See AwMow's CaiUnmttU Oukk, and the ffand' 
Me to SwUtfrku^ 

The stations are as follow. For details, see 

page 199. 


Offcnhurg — 

Ortcnberg 3 

Geugeiibttch fi 

BiberacU ZeU — . 11 

Haalsch 17 

Ilausach 21 

[Branch to Wolfoch 
and Schllbach.] 
Gutach 23 


Homberg 21 

Trlberg 8« 

Sommeraii 4'i 

St. Georgen......... 4«'i 

P«terae11.........«.... 47} 

Kimach 51 

I VilUaijen »* 

I [ Branch to Bottwe il . 1 
Pin?en ..m S*«3 

Junction of the line from Constance tj Scbaff* 

hausen, see end of Route M. 

ffkiMm Tours on root In tbb BUmIc 

From Baden Baden. 

Places marked thus (*) are sleeping places. 

Bbcrstein Bdiloss, Forbach, ^Schonmlinmch. 

lIonns.rrlTide. Mnmnirlspc * Allf rheiligen. (carriafre to), Griesluich, llolxwtltder- 
hUhe, Kippoldsau, ^Schapbach. 

Wolfach, Homberg. *Triberg. 

Furtwangen, Simondswald, 'Waldkirch. 

Rail Tip the Hiiilenthal (from FrelbnrgX Fdd- 
berg, •Todtuau. 

Wlesenthal to ^Miopfheim. 

Wehimthal and back raU to «BUe. 

Rail to Mllllhelm, Badenweller, Blau en railway. 

Uemshach, Forliach, *8chiiiunilnxach. 

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Roate 57.] 

Hmniflgrlndei Mnminelioc, Seebftch, *Altorlid- 

From Achern. 

(1) (Carriage to) Ncuhaus, Allerheillsrcn (return 
to canrlAg« at tli« FVnteriunuX Orietbaehf Rlp- 

iwldaaxi (carri*fe to), •Wolfach. 

(2) (Carriap-e to) Trlbcr?, back in cftrrfa^-c to 
•Offenburg, or all on foot, except tbe first, but 
then taking more tlmo. 

From rmOsmg, 

(1) {(kfrlftgo to) Bimmelrctch, Hoellentlnl to 

the Alter Post, Feldber?, *Todtnft«. 

(2) Carriage to Scho]>fht'Lui, rail to •Bile. 
Those Skeleton Tours by no means exhaust the 

Black Forest. Many very beautiful parts arc 
wholly pMtod over In then. They wre intended 
KttherM Ihies from which one may diverge ilj^ 
or left, making out by mep and enquiry new 
routes for oneself. 

(For details, aee onder the oorreapondlng nnmber 
In the following paRi»X 

I. Baden Baden toGemtbadi, Eberatein Sdhtoaa 


9. Baden Baden to Horrenwi^e by Qeroldsau, 
i«tam by Forhndi or Bfihlerthal. 
S. Baden Baden to Herrenalb and Wlldbad. 

■ 4. Wildlwd to Teliiach. 

5. Pforsheiui to Teinach, by Uebensell and 

6. Ffonthelm to Wlldbad by the Enzthal. 

7. Achcm to Homl'^prrinde and MttnunOleee. 

8. Achern to AUerheillgen. 

9. Allcrhtiligen,Tarioiuroiiteefrain. 

10. BenehthaU Fetemthal, Ac. 

II. Rippoldsau to Frendcnstadt. 

T-i. Rippold^Au to Sohiltach, WolXacht and 
ytklley of the Kinzlg. 

15. SchUtaeh to YUlingen. 

14. Olfenbnrg; Klnxlgthal, Omtaehthal, Hom- 
b( r ;- . Triberg. 

1 Tribcrg to FnrtTvansrn. 

16. Furtwangeu to the Titisee, Ae. 

17. Waldklreh, Slnionawald. 

18. Waldklreh, Bhnonawald, and ascent of the 

18a. Lahr (Utnglingen Station^ up tho Scfant- 


19. Waldklreh CDpn^Hnjreh Station) to Elxnch 
and Haslach in Kinzigihal, or by the Prccbthal 
to Trlbcrg. 

SO. FreibnrgandenTlrona, Indttdlnff tbeKaitor^ 

21. FrcilmrfT to St. Pi ter, and the Gloltorlhal. 

22. Frt'ihur- to St. Marg«n, Uracb, aud Don- 
auoschingen, or ^eubtadt. 

50. Ascent of the fichanlneland. 

51. Frelbnrg to Kou<itncit, the Hoellenthal pasa. 
25. Ascent of tho Fcldberp. 

20. From the Feldberg, through the Wcbm Valley 
to Brcnnet (or ««m wrid), andtheOaveaat HaM. 

S7. The Wleaenthal, from Soihopf heim to Todtnan 
and the Feldberg. 

28. Frolburjr to Schluchsee and St. Blasien. 

29. St. Bhisien, the Albthal to Albbrnck. 
to. Mttllhelm to Badenweiler, ^ 

n. Badenweiler to Bttrglen. Ascent of the 

32. Biidcnweiler. Ascout of the Belchcu, descent 
by the Sulzthal. 
St. Descent of Belehon through the Mttntterthal. 

BodOB BadWl 1* the best startinir point for 

excursions In the northern portion of the Black 
Forest, lying as it does nearly at its north-western 
comer, and being not only easy of access from 
France, and from the rest of Germany, bntalso hav- 
ing communication by means of public conveyances 
with several of the points most worth vlsltin? In 
the lower half of the Black Fnro^t. For a descrip- 
tion of the town, see Jitadtliau's Hand-Book to 
Belgium and tht JUUm, or the CaMituiUat OiitVe. 
The tourist need be at no loasfor accommodation or 
amusement of any kind, and s